Published on April 24, 2008
Slide3: Work in groups to answer the following questions. A winner is one who responds genuinely by being trustworthy and responsive, both as an individual and as a member of society. Slide4: A winner is genuine. A winner is not afraid to do his own thinking and to use his own knowledge. A winner is flexible. A winner has a love for life. A winner cares about the world and its people. Slide5: A loser lacks an ability to appropriately express himself through a full range of possible behavior. A loser has difficulty giving and receiving love. Slide6: Each person is born with what he needs to win at life. A winner is one who responds genuinely by being trustworthy and responsive, both as an individual and as a member of a society. A loser is one who fails to respond genuinely. Slide7: Characteristics of a winner A winner is genuine. A winner is independent in thinking. A winner is flexible. A winner has a love for life. A winner cares about the world and its people. Slide8: He is afraid to try new things. A loser has difficulty giving and receiving love. poor nutrition, cruelty, unhappy relationships, disease, continuing disappointments, and inadequate physical care, etc. Slide9: 1. When we refer to a person as a winner, we do not mean one who defeats the other person by dominating and making him lose. (Line 6) When we refer to… as…, we don’t mean… 当我们将······看作······的时候，我们并不是说······ Slide10: When we refer to a person as a winner, we do not mean one who makes someone else lose. 当我们将某人称作胜者时，我们并非指他是一个致使他人一败涂地的人。 When we refer to the computer as the dominant machine in the future, we do not mean they will take the place of human beings. 当我们认为计算机是未来的主宰机器时，我们并不是说它们将会代替人类。 Slide11: 当我把学习看作是大学期间的主要任务时，我并不是说我们就不必和社会接触。 When I refer to _________________________ , I do not mean ________________________________. 当我们把互利作为发展国与国之间关系的基础时，我们并不是说可以为了部分国家的利益而损害世界和平。 When we refer to _____________________________________ ___________________________, we do not mean that _______ _______________________________________________. 请完成下面的句子： study as the chief task in college we have no necessity to contact society mutual benefits for both sides as the base to develop relations between nations we shall sacrifice the world peace for benefits of only some nations Slide12: 当我们把一个人称作是成功者时，我们所指的并不是那种通过优势控制他人、令其失败而获得成功的人。 1. When we refer to a person as a winner, we do not mean one who defeats the other person by dominating and making him lose. (Line 6) Slide13: 2. Without guilt he enjoys his own accomplishments. Without envy he enjoys the accomplishments of others. (Line 30) Slide14: Without you I cannot live. Without me you feel the life is pale. 没有你，我无法生活；没有我，你觉得生活苍白无趣。 Without money I tell myself to work hard to make more. Without time I dream to pay for freedom. 没有钱的时候，我告诫自己努力工作挣更多的钱；没有时间的时候，我又梦想着用钱来买自由。 Slide15: 他能享受自己的成功而不感到愧疚，他也能欣赏他人的成功而不感到妒忌。 2. Without guilt he enjoys his own accomplishments. Without envy he enjoys the accomplishments of others. (Line 30) Slide16: 3. Although people are born to win, they are also born totally dependent on their environment. (Line 36) … they are born dependent on… 一句中，dependent on their environment 是主语 they 的补足语。 Slide17: 请看下面的例子： 1) 主语补语位于主语之前，后有逗号。 Tired and sleepy, I went to bed. 2) 有时位于主语之后，前后皆有逗号。 Chen, only 1.30 meters tall, won the first prize. 3) 位于谓语动词之后。 He died young. He was found died. 4) 除形容词外，名词、数词、不定式、分词、介词短 语、从句也可作主语补足语。 He came home quite changed. 过去分词短语作主语补足语 Slide18: 3. Although people are born to win, they are also born totally dependent on their environment. (Line 36) Slide19: 4. Somewhere along the line losers begin to avoid becoming independent. (Line 38) 跟动名词作宾语的动词还有：mind, finish, enjoy, celebrate, advocate, suggest, delay, quit, forgive, admit, tolerate, escape, consider, give up, be capable of doing, have trouble/difficult/a problem + doing, succeed in doing, keep/prevent... from doing, cannot help/cannot help but do, keep (on), spend + n. + doing, be skilled/skillful at/in doing Slide20: You must avoid giving any unnecessary information. 你应该尽量避免提供不必要的信息。 China is to avoid experiencing big ups and downs in economy in the coming year. 中国将在未来一年里避免经济有大的起伏。 