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Education

Published on April 22, 2008

Author: Venere

Source: authorstream.com

Slide1:  山东省济宁市第一中学 王岩 Slide2:  新 教 材 给我们带来了什么? Slide3:  变… 1) 内容在改变1.ppt 2) 观念在转变2.ppt 3) 模式在改变3.ppt 4) 学习方式在改变4.ppt 5)教师与学生的地位在改变 Slide4:  改变一个倾向 改变英语课程过分重视语法和词汇知识的讲解与传授、忽视对学生实际语言运用能力的培养的倾向 英语课程改革的重点是什么? 强调一个出发点 :  强调一个出发点 强调课程从学生的学习兴趣、生活经验和认知水平出发 倡导一种途径:  倡导一种途径 倡导体验、实践、参与、探究与合作的学习方式和强调学习过程的语言教学途径(任务型教学) 发展一种能力:  发展一种能力 发展学生的综合语言运用能力 注重形成过程:  注重形成过程 语言学习的过程 形成积极的情感态度 发展思维能力 提高跨文化意识 形成自主学习能力的过程 5.ppt Slide9:  教材千变  考试万变   但能力培养    是教学的永恒主线 Slide10:  高中英语课程的总目标是使学生在义务教育阶段英语学习的基础上,进一步发展综合语言运用能力。 如何使用教材:  如何使用教材 新课标指出:  “教师要善于结合实际的需要,灵活地和有创造性地使用教材,对教材内容、编排顺序和教学方法等方面进行适当的取舍或调整。” 删减法 替换法 扩展法earthquake 调整法 简化法 Slide13:  建议(一) 通览全书 把握主脉 (必修五个模块 选修六个模块) Slide14:  建议(二) 统计数据 心中有数 必修模块1-5单词、短语、 单词曲线:  必修模块1-5单词、短语、 单词曲线 176 157 172 149 196 49 62 87 65 99 49 40 39 18 34 选修(6-10)单词、短语、 单词曲线:  选修(6-10)单词、短语、 单词曲线 165 175 150 286 273 93 81 87 47 52 37 29 38 15 30 模块(1-5)阅读篇章词量曲线图:  模块(1-5)阅读篇章词量曲线图 2032 2152 2618 2570 2841 模块(6-10)阅读篇章词量曲线图:  模块(6-10)阅读篇章词量曲线图 3142 3630 3310 3637 3829 模块(1-10)阅读篇章词量曲线图:  模块(1-10)阅读篇章词量曲线图 2032 2152 2618 2570 2841 3142 3630 3310 3637 3829 Slide20:  建议(三) 有机整合 前后呼应 Slide21:  很多教师经常感叹: 课时不够 一再要求: 加课时 补课 Slide22:  原因(一) 今天为明天备课 其结果: 时间永远是不够的 Slide23:  原因(二) 时间分配不合理 教学内容前后 没有有效呼应 Slide24:  六个模块中的语法分布情况 Book1:动词(be + v-ing) 、直接引语和间接引语、祈使句、定语从句 Book2: 被动语态、定语从句 Book3: 情态动词、名词性从句 Book4: 谓语和主语的一致、动词-ing形式、构词法 Book5: 动词(过去分词)、倒装、省略 Book6: 虚拟语气、IT的用法、复习现在 分词 Slide25:  建议(四) 师师合作 互通互补 Slide26:  充分发挥团队作用 大力提倡资源共享 尽量避免单打独斗 放弃个人英雄主义 Slide27:  建议(五) 化整为零 各个击破 Slide28:    教师: 每位教师认认真真准备 1 个单元的教学资料(包括备课、搜集各方面资料) 与同进度同学科教师共享 避免重复劳动节省大量时间 Slide29:  学生: 每天目的性明确 早读:朗读课文重点句型 作业;巩固一个常用句型 日积月累 效果非凡 Slide30:  建议(六) 学案在手 省时高效 Slide31:  将教案变成学案 把将要讲授的内容提前 打印好发给每位学生 省时-高效-便于总复习 Slide32:  建议(七) 教学有法 教无定法 Slide33:  任何好的 教学经验或学习方法  都不可能适用于 所有的学校或所有的学生 Slide34:  建议(八) 因师、因生、 因校而宜 大胆取舍 Slide35:  建议(九) 不仅为“教”而设计 更要为“学”而设计 Slide36:  建议(十) 吃透标准 但不盲从 Slide37:  建议(十一) 关注、研习 全国、本省、其它省份 高考试题的 共性与个性 Slide38:  与大家共享: Tell me,   I’ll remember for a day. Show me,   I’ll remember for a month. Involve me,  I’ll remember forever. 课时的安排与重组实例1 :  课时的安排与重组实例1 课时的安排与重组实例2 :  课时的安排与重组实例2 Module 1 Unit 4 Earthquakes PeriodⅠ: Vocabulary 词汇课 PeriodⅡ: Reading 阅读课 PeriodⅢ: Learning about language and     structures (Grammar) 语法课 PeriodⅣ: Using language (reading, listening and writing) 阅读写作课 PeriodⅤ: Listening , Speaking & Writing task 听说课 PeriodⅥ: Summing up 综合课 课时的安排与重组例3 :  课时的安排与重组例3 Module 1 Unit 1 Friendship Period 1:Words; Warming-up; Talking 听说活动课 Period 2:Reading (P2) 精读课 Period 3: Listening; Listening Task; Discover-ing useful structures 听力,语法及写作 Period 4:Using Language;Reading Task 综合活动课 Period 5:Language points in Unit One 语言学习和拓展 Period 6:Writing and Summary 综合活动课 Slide42:  教学方式与方法所应具备的特点 1. 多数课堂活动以学生为主体,而不是以教师为主体。 2. 多数时间里,不是教师讲解、学生倾听的过程,而是教师与学生之间、学生与学生之间的互动过程。 3. 教师不是直截了当地把知识告诉学生,而是引导学生自己去发现知识。 4. 学生不是机械地记忆知识,而是运用所学英语语言知识去做一些具体的事情。 Slide43:  教师在设计教学方式与方法时要注意: 1. 教学方式与方法应给学生留有空间,应有利 于学生充分利用、分享已有的知识与经验,应有利于学生发挥创造力和想象力。 2. 应增加开放性的任务型活动和探究性的学习内容,使学生有机会表达自己的看法和观点。 3. 应有利于学生学会合作学习和发展与人沟通的能力。 4. 教学方式与方法应尽可能满足不同学生的学习需求,使所有的学生都能有所收益。 5. 要给学生创造在真实语境中使用英语的机会。要使学生能够利用所学语言知识与技能完成类似或接近现实生活的各种任务。 Slide44:  单元综合说课教学案例 1. 教学内容 以人民教育出版社教材中模块5 Unit I “Great Scientists” 话题单元为教学任务。 Slide45:  2.教学目标 (1)语言技能目标 ① 听:听懂两个学生谈论科学家钱学森的故事, 使学生了解科学家的生活经历, 并通过回答问题训练学生的分析和解决问题的能力. ② 说:能围绕中心话题Great Scientists, 通过学生分组讨论将来选择什么科学工作,需要什么样的教育、品格及经历来完成提问和应答的交际功能任务训练,也渗透了对学生的情感教育。 Slide46:  ③读: 能从John Snow Defeats “King Cholera”中获取主要信息,理解课文的内容和细节, 并使学生初步了解得出科学观点所需的过程;理解“语言运用”部分的reading是讲述了哥白尼如何发现太阳中心学说,使学生理解文章主旨大意,学会寻求解决问题方法同时提高阐明自己观点的能力,为下面的写做好准备。 ④ 写:能根据阅读文章内容及提示,给哥白尼写封回信。 Slide47:  (2)语言知识目标 ① 话题:熟悉有关Great Scientists和 科学家是如何以探索、钻研、无畏的科研精神验证未知的科学真理的话题。 ② 功能:在日常交际中有效使用得体的语言描述人物(characteristics and qualities):如: --- How will I recognize you? --- You can recognize me because I … ---What special features do you have? --- I’m tall/ short, fat/ thin, young/ old… ③语法:掌握过去分词作定语和表语。如: So many thousands of terrified people died. But he became inspired when he… Slide48:  ④词汇:理解、掌握下列词汇: engine characteristic radium theory scientific examine conclude conclusion analyse repeat defeat attend expose cure control absorb severe valuable pump pub blame immediately handle addition link announce instruct virus construction contribute positive strict movement god God backward complete spin enthusiastic cautious reject view Slide49:  (3)学习策略目标 ① 认知策略:总结语言材料中有关过去分词作定语和表语的规律并加以应用。 ② 交际策略:在课内外活动中积极围绕话题与同学交流。 ③ 调控策略:合理分配注意力。 ④ 资源策略:学习有效地使用词典等工具书。 Slide50:  (4)文化意识目标 了解英语交际中如何恰当地描述人物;通过课文学习,使学生感悟科学家的周密观察,勇于探索,认真分析的科学精神,使学生了解科学发现的全过程具有其科学的严密性。 (5)情感态度目标 学习不同领域科学家的优秀品质,了解科学家们对人类的贡献及其成果,激发学生的学习动力和兴趣,学会合作学习,探究学习的科学学习方法,为将来的研究打下基础。 Slide51:  3.教学重点、难点 (1)本单元所出现的词汇的用法。 (2)过去分词作定语和表语的用法。(3)描述人物常用的句型的表达法。 4.课时计划 本单元计划用7课时。即:阅读课,词汇语法课,听说课,听说译,阅读写作课,复习及课外阅读课,单元测试 Slide52:  简评:实施教学环节之前,首先要通读整个单元内容,对新课标要求下的本单元的教学总目标有一个总体的认识和把握。明确本单元教材中各个环节所列内容的目的和要求,以便更好地设计教学方案。 Slide53:  Unit 1 Great Scientists Period 1 阅读课 Teaching aims: 1. Read John Snow Defeats “King Cholera” and try to understand its main idea as well as details. 2. Foster the reading strategy. Slide54:  There are a lot of great scientific achievements that have changed the world. Warming Up: Unit 1 Great Scientists 阅读课:  Unit 1 Great Scientists 阅读课 Do you know the great scientists? 1.Who invented the first modern steam engine? James Watt (瓦特) 2.Who discovered radium? Madame Curie Slide56:  3. Who is the inventor of electric light bulb(电灯)? Thomas Edison 4.Who invented the earliest instrument to tell people where earthquakes happened? Zhang Heng Slide57:  5. Who put forward a theory about black holes? Stephen Hawking Slide58:  put forward: to offer an idea, suggestion, etc. for consideration 提出 Slide59:  6.Who is the father of super hybrid rice? Yuan Longping 7. Do you know who defeated “King Cholera”? John Snow Slide60:  简评: 使用教材中的Warming up导入新课,简洁明快。教材实际上是很好的课程资源,但要学会适当取舍与增加。教材上有10个问题,我只选用了部分,原则就是考虑学生的接受能力和利用价值,如:第5个问题,我想强调一下put forward 的用法。而第7个问题是我自己设计的,目的在于与reading的衔接。教师在设计教学环节时,思路一定要清晰,不仅为教而设计,更为学生的学而设计。 Slide61:  John Snow is a well-known doctor in the 19th century in London and he defeated “King Cholera”. Do you know what kind of disease is cholera? It is a kind of terrible disease caused by drinking dirty water and it caused a lot of deaths in the old times and it was very difficult to defeat. Can you tell me something about John Snow? Slide62:  简评:课堂教学的主体是学生,授课的基本方法应该是任务型教学方法。所以,任何时候都应该激发学生的思维,促使他们积极思考,同时激励他们踊跃表达,而不是教师一手包办。永远不要低估学生的知识面和能力。给他们一个平台,他们会回报你一个惊喜。 Slide63:  Let’s get to know how Dr. John Snow defeated “King Cholera” in 1854 in London in this reading passage: John Snow Defeats “King Cholera” Slide64:  John Snow What will the passage be about according to the title? 简评:预测是一种学习策略,它可以活跃学生的思维,激发学习兴趣,同时也给学生提供了表达的机会。引导学生充分利用各种信息源,拓宽阅读时的视野。设置“信息沟”,激发学生的阅读欲望。) Slide65:  Skim the text and see whether you are right or not. The passage is mainly about: ______________________________ ________________________ How John Snow found the cause of the cholera and defeated it . 简评:总结主旨大意是最基本的阅读技能.抓不住语篇的主旨大意,就无法深刻的理解整个语篇. Slide66:  Read the text again and answer the questions. 1.Why was cholera called “King Cholera” in the title? 2. How many theories were there to explain the cause of cholera? Which one did John Snow believe? 3.How did John Snow prove he was correct? 4.What was the purpose of using a map in his research? Because it was the most deadly disease in his day. Two. The second one. He collected data from the next cholera outbreak with a map and analyzed it to test the theories. To help him find out what caused the outbreak of cholera. Slide67:  T: The passage is written as a report, and it is made up of ______ paragraphs, and also, it is a seven –stage scientific experiment, each paragraph for each stage. seven Slide68:  T: Discuss in pairs the stages in examining a new scientific idea according to the seven paragraphs of the passage. What order would you put them in? Draw a conclusion Think of a method Collect results Make up a question Find a problem Analyse the results Find supporting evidence Repeat if necessary Slide69:  简评: 教师的课堂用语应该是简洁规范,指令应该是简洁明确.