Published on January 11, 2008
Unit 4 Extraterrestrials : Unit 4 Extraterrestrials I. Cultural Knowledge II. Text Analysis 1) Text Organization 2) The Speech Style 3) Detailed Text Explanation III. Language Study Text A The Watery Place: Text A The Watery Place by Issac Asimov Slide5: I. Cultural Knowledge 1. Isaac Asimov（1920—1992） A Russian-born American writer and scientist, he was a distinguished biochemist, but is more widely known as the author of many works of science fiction，books on science for non-scientists, and essays on a wide variety of subjects. Among his best-known science fiction are I, Robot（1950）and the Foundation trilogy (1951－1953). Building on Karel Capek’s concept of the robot，in 1941 Asimov coined the term robotics. What Is Intelligence Anyway ?(Book II, Unit 9) The New Caves (Book IV , Unit 8) The Earth Is Room Enough (Active English) Slide6: A Graph of Asimov's Book Publications A Graph of Asimov's Book Publications How do you pronounce "Isaac Asimov"?: How do you pronounce "Isaac Asimov"? "EYE'zik AA'zi-mov". Asimov's own suggestion, however, as to how to remember his name was to say "Has Him Off" and leave out the H's. When and where was he born?: When and where was he born? Asimov was born (officially) January 2, 1920, in the town of Petrovichi (pronounced peh-TRUV-ih-chee), then in the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic (czarist Russia no longer existed, while the USSR hadn't formed yet) and now in Russia. When did Asimov die? What was the cause of his death? Where is he buried?: When did Asimov die? What was the cause of his death? Where is he buried? Asimov died on April 6, 1992. The revelation that AIDS was the cause of his death was not made until It's Been a Good Life was published in 2002. His body was cremated and his ashes were not interred. Where did Asimov live, attend school, and work during his life?: Where did Asimov live, attend school, and work during his life? The Asimov family lived in the East New York section of Brooklyn. Asimov began his formal education in the New York Public School system in 1925. He graduated from Columbia with a B.S. in Chemistry in 1939 where he also earned his M.A. in Chemistry in 1941 and his Ph.D. in Chemistry in May 1948. Slide11: In 1948 he obtained a postdoctoral position at Columbia, doing research there. In June of 1949 he took a job as instructor of biochemistry at the Boston University School of Medicine, and was promoted to assistant professor in December 1951. He was promoted to associate professor in July 1955. On July 1, 1958, he became a full-time writer. In 1979, the school promoted him to the rank of full professor. What are the titles of Asimov's autobiographies?: What are the titles of Asimov's autobiographies? In Memory Yet Green covers the period from 1920-1954. In Joy Still Felt spans the time from 1954-1978. These two volumes were published by Doubleday in 1979 and 1980, I. Asimov: A Memoir was published by Doubleday in March 1994, and covers his entire life, written in 166 brief chapters arranged in roughly chronological order. Slide13: Yours, Isaac Asimov, a collection of excerpts from letters he had written over the years, edited by his brother Stan and published by Doubleday in October 1995, also provides a great insight into Asimov's personal and professional life. It's Been a Good Life, a condensed version of his autobiographical volumes that also includes additional material, edited by Janet Jeppson Asimov and published by Prometheus Books in 2002. What religious beliefs did Asimov have?: What religious beliefs did Asimov have? Asimov had no religious beliefs; he never believed in either God or an afterlife. He considered himself a Humanist, one who believes that it is humans who are responsible for all of the problems of society, as well as the great achievements throughout history. The Humanists believe that neither good nor evil are produced by supernatural beings, and that the solution to the problems of humankind can be found without the intervention of such beings. Asimov was a strong proponent of scientific reasoning who adamantly opposed creationists, religious zealots, pseudoscience, and mysticism. Science fiction: Science fiction form of fiction that developed in the 20th century and deals principally with the impact of actual or imagined science upon society or individuals. The term is more generally used to refer to any literary fantasy that includes a scientific factor as an essential orienting component. Prominent figures: H.G. Welles and Jules Verne Slide19: 2．Venus It is the second major planet in order of distance from the Sun．Also known as Hesperus, the evening star, or Phosphorus, The morning star, Venus can be the brightest object in the sky after the Sun and Moon and follows a near-circular path some 106 million kilometers from the Sun, taking 225 days to complete one orbit. Slide21: 3. extraterrestrial life This refers to the life-forms that may have evolved on other planets. There is no solid evidence at present that life exists other than on the Earth．