Slide21: Professors should ________ repeating in lectures material that is in the textbook. A) refuse B) prohibit C) prevent D) avoid Tryon was extremely angry, but cool-headed enough to ________ storming into the boss’s office. A) prevent B) prohibit C) turn D) avoid D D Slide22: 在这一过程的某个时候，失败者开始逃避独立。 4. Somewhere along the line losers begin to avoid becoming independent. (Line 38) Slide23: ability, capability与capacity ability 指某一方面的才能，后通常接不定式。 e.g. That boy has the ability to write novels. 那个男孩有写小说的能力。 capability 着重强调人的才干，其后可与of/for doing 连 用。复数形式 capabilities表示潜在的能力或尚未开发出来 的能力。 Slide24: e.g. As an excellent table tennis player, Chinese Wang Hao has the capability of winning the gold medal in the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. 作为一名优秀的乒乓球运动员，中国的王皓有能力在2008年 北京奥运会上夺取金牌。 capacity 常指学习、理解能力或较全面的才能，其后可接to do / of doing / for doing。 e.g. I appreciated his capacity of/for making friends. 我欣赏他的交友能力。 Slide25: 她的接受能力很强。 She has a mind of great capacity. He is a man with a prodigious (大得惊人) capacity of alcohol. 他是个酒量很大的人。 那本英文原版小说远远超过了那些非英语专业学生的（理解）能力。 That original novel in English is far beyond the capacity of those non-English major students. Slide26: The assembly hall was filled to capacity. 大会堂里挤满了人。 has a seating capacity of 100 students Slide27: 请选择 ability, capability,capacity的适当形式填空。 capacity ability capacity capabilities capability Slide28: 提示词造句： psychological pressure, failure Great psychological pressure contributed to his failure in the English Speaking Competition. international matches, the maturity of one’s skills and state of mind Taking part in international matches regularly will contribute to the maturity of young players’ skills and state of mind. Slide29: 有能力的领导人能以人格的力量支配他人。 Capable leaders can dominate others by force of character. With remarkable skills and great confidence, Swiss Roger Federer can ____________________________________________ . 因为拥有出色的球技和强大的信心，瑞士人罗 杰 • 费德勒成为当今竞争异常激烈的男子网坛的统领者。 dominate today’s ultra-competitive men’s tennis world Slide30: 5. evaluate (Line 25, Para. 5) v. calculate or judge the value or degree of 评价；评估，估计 ___________________ , all the connoisseurs drew the same conclusion that the pottery was an antique of Ming Dynasty. 经过仔细的鉴定，所有鉴定家的结论都是那件陶器是一件明代的古物。 The head coach will _________________________________ before deciding which player could take part in the upcoming Olympic Games. 主教练在决定由哪名运动员参加即将到来的奥运会之前会充分估计各方面的重要因素。 After careful evaluating evaluate all the key factors very carefully Slide31: It is really necessary for that Oscar-winning actress to _____________________ to handle all kinds of social intercourses. 那位奥斯卡获奖女演员非常有必要设计一份灵活的时间表来应对各种社会应酬。 A wise political leader should be flexible in dealing with various economic issues. 有智慧的政治领导人应该采取灵活变通的政策解决各种经济问题。 design a flexible schedule Slide33: 她对他所说的确实感到吃惊。 She was genuinely surprised about what he said. The government’s new higher taxes are genuinely beginning to bite. 政府提高税收的新措施真正地开始引起不满了。 Slide34: 那件夹克是用真皮制成的。 That jacket is made of genuine leather. 他真诚的演讲感动了所有的听众。 His genuine speaking touched all the listeners. genuine gold/friend/support/painting 真正的······ genuine passion / affection / pride / desire / hatred / love / regret / enthusiasm 真实的······ Slide35: Both of the two candidates made use of various means to ___________________. 两位候选人使用各种手段来影响选民的意志。 一些政治人物在幕后(behind the curtain)间接操纵股票市场。 Some political figures indirectly manipulated the stock market behind the curtain. manipulate voters’ will Slide36: Athens Olympic gold medalists Li Ting and Sun Tiantian are___________________________________. Taiwanese pop queen Amei Chang (Zhang Huimei) ________________________________ when she was very young. 雅典奥运会金牌得主李婷和孙甜甜是拥有巨大潜力的年轻网球运动员。 young tennis players with great potential 台湾流行天后张惠妹在很小的时候就显示出了歌手的潜力。 showed potential for becoming a singer Slide37: Solar power is a source of energy. 太阳能是潜在的能量来源。 has a large potential market potential Slide38: 演讲人把他称为一位正在崛起的政界人物。 The speaker referred to him as an up-and-coming politician. refer to as “Four Heavenly Kings” Slide39: 完成下面的句子。 Drug abuse is by no means __________________________. （这一地区特有的问题） _________________ because all the others like it were destroyed.（那座建筑很独特） That building is unique a unique problem to this region Slide40: unique opportunity 千载难逢的机会 unique ability 独有的能力 unique work of art 独一无二的艺术作品 unique talent 无与伦比的才能 unique wish 唯一的愿望 常用搭配 Slide41: It is the ____________________________________ for which he will be long time remembered. “猫王”艾尔维斯·普莱斯利独一无二的演唱风格将使他长久地被（世人）怀念。 