教师组织教学的语言要流畅衔接,使得整个课堂浑然一体. Slide70:  What order would you put them in? 7 steps: 1.Find a problem:(发现问题) 2.Make up a question:(形成研究主题) 3.Think of a method:(找出研究方法) 4.Collect results:(收集材料) 5.Analyse results:(分析材料) 6.Find supporting evidence:(找出支持证据) 7.Draw a conclusion:(得出结论) Slide71:  T: We have known the correct order in examining a new scientific idea. Read the passage and fill in this form in groups: Slide72:  (简评:本环节应注意给学生提供充分的思维时间和广阔的思维空间,调动学生在交互学习、合作学习中学会自己解决课文理解中的问题,尽量挖掘学生的学习潜能。) Slide73:  John Snow Defeats “King Cholera” What causes cholera? Which theory is correct? Collect information on those who were ill or died and where they got their water Mark information on a map to find out where people died or did not died Slide74:  Analyse the water to see if that is the cause of the illness Find other evidence to make sure the conclusion The water is to blame. The source of all drinking water should be examined. Repeat if necessary is not needed in this experiment as the results were so conclusive. Slide75:  Which sentence can be replaced by the following one? Probably the water was responsible for the outbreak of cholera. _____________________________________________ It seemed that the water was to blame. Slide76:  _____________________________________________ be to blame 应负责任,该受责备 1.Who is ____ ________ for the accident? to blame 2. He, rather than you, ______ _______ ________ for the mistake. (简评: 语言点的学习应该是渗透到教学的各个环节,使得教学难点分散,降低学生的学习难度,同时也有利于讲深讲透.) is to blame Slide77:  Translate the following sentences into Chinese. 2.With this extra evidence John Snow was able too announce with certainty that polluted water carried the disease. 1.To prevent this from happening again, John Snow suggested that the source of all water supplies be examined and new methods of dealing with polluted water be found. 有了这个额外的证据,约翰.斯诺就能够肯定地宣布,这种被污染了的水携带着病菌。 为了防止这种情况的再度发生,约翰.斯诺建议,所有水源都要经过检测,而且要寻找处理污水的新方法。 Slide78:  简评:Main idea, Paraphrase 和Translation是山东省的高考题型,所以我们平时的教学要有意识地渗透给学生,让他们养成高考思维的习惯。 这就要求教师不但要研究教材,也要研究高考,从而使得你的教法不但适合学生课堂学习,也适合教材和高考。 Slide79:  Discuss in pairs and finish Ex.1(Page 3). John Snow Defeats “King Cholera” Slide80:  Nobody knew the cause of the serious disease of cholera a strange cloud of gas found its victims people absorbed the disease with meals Collect information from the cholera outbreak to prove which theory was correct Slide81:  He found the cause of cholera was the polluted water Idea 2. Because the information showed that the dirty water carried cholera He defeated cholera by examining the water supply and dealing with the polluted water Slide82:  Fill in the blanks and see if you have known something about John Snow: John Snow was a well-known ____ in London in the ___ century. He wanted to find the ______ of cholera in order to ______ it. In 1854 when a cholera ____ out, he began to gather information. He _____ on a map where all the dead people had lived and he found that many people who had drunk the dirty water from the ______ died. So he decided that the polluted water carried cholera. He suggested that the _____ of all water supply be _______ and new methods of ________ with polluted water be found. Finally, “King Cholera” was defeated. doctor 19th cause defeat broke marked pump source examined dealing Slide83:  Retell the passage according to below: John Snow was a well-known ____ in London in the ___ century. He wanted to find the ______ of cholera in order to ______ it. In 1854 when a cholera ____ out, he began to gather information. He _____ on a map where all the dead people had lived and he found that many people who had drunk the dirty water from the ______ died. So he decided that the polluted water carried cholera. He suggested that the _____ of all water supply be _______ and new methods of ________ with polluted water be found. Finally, “King Cholera” was defeated. Slide84:  T: From John Snow, we know that to be a scientist and to prove a new scientific research are very difficult. What quality/ personality should a scientist have? Please work in groups of four and just list the three most important qualities that make a good scientist. Slide85:  scientist creative confident energetic determined positive careful co-operative patient strict hard-working brave cautious What personality should a scientist have? Slide86:  Nowadays there are many infectious diseases, such as SARS, Bird Flu, AIDS, which affect public health. Facing this ,what should we do for public heath care? Slide87:  1.Search the net for famous scientists , try to get more information ,and write a passage about the one you admire most in about 150 words, you should write your reasons as well. 简评:在新课程中,作业除了巩固和检验所学知识外,还应是拓展学习空间的手段,是促进学生发展的有效途径。) Slide88:  2. Do Discovering useful words and expressions on Page 4. 3. Do Ex.1 on Page 42. You can refer to your dictionary if necessary. 简评:平时要培养学生查字典的习惯,这不仅培养了学生自主学习的能力,也为他们的终身学习打下了良好的基础.