Most UFOs have been satisfactorily explained as being natural or man-made, and the Viking missions to Mars were inconclusive in testing for the existence of life on that planet. Nevertheless，searches have been and are being made for signs that life has arisen in other parts of the universe. Certain knowledge either that life is confined to planet or has been found elsewhere would have the profoundest Slide22: philosophical implications for mankind. Factors contributing to any assessment of the probability that life exists elsewhere must include the size, age, and structure of the universe, and the conditions under which life as we know it can originate and evolve. Other factors of relevance in the search for extraterrestrial life include an assessment of the probability that intelligence leading to scientific and technological civilizations similar to our own may arise. Slide23: 4. Space exploration 1903, Russian physicist Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, developing ideas for space rockets fuelled by liquefied gas; by 1926, USA Robert Goddard, successfully designed the first liquid fuelled rocket; 1944, German launched the V-2 rocket. 1957, the Soviet Union(SU) put the first artificial satellite, Sputnik I, in orbit; 1958, the US Explorer I ; 1961, Yuri Gagarin (加加林）, the first man in space; Slide24: On April 12, 1961 the first earthling escaped the gravity well of planet earth. In the spaceship Vostok 1, Senior Lieutenant Yuri Alexeyevich Gagarin orbited earth one time at an altitude of 187¾ miles (302 kilometers) for 108 minutes at 18,000 miles an hour. He was the first man to see that the earth was indeed round, indeed mostly water, and indeed magnificent. Slide25: 1962, John Glenn followed Gagarin , was the second human being in space; Slide26: 1961~1970 the Apollo programme, proposed by President Kennedy in 1961, achieved a manned lunar landing by 1970, and Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin landed on the moon in 1969; while the SU concentrated on unmanned flights, Luna IX achieving a soft landing on the moon in 1966. early 1970s, space stations launched by both the USA and the Soviet Union, Slide27: 1975, an Apollo capsule linked up with a Soviet Soyuz capsule, unmanned flights, made to Venus and Mars, 1977~1989, the US probe(探测器）, Voyager 2, launched in 1977, reached Neptune in 1989. 1981, the USA launched a space shuttle, the first reusable space craft; 1986, the shuttle, Challenge, exploded on lift-off. Slide28: 1986 the giant Soviet modular space station, Mir, was launched, with astronauts being ferried to the station by Soyuz spacecraft, followed in 1987 by the placing in space of the powerful Energiya station. 1987, Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Romanenko set a space endurance record of 326 days in orbit. 1990, the Hubble space telescope， was launched from a US shuttle, producing images of other solar systems; Slide30: An international space station, Freedom, conceived by the USA in 1984, became operational in the 1990s. Slide32: Space technology has resulted in numerous applications, telecommunication satellites, greatly improved global communications; meteorological satellites, provide advance weather information; reconnaissance (侦察) satellites, register the earth’s resources and military information. News Broadcast: News Broadcast Apr 05, 2004: Spirit Achieves Mission Success Spirit woke up on sol 91, which ended at 6:38 p.m. PDT on April 5, 2004, as if it were any other martian day, but this one was special. Finishing 90 sols of surface operations since landing day marked completion of the last of the official success criteria for Spirit's prime mission. The rover team at JPL had checked off the next-to-last box for mission success two days earlier, when a drive of 50.2 meters (165 feet) took Spirit's total travel distance over the 600-meter (1,969 feet) mark. Slide34: Opportunity Views Sunset on Mars Slide35: 5. How big the universe ? (Adapted from an interview with Hubert Reeves, an Astrophysicist) There are 100 billion stars in our galaxy, and over a billion yellow stars like our sun. We don’t know if they all have planets, but we have good reason to think that planetary systems are common. Suppose there were only one planet like the earth for every ten yellow stars; that alone makes 100 million worlds comparable to ours– just in our galaxy! And there are billions of galaxies. Slide36: 6．the Congress The Congress is one of the three branches of the US federal government, the legislative branch. Congress has two houses，the Senate and the House of Representatives. The main job of Congress is making laws. Before a new law can be made, both houses have to pass it, and it must then have the approval of the President. In a system of government based on a series of checks and balances, the two houses of Congress act as a check on each other, as well as together forming a check on the powers of the executive branch, especially the President. ( +administration) Slide37: 7．