uniqueness of Elvis Presley’s singing style Slide42: 12. call for (Line 29, Para.6) need or deserve 需要，值得 To become an excellent golfer as Tiger Woods _____________________. 想成为一个像泰格·伍兹那样优秀的高尔夫球选手需要天赋与悟性。 West Point, the most famous military academy of the United States, _______________________ _________________. 美国最著名的军事学府西点军校需要具备使命感的年轻人加入。 calls for talent and savvy calls for those young people with a true vocation Slide43: Each human being is born as something unique. a normal person a creatively productive person It’s a matter of degree. His chances are greater for… Slide44: He is flexible. He has a love for life. continuing disappointments He was held back by his low capacity. Slide45: 以下介绍省略译法中的非人称代词或强调句中代词it的译法。 Slide46: Outside it was pitch dark and it was raining cats and dogs. 外面一团漆黑，大雨倾盆。（非人称代词） He glanced at his watch; it was 7:15. 他一看表，七点一刻了。 （非人称代词） It was only then that I began to have doubts whether my story would ever be told. 只是在那时，我才开始怀疑自己的经历究竟能不能公诸于众。（强调句） Slide47: 英语句子中有一些短语重复出现，从修辞角度考虑，可按情况作适当省略。 Slide48: And that was the terrible thing that happened. 这事真是要命。 There is no month in the whole year, in which nature wears a more beautiful appearance than in the month of October. 一年之中，大自然的美景莫过于金秋十月。 And it came to pass, when Jesus had finished these parables, he departed there. 耶稣说完这些比喻，就离开了那里。 Slide49: 1. Lack of confidence contributes to his failure. 2. She has shown great courage in the face of her serious illness. 3. We came to the conclusion that she was telling the truth. 4. His secretary failed to tell him about the meeting. 5. Learning languages isn’t just a matter of memorizing words. 6. Once she has made her decision, no one can hold her back. 7. It will be difficult to live up to the standards set by our captain. The scientist referred to the discovery as the most exciting new development in this field. Slide50: 语篇连贯(一) 学生作文反映出的语篇不连贯错误类型: 语义不连贯。思路脱轨，或时时转轨，东拉西扯写得很散，致使主题不突出。生拉硬扯、语义不明的句子使读者难以把握作者应有的思路。 3. 缺乏必要的逻辑连贯。内容排列杂乱无章，显得前言不搭后语，令人十分费解。 2. 衔接不合理。段与段或句与句之间过渡不自然，呆板生 硬，使人难以了解学生真正的写作意图。 Slide51: 1. 利用提供的提纲、提示理清思路，确定段落间的 连贯。靠适当选择与合理淘汰素材，紧扣中心思 想或主题句，使语义具有整体一致性。 2. 在英语提纲适当位置标明可以使用的衔接手段， 如正确的关联词，使句与句、层次与层次、段落 与段落之间的衔接合理。 3. 辨明逻辑关系，分清内容层次。用过程、因果、 综述、对比和比较等组织方法，也可以利用时间、 空间顺序等写作技巧。 Slide52: 在写下面这篇作文时，你怎样注意连贯与衔接？ Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition on the topic: My Definition of Success. You should write at least 120 words according to the outline given below in Chinese: 1. 我对成功的定义； 2. 对成功定义的详细阐述； 3. 小结。 Slide53: In the first step, one should set a goal that is worthy of pursuing and is attainable with effort. Then success begins the moment one starts to pursue the goal. Following the goal-setting, there should be challenges and the process of surmounting difficulties in the pursuit of the goal. These two steps are essential because success acquires its value in accepting challenges, in overcoming difficulties and in enduring hardships. Slide54: Success is a magic word, and everyone is in constant pursuit of (不断追求) success. But what exactly is success? Generally, success is the realization of one’s hopes and justified (正当的) ideals. Under such a general notion (概念，定义), however, people have different understandings of success because the hopes and ideals they appreciate (欣赏，珍惜) vary from individual to individual (因人而异). In my point of view, the definition of success includes four steps: 1) a goal to set; 2) challenges to be met; 3) the process of surmounting (克服) difficulties, and 4) the reward of success. My Definition of Success Slide55: For instance, a person who inherits (继承) a huge amount of money from his parents cannot be called a successful person because there are no difficulties or hardships involved in his achieving wealth. The reward of success—the final step— is inseparable from the process of surmounting frustrations (挫折). This is my definition of success. However, success is just like a multi-faceted (多面的) diamond. Others may define it from other aspects. I will stick to my own definition, following the four-step path and holding the belief that I will become a potentially successful person in the near future.