通过实践,我们也认为这也是提高学生学习水平及成绩的好方法.) Slide89:  阅读课 1. Lead-in 2. Fast-reading /Skimming to get the main idea of the whole passage 3. Intensive reading (1)Detailed-reading to get some details of the passage (2) Comprehending to understand the passage to deal with the language points (3) Read and discuss to understand the passage deeply and appreciate the passage 4. Discuss 5. Homework Slide90:  Period 2 词汇语法课 Teaching aims: 1. Lexis: Have deep understanding of some useful words and expressions. 2. Grammar: The Past Participle as the Attribute and the Predicative Slide91:  Checking the homework T: I have asked you to write a short passage about a great scientist you admire most. Would you like to share with us? 简评: 布置的作业一定要检查,但时间可长可短.要求的150字短文与高考作文要求一致,平时多加训练,考场上就胸中有数了.以口头表达的方式呈现,既锻炼了学生的口语表达能力,又减少了老师的工作量. Slide92:  Checking the homework Look at the passage and choose the correct words or expressions to complete this passage. (Ex. 1, Page 4) valuable instruct cure announce look into examine put forward immediately expose Li Heping was a famous football player, but his career came to an end when he became very ill. The doctor________ him but could not find the cause of this illness. He _________ the theory that Li Heping had been _______ to a new virus. He knew he would not be able to ____ him ________ but promised he would _______ the possibility of finding one in the future. Sadly, Li Heping ________ that he would take up a new career to ____ footballers in planning for their future. At his last match he thanked his fans for their ______ support and concluded by singing the popular song: Thanks for the memory. examined put forward exposed cure immediately look into announced instruct valuable Slide93:  expose :(1) to show sth that is usually hidden 暴露;显露; 揭露 My job as a journalist is to expose the truth. 我作为记者的职责就是展示事实。 他不想向任何人显露他的恐惧。 He did not want to expose his fears to anyone. Slide94:  (2) expose sb/ sth/ yourself to sth : to put sb/ sth in a place or situation where they are not protected from sth harmful or unpleasant 使面临;使遭受 Don’t expose yourself to the sun for too long. You’ll get sunburned. 别在太阳下晒得太久,你会被晒伤。 不加任何保护,直接暴露在这些病毒下是十分危险的。 It’s very dangerous to be exposed to these viruses without any protection. Slide95:  Speak out the phrases with “make” according to the pictures or the Chinese definitions. 交朋友 make friends 确保; 确定 make sure 下定决心 make up one’s mind 为...腾出空位 make room for Slide96:  make a face make the bed 一路前进;向前 make one’s way to Slide97:  Checking the homework Sometimes in English we put the verb make with a noun instead of using a simple verb; for example, make a mistake instead of to mistake. Look at these simple verbs and make another construction using make+ a + noun. Add two more of your own. (Ex.2 Page 4) make a telephone call make a plan make a speech make a change make a decision make a contribution make a noise make a description make a choice make an apology to choose to apologize Slide98:  Checking the homework In English verbs like make are very active and useful. Apart from the construction mentioned above, you have also learned the following phrases. Can you make sentences with each of them? make a face make friends make money make one’s way to make phone calls make sure make up one’s mind make the bed make room for Try to learn the phrases by heart in a short time. Slide99:  apart from: ① “除……之外(还)”,相当于besides; in addition to ;as well as What do you study apart from/ besides/ in addition to English? 除英语外,你还学些什么? 除了作为一种有趣而且有益的运动外,游泳还是一项很有用的技能。 Apart from being fun and good exercise, swimming is a very useful skill. Slide100:  apart from: ② “除了……外 ”, 相当于 except for; aside from I’ve finished apart from the last question. 除了最后一道题,我全做完了。 ③except 指从同类的人或物中排出;except for指所排出的人或物跟所谈的不属一类,后接短语;except that/what/when…后接从句。 ④在否定句和疑问句中,besides=except Slide101:  ______ being too large, the trousers don’t suit me. A. Except B. Apart from C. In addition to D. Besides 2. I knew nothing about the accident ______ I read in the newspaper. A. except that B. except for C. apart from D. except what B D Slide102:  3. ______ being a scholar, he was also a famous writer. A. Besides B. Except C. Except for D. In addition 4. Some people choose jobs for other reasons ____ money these days. (07,全国II) A. for B. except C. besides D. with A C Slide103:  Checking the homework Here is a report on living conditions in England in the 19th century. Choose the correct verb or conjunction to put into the text. link…to; blame; expose…to; test; defeat; reject; absorb; examine; severe; connect…to