the supreme Court The judicial branch is one of the three branches of US federal government and operates the system of law courts. The Supreme Court in Washington, D. C. is the highest court in the US, and is very powerful. It has nine Judges, called justices. Traditionally, they are called the nine old men, although there has been one woman justice. The head of the court has the title of Chief Justice of the United States. Justices are appointed by the President, although the Senate must give its approval to the choice. There has been only one African-American justice. Slide38: 8. income tax This is a tax paid according to a person’s level of income, with people on higher incomes paying higher rates of tax. It is used by the government to help pay for things like health care and education. It is collected in Britain by the Inland Revenue and in the US by the Internal Revenue Service. In the US, April 15 is the date when federal taxes are due. Slide39: II. Text Analysis 1. Text organization Part 1 Paras 1-3 The narrator makes a claim that no extraterrestrials will ever land on earth. Part 2 Paras 4-48 The narrator gives an account of his encounter with Venusians’ landing, making it clear why he makes that claim. Slide40: Progress of the story: four sections according to the time sequence. Section 1: Paras 4-5 (before the landing) Busy with his complicated tax form, Bart got quite irritable. Section 2: Paras 6-11 (the landing of flying sauce) The narrator was shocked at the sight of a flying saucer landing on Earth and two men getting out of it, while Bart did’t notice this at all. Slide41: Section 3 Paras 12-34 (the meeting with the E.T.) Unaware of the guests’ identity and caught up with his tax forms, Bart talked to the guests with an impatient and sarcastic tone and turned down their requests rudely. Their conversation ended with the extraterrestrial guests’ promise of never coming back. Slide42: Section 4 Paras 35-48 (after the E.T.’s departure) After the E.T. left, the narrator got mad at Bart because of his irrational attitude toward the guests. Bart didn’t realize his stupid error until it was too late. Slide43: 2．The speech style Language is full of holes，which people fill up with perceptions and assumptions. This saying is well illustrated by Sheriff Cameron. Because he judged the Venusians as Italians simply by their appearance, everything they said sounded Italian to him. He mistook Venus for Venice, a watery place on earth. When we learn another language，we must not learn it with the mindset of our mother tongue. Otherwise there will arise cultural misunderstandings, which may lead to conflict. Slide44: Sheriff Cameron usually spoke in a casual manner. Perhaps his town was so small that he knew all the townsfolk, therefore informal speech was proper. His sentences were short，colloquial，and sometimes incomplete. He preferred phrases to single, learned words．He liked shortened forms and abbreviations，with an occasional curse． Slide45: The Venusians spoke formally. Their sentences were long and involved, their word choice elaborate. They used passive voices and “if” structures. Perhaps it was because they believe in the utter importance of their mission，or they might not have learned to speak freely in a strange tongue. Slide46: III. Language Study 1.exhaust: (v.)1) to tire out 使精疲力竭 e.g. What an exhausting day! I’m completely exhausted. 2) to use up completely 用完，耗尽 e.g. exhaust the funds in a week exhaust one’s patience Slide47: 3) to describe or deal with (a subject) completely 详尽无遗地论述 e.g. We’ve exhausted this subject; let’s go on to the next. (n.) the escape or release of vaporous waste material as from an engine; the fumes or gases. Slide48: 2. privacy: (n.) 1) the quality or condition of being secluded from the presence or view of others; 个人空间 2) the state of being free from unsanctioned intrusion e.g. People should respect others’ right to privacy. 3) secrecy 隐私 Slide49: 3. on account of: (fl .) because of e.g. The house isn’t really suitable for an old person on account of all those stairs. The president declined to deliver the speech himself on account of a sore throat. Slide50: 4. deputy: the second most important person in a particular organization e.g. A deputy was appointed in case the manager became ill. After several years’ hard work he was promoted to deputy manager. Slide51: 5. work up: spend time and effort preparing; produce or develop gradually e.g. The head of the department asked me to work up some sample compositions and give them to the students. Let's go for a walk to work up an appetite (to make ourselves hungry). Slide52: 6. knock off: (infl) stop working, usu. at the end of a day e.g. He always knocks off at six o’clock. If I get this paper done I'll knock off early today. When do you usually knock off for supper? Slide53: 7. knock down: l) cause someone to fall to the ground by pushing or hitting them e.g. The driver was in serious trouble for knocking down a pedestrian on a pedestrian crossing. 