Slide104:  link…to; blame; expose…to; test; defeat; reject; absorb; examine; severe; connect…to In the 21th century, educated people find it difficult to believe that living conditions in the 19th century ________ people ____ serious illnesses. The reports of many doctors _____ illness ____drinking polluted water. However, one hundred years ago people did not _______ a disease ________ the environment. So they did not ______ the companies that supplied dirty water. The doctors found that the dirtier the water, the more __________ the illness. It was only later when people began to _________ the water and ________ its quality that they ________ the idea that cholera was ________ from the air. It was only when everybody began to attack the dirty conditions that cholera was ________ and wasn’t a problem any more. expose to link to connect to blame severe examine test rejected absorbed defeated Slide105:  1. link…to…: 把……与……连接;联系 The video cameras are linked to a powerful computer. 这些摄像机是与一台功能强大的计算机相连接的。 2. reject: to refuse to accept or consider sth. 拒绝接受;不予考虑 The proposal was firmly rejected. 这项提议被断然否决。 Slide106:  3. absorb: ①to take or suck in (liquids) 吸收 A sponge absorbs water. 海绵吸水。 ②to take in (knowledge, ideas)专心于 The little girl was absorbed in reading a tale. 这个小姑娘正在全神贯注地阅读一篇故事。 Slide107:  (简评:由于学生受认知水平的限制,不可能自主探究所有的语言现象。因此,教师针对学生忽略的重点和难点,及时补充和讲解,是十分必要的。我们既反对过去那种教师按字典讲讲,学生在课堂上记记的词汇教学法,也反对把培养自主探究意识理解为靠学生自己解决所有的问题,甚至采取“放羊式”的做法。教师应根据学生的实际情况和需要,积极为学生创设一些运用的环境,并提供语言支持,使学生在运用中加深理解,学会运用。) Slide108:  Grammar-----The Past Participle as the Attribute and the Predicative(过去分词做定语和表语) Look at Discovering useful structures on P4. T: Look at the following sentences where the past participle is used. Please find out the past participle and tell me the function. Example: So many thousands of terrified people died. terrified------- used as the Attribute Slide109:  So many thousands of terrified people died. T: Can you try to change the past participle “terrified” into an Attributive Clause? Please discuss it in pairs. So many thousands of people who were terrified died. T: Read the reading passage to find two more examples and try to change the sentences into Attributive Clauses. 1._________________________________. 2._________________________________. Slide110:  简评:在这一过程中,教师并没有直接讲解过去分词作定语的用法,而是给出任务,让学生积极思考和讨论后得出答案,展现语法生成的过程。 Slide111:  Doctor John Snow was a well-known doctor in London. Doctor John Snow was a doctor who was well-known in London. 2. John Snow told the astonished people in Broad Street. John Snow told the people who were astonished in Broad Street. Slide112:  过去分词: 过去分词的构成:规则动词的过去分词是在动词词尾加-ed, 不规则动词的过去分词有不规则的变化。如:know – known, keep – kept等,这些不规则变化需要单独记忆。 过去分词本身的含义: 过去分词含有“被动”或“完成”的意思。如: a ploughed field 犁过的地 Slide113:  少数表示位置移动和状态改变的不及物动词的-ed形式,也可以做前置定语,但不表示被动,只表示完成。 the changed situation 改变了的形式 a retired teacher 一个退休的教师 the fallen leaves 落叶 a returned overseas Chinese 一位归国华侨 Slide114:  3. 单个的过去分词作定语,通常放在所修饰的名词前;过去分词短语作定语,通常放在所修饰的名词后。如: polluted water death caused by the accident 4.但有些单个的过去分词,像left(剩余的),given(所给的),concerned(有关的)等,习惯上用作后置定语。 如:standing room left; the book given, the people concerned等。 Slide115:  5. 过去分词作定语相当于一个定语从句,其“被动”与“完成”的含义可以在从句中觉察出来。 如:An organized trip is a trip which is organized by somebody or some organization. Fallen leaves are the leaves which have fallen on the ground. Slide116:  6. 过去分词短语有时亦可用作非限制性定语,前后常有逗号。 Some of them, born and brought up in rural villages, had never seen a train. 他们当中有一些人, 生长在农村,从未见过火车。 Slide117:  简评:在学生通过积极讨论思考,基本能形成语法概念之后,教师再对语法概念加以提炼总结,使学生的思维得以强化,也为以后的复习打下基础。 Slide118:  T: Here is another example. Try to find out the past participle and discuss its function in pairs. Example: But he became inspired when he thought about helping ordinary people. Inspired ---- used as the predicative T: Discuss the differences between the two sentences in groups: He looked/ was disappointed. The lake is badly polluted by a paper factory. Slide119:  过去分词作表语: 1. 过去分词作表语时总是用在连系动词之后,构成系表结构,表示主语所处的状态或感受。如: We were encouraged at the news. 2. 被动语态也是系表结构,但它表示主语所承受的动作。如: The book was written by Lu Xun. Slide120:  3.可以用作表语的常见的过去分词有: delighted, disappointed, upset, astonished, excited, frightened, experienced, interested, inspired, puzzled, exhausted, satisfied,surprised… Slide121:  3.可以用作表语的常见的过去分词有: get lost / separated / hurt / injured / dressed / changed / caught / married / killed / puzzled /confused/interested Slide122:  T: Now find two more examples in the reading passage. He got interested in the two theories. Neither its cause, nor its cure was understood. Slide123:  Complete the table with phrases that have the same meaning. (Ex.2 on P5) people who are terrified seats which are reserved water that is polluted a room that is crowded a winner who is pleased astonished children a broken vase a closed door the tired audience a trapped animal Slide124:  Complete the sentences using the past participle as the predicative.(Ex.3 on P5) He got _____________ about losing the money. Why do you always look so ___________? Do you sleep well these days? 3. I was ____________ with the film I saw last night. I had expected it to be better. 4. Everybody was _______________________ to hear the death of the famous film star. 5. The children are really __________ about going to the zoo. 6. His wound became __________ with a new virus. blamed tired disappointed shocked/ depressed excited infected Slide125:  (简评:和词汇教学一样,新课标提倡的语法教学也要从用的角度出发。教师要避免单纯的知识灌输,而应展现学习语法的思维过程,体现语法概念的生成过程。值得提出的是:教师还要在语法教学中发展学生的语法意识。也就是说,语法教学不能局限在语法的范畴内,必须与篇章语境、逻辑思维等联系起来。 Slide126:  4.Rewrite the following sentences with the past participle as attributive. Let’s try the bookstore that was opened last month. Let’s try the bookstore opened last month. Slide127:  Nine out of ten women who were interviewed about the product said they liked it. Nine out of ten women interviewed about the product said they liked it. Yesterday, the President went to visit the workers who had retired. Yesterday, the President went to visit the retired workers. Slide128:  Prices of daily goods _____ through a computer can be lower than store prices. A. are bought B. bought C. been bought D. buying 2. The building _____ in our school is for us teachers, though there’s noise most of the day, we still feel happy about it. A. built B. having been built C. to be built D. being built B D The building which is being built in our school is for …. Slide129:  3. From his ____ look on his face, the price of meat must have risen. A. disappointed B. disappointing C. satisfied D. satisfying 4. The little child ____ by his father left home yesterday. A. having been punished B. punished C. who has been punished D. to be punished A B Slide130:  5. ---Look! Everything here is under construction. ---Oh, has the museum once ____ for exhibiting Nantong kites been pulled down, too? A. being built B. been built C. having been built D. built 6. There have been several new events ____ to the program for the 2008 Olympic Games. A. add B. to add C. adding D. added D D Slide131:  7. “ Things ____ can never come again!” I could not help thinking to myself.(07,湖南) A. lost B. losing C. to lose D. have lost 8. At the beginning of class, the noise of desks ____ could be heard outside the classroom.(07,全国II) A. opened and closed B. to be opened an closed C. being opened and closed D. to open and close A C Slide132:  9. The Town Hall ____ in the 1800’s was the most distinguished building at that time. (07, 上海) to be completed B. having been completed C. completed D. being completed 简评:语言学习不只是传授性的,还有体验实践性。要引导学生形成自主学习意识,在运用语言的过程中感悟、体验所学语言,同时培养学习策略。) C Slide133:  Homework: Do Using Structures on Page 44. 2. Copy and recite note 5 and 9 on Page 77 and look up “suggest “in the dictionary and try to do Ex.4 and Ex.5 on Page 43. (简评:学习的方法和途径是多样的。研究教材,吃透教材,你会发现实际上我们的教材给我们提供了很多和便利的途径。) Slide134:  Period 3 listening and speaking 听说课 Checking the homework: T: We learned the past participle used as the attribute and the predicative yesterday. Now let’s check if you have grasped it. 简评:加上一句导语,学生马上就能联想起上节课的内容,为下面的学习做好准备。 Slide135:  Choose appropriate verbs to complete the following sentences, using the past participle. Explain the use of the past participle in each sentence. Slide136:  They were __________ to accept my idea. I’ll be _________ to hear what he has to say. The mayor said that he was _______ about the __________ rise of the water level in the river bed. Recently ________ soldiers are helping to take the victims to safe areas from the flood. Most of the newspaper seems to be _________ with pop stars. He was __________ of going alone into the empty house. prepared interested worried continued arrived concerned frightened Slide137:  2. Rewrite these sentences as one sentence using the past participle as the attribute or predicative. I found this plate on the floor. The plate was broken in pieces. 