2) destroy and remove sth. e.g. The house is being knocked down to make way for a new road. We’re planning to knock the dividing wall down so as to make one large room. Slide54: 8. hit the sack: (infl) go to bed e.g. Time to hit the sack; lights out! Louise was so tired that he hit the sack soon after supper. Slide55: 9. bug: cause (eyes) to stick out; annoy sb. e.g. His eyes bugged with horror. The naughty kid from next door put a frog in my mailbox, which really bugged me. Don’t bug me with petty details. Slide56: 10. alike: similar; in the same manner (a., ad) e.g. Teachers are required to treat all their students alike. She and her cousin look very alike. Slide57: 11. locality: a particular place; the position of sth. e.g. People living in this locality complain of traffic noises disturbing them at night. Having lived in California for about ten years, they moved to another locality. Slide58: 12. isolate: set apart; cut off from others e.g. When I’m angry, I find it best to isolate myself from other people for a little while. In the early decades of its history, the United States was relatively isolated from Europe and other parts of the world. It would certainly be unnatural for someone to totally isolate themselves. Slide59: 13. mode: a manner, way or method of doing e.g. You'll have to change your mode of life once you have a baby. Railways are the most important mode of transport for the economy. Slide60: 14. adopt: take over and use as one’s own; take into one’s family and make legal son or daughter e.g. Some immigrants discarded their old customs and adopted American ways. Several private international organizations have adopted standards for consumer protection in electronic commerce. The Red Cross has adopted a lot of homeless children in Afghanistan. Slide61: 15. go for: be attracted by; like or prefer e.g. What sort of men do you go for? Many young people go for pop music. Slide62: 16. supreme: greatest in power, rank or degree e.g. The Supreme Court meets in Washington, D.C., and the other federal courts are located in cities throughout the United States. They argued that the Security Council was the supreme authority and the General Assembly had in fact no right to authorize peacekeeping activities. Slide63: 17. arrangement: plan; preparation (usu. pl, followed by about/for) e.g. The company tried to make flexible work arrangements so that it would make the best of all its employees. The president doesn’t want any special arrangements for her visit. The personnel department only called me, but made no arrangements to see me. Slide64: 18. at one’s service: willing to help sb. e.g. If you need any help, i'm at your service. ----“Would you fetch me my glasses from the kitchen, Rose?” -----“At your service, madam.” Slide65: 19. go to pieces: If you go to pieces, you are so upset or nervous that you lose control of yourself and cannot do what you should do. e.g. Anne is a strong woman, but she nearly went to pieces when she heard her colleague died in the car accident. Slide66: 20. come around: visit someone at their house e.g. Halfway through the party, a neighbor came around to complain about the noise. Why didn’t you come around while you were in Beijing on business? Slide67: 21. heave: raise or lift with great effort e.g. They had to heave the piano onto the stage. The teacher heaved Mary to her feet and took her to the office. Slide68: 22. wit: (also wits) quick understanding, intelligence e.g. He lacked the wit to respond in time. Peter hadn’t the wits to realize the danger. The policeman used his wits more than his gun to tame the local criminals. Quick-witted Slide69: 23. make like: (infl) act as if one were; pretend to be (used in the patterns: make like sb./sth.; make like + clause) e.g. The old man made like a monkey to amuse the children. Bob made like he was a fish blowing bubbles. Slide70: 24. leave ... alone: allow one to be by oneself; allow sb. or sth. to remain untouched or unchanged e.g. It’s useless to talk to her since she is so upset; just leave her alone. He won’t leave me alone – he’s always phoning or coming to see me. Slide71: 25. fade out: disappear gradually e.g. As it was getting colder and colder their enthusiasm for doing sports in the morning faded out. My daughter’s interest in drawing has now almost completely faded out. Slide72: 26. have sth. on: be wearing sth. Put on /off 27. the disabled: the handicapped paralyzed crisscross: crisscross ranch: ranch Exercises: Exercises 1. have sth. on a. similar; in the same manner 2. disabled b. be attracted by; like or prefer 3. mode c. swear 4. alike d. difficult to understand or deal with 5. heave e. be wearing