2. I saw a tall, dark and handsome man. His name is Xiao Ming. I found this broken plate on the floor. I saw a tall dark and handsome man called Xiao Ming. Slide138:  2. Rewrite these sentences as one sentence using the past participle as the attribute or predicative. 3. I looked at that modern abstract painting. It was colored in yellows and greens. 4. Yesterday I got the answer to my question. It was the one I expected. I looked at that modern abstract painting colored in yellows and greens. Yesterday I got the expected answer to my question. Slide139:  2. Rewrite these sentences as one sentence using the past participle as the attribute or predicative. 5. she is one of my friends. She is devoted to my interests. 6. On the doorstep I found a lot of bottles. They were marked in green ink. She is one of my friends devoted to my interests. On the doorstep I found a lot of bottles marked in green ink. Slide140:  2. Rewrite these sentences as one sentence using the past participle as the attribute or predicative. 7. We saw many windows in that room. They were all cracked. We saw many cracked windows in that room. Slide141:  Checking the homework: 3. Look at the dictionary entry for the verb suggest, and match the meanings with the sentences . (Ex.4 on Page 43) Slide142:  suggest v. 1. to tell someone your ideas about what they should do 提议,建议: suggest sth May I suggest a white wine with this dish? suggest doing sth She suggested going to the museum tomorrow. suggest (that)… He suggested that we (should) try the shop on Green road. suggest how/ where etc. Can you suggest where I can find a chemist’s? Slide143:  2. to tell someone about a suitable person for a job推荐,举荐: suggest sb/sth for; suggest sb/sth as sth Who would you suggest for the job? 3. to state sth indirectly暗示,表明: Did he suggest that she was not telling the truth? 4. to make sb have a new idea使想到, 使认为: suggest sth to sb What did you suggest to the headmaster? Slide144:  简评:对于你已经选用的课本上的内容,也可以针对学生的实际情况和认知水平,加以适当的改动。如1中的第一个例句,更适合用于2,所以替换了一个例句;把2中的内容适当扩展:把suggest sb for 扩展为suggest sb/sth for; suggest sb/sth as sth ,这样意思更明确;另外每个词条后加注了汉语,便于学生理解和记忆。 Slide145:  ( ) I suggest you read the instructions before you take that medicine. ( ) What do his last words suggest to you? ( ) The tour guide suggested a one-day tour of Hong Kong. ( ) The painter suggested painting houses in his hometown with a series of blobs. 1 4 1 1 Slide146:  ( ) Statistics suggest that more and more full time students are taking up part time work. ( ) Could you suggest where I might park the car? ( ) He suggested his cousin for the hero in the play. ( ) Zhao Qing suggested that we should run to the top of the hill. 3 1 2 1 Slide147:  4. Play this game in groups of four: “What would you suggest?” One person has the problem below and the other three must decide a different solution to it. Make a short dialogue and be ready to give your suggestions to the class. Problem 1: You find your holiday boring. You would like some advice. Problem 2: You don’t know what job you want to do in the future. Slide148:  简评:为了与下面要进行的听力材料的内容衔接,我把Problem 2的内容给替换了下来。这个过程既是检查作业,巩固学过的知识,同时也是学习知识的过程。教师在备课时,一定要考虑尽量做到自然,流畅,衔接。 Slide149:  T:Well,you have got so many suggestions, then you can decide what job you will do in the future. As for me, I suggest you studying hard to get into university , and perhaps you can become a scientist like Qian Xuesen in the future. Do you know something about Qian Xuesen? ( 简评:提出问题是为了熟悉下面要听的话题。) Slide150:  T: Qing Xuesen is one of the best-known scientists in China. His work has been very important for the development of China. Yu Ping and Steve Smith are talking about him. Listen to the tape and then tell me the main idea about it. Yu Ping is talking to her friend Steve Smith about Qian Xuesen and his work an a rocket scientist. Slide151:  Listen to the tape again and answer the questions . While listening, you’d better not try to remember each word, just try to get the main idea of it and try to understand what they talk. Please take notes while listening. ( 简评:教师应指导学生培养听的策略,重点放在听大意和主题,理解说话人的意图和态度,边听边做笔记。) Slide152:  What did Qian Xuesen study first? What experience did he get in America that was very useful for China? 3. What was Qian Xuesen’s achievement when he returned to China from America? 4. How has he been honored in China? 