sth. 6. bug f. cause (eyes) to stick out; annoy sb. 7. go for g. raise or lift with great effort 8. complicated h. handicapped 9. curse i. a manner, way or method of doing Slide77: 1. real steady a. see for a moment 2. go over b. nonsense; rubbish 3.garbage c. without worrying about or taking account of 4.catch sight of d. person with much or long experience, esp. as a soldier 5. blink e. an amount of money paid regularly to someone who can no longer earn(enough) money by working 6. column f. constantly 7. pension g. examine the details of; check; 8. veteran h. a series of numbers arranged one under the other; a tall pillar 9. regardless of i. shut and open the eyes quickly; flash on and off Slide78: heave, bug, go for, mode, alike, curse, observation 1. Railways are the most important _____ of transport for the economy. 2. Teachers are required to treat all their students _____. 3. They had to _____ the piano onto the stage. 4. The naughty kid from next door put a frog in my mailbox, which really ______ me. 5. Many young people _______ pop music. mode alike heave bugged go for Slide79: column, veteran, pension, catch sight of, regardless of, go over, 6. I _______________ her just as she turned the comer and disappeared. 7. Medicare, another form of federal health insurance, pays a large part of the medical bills for the disabled, _____________ age. 8. _________ Day was originally established to honor Americans who had served in World war I. 9. The guards _________ every passenger at the airport to prevent possible terrorist attacks. 10. She added up the first ________ of figures and entered the total at the bottom. caught sight of regardless of Veterans go over column Slide80: 1. By April 14, he isn't approachable.: 2. You could see the light break in on Cameron: 3. Cameron didn’t go much for foreigners ..., but generally he tried to be fair.: He is so busy by April l4 that he will not have anything to do with anybody. April l5 is the deadline for tax forms to be mailed. On April l4 some people stay up late trying to finish all the tax forms. You could notice Cameron was beginning to understand what they said. Although Cameron didn’t like foreigners very much..., he would try to be fair to them. Slide81: 4. ... but I couldn’t as much as fall down if someone had pushed the chair out from under me.: 5. ... everything they said was so.: 6. ... it was as though I could hear their minds.: but I was so scared that I couldn’t do anything, couldn’t even fall down if someone took my chair away. All I could do was sit and stare. ... everything they said was true. It means that the author completely understood what they said. Listening Unit 7 Courage : Listening Unit 7 Courage Background information: Background information On the morning of January 26, 2001, a massive earthquake measuring 7.7 on the Richter scale hit India’s western state of Gujarat. It was believed to be the most devastating earthquake to have ever struck India. More than 20,000 people were estimated to have been killed and a large number of towns and villages reduced to rubble. The wreckage left by the earthquake and the many lives lost are a grim reminder of human frailty at the hands of nature. The two listening texts report an incident that occurred during the earthquake. It is, however, not a report on human helplessness, but one on human courage in the face of disaster and danger. Slide84: Made a clean catch: made a smooth catch干净利落地接住 She gave up the baby,…: She gave the baby to the care of someone else,… Unit 8 Left-handedness: Unit 8 Left-handedness Background information Handedness means a preference for the use of either the right hand or the left hand. According to statistics approximately 75% of the human population is strongly right-handed, and approximately 90% is predominantly right-handed. Among the remaining 10%, some people are strongly left-handed, and others are left-handed for some activities and right-handed for others. Slide86: Since ours is largely a right-handed world, people in many cultures used to regard left-handedness as abnormal. And left-handed people often had a tough time trying to adapt to the ways things were. At present, however, people are more understanding and almost all left-handed children are allowed to write with their left hands. Slide87: Why some people are left-handed has been puzzling scientists for a long time. However, up to now no one has come up with a definitive answer, because no gene for left-handedness has been identified. But it does seem to run strongly within a family. Slide88: There are over 500 well-known personalities in the world who are left-handed. Included in their number are some of the world’s greatest minds. To name a few, Albert Einstein, Ludwig Beethoven, Leonardo da Vinci, Pablo Picasso, Mark Twain and Charles Chaplin were among the left-handed. So are former US presidents Gerald Ford, Ronald Reagan, George Bush Senior and Bill Clinton.