5. How would Steve honor him? Slide153:  What did Qian Xuesen study first? What experience did he get in America that was very useful for China? 3. What was Qian Xuesen’s achievement when he returned to China from America? He first studied to be an engineer. In America he began to work on space rockets so that he was able to develop a space programme when he came back. When he returned to China he set up a Space Institute to begin training people in how to design and build rickets. Slide154:  4. How has he been honored in China? 5. How would Steve honor him? In China he has been honored as “the father of the space programme”. Steve suggested putting Qian xuesen’s picture on Mars when the first Chinese astronaut lands there. Slide155:  Listen to the tape again and try to tell me the story about Qian Xuesen. Slide156:  Listening text: A Great Chinese Scientist-----Father of the Chinese space programme YP: What do you want to be when you grow up? SS: I want to be an astronomer and visit stars. I wish to visit Mars one day. YP: I think I’d like to work in the space industry too. I’d like to be a rocket scientist like Qian Xuesen. SS:What did he have to do to become a rocket scientist? YP: Well, he first studied at university to be an engineer. Later he was lucky enough to go to America to study for his doctor’s degree. It was then he began to work on rockets there. Slide157:  SS: So it was lucky for our space programme that he came back to China. YP: very lucky. There was no work on space rockets before he began his institute in China to design and build rockets to go into space. SS: Do you think he wanted to travel into space in one of his rockets? YP: I have no idea but I believe he looked forward to the space flight by a Chinese astronaut. Ss:Yes. China has already sent satellites into space. I hope that we’ll be the first to land on Mars. That would really be something special and if I were that astronaut I would put Qian Xuesen’s picture on Mars to show how much we admire his work. Slide158:  YP:Indeed. He is called the father of the Chinese space programme. He is my hero and he is why I want to be a rocket scientist. SS: Well, we’d better get on with our homework. We need good grades to get into university. YP: Right you are. See you, then. SS: See you. (简评:精听后,通常情况下要给学生呈现听力原文。一是语言学习的过程,二是让学生找出没听明白的地方,找出原因。) Slide159:  --- The last one ______ pays the meal. --- Agreed! (07 辽宁) A. arrived B. arrives C. to arrive D. arriving C the first / last to do … Slide160:  T: Qian Xuesen is the first to begin the work on space rockets in China. In pairs discuss what scientific job each of you would like to choose in the future. These questions may help you: What job do you want to do? What personality will be needed? What work experience would be useful? What education will you need? How long will the training take? How will you prepare for this career? Slide161:  Theses expressions may help you: I always wanted to..because… I might find it difficult to … My greatest problem will be to … The experience I will need is… I need to practise… I will need to be /become patient, creative, hard-working, co-operative, confident, brave, positive, pleasant, polite, determined, energetic, strict with… Slide162:  Sample conversation: S1: What do you want to do when you grow up? S2: I want to build robots. I will have to do a physics and mathematics degree in China. After that I hope to go abroad t Reading University in England where you can study all about robots. There is a special cybernetics department there. S1: Why personality will be needed for that job? S2: They have a lot of uses: for example, in making cars on a production line or doing other repetitive jobs. S1: What personality will be needed for that job? S2: I think I need to be patient for my ideas will take a long time to develop. I also need to be creative enough to have good ideas. S1: What experience will be most useful to you? S2: I think technology and engineering projects. I hope to work in a factory in my holidays. S1: What kind of person makes a good inventor? S2: I think someone who is happy to persevere at something and learns from his mistakes. S1: Thank you. I think designing robots sounds fun. Slide163:  ( 简评:本环节再次为学生提供了在真实的语言环境中进行口语交际的机会。同时也是对学生进行情感态度和文化意识的渗透。 对于程度不太好的学生, 教师可以提供一个样本参考. 但这种给学生提供的交际的机会不能轻易舍弃.) Slide164:  Homework: Do Listening Task on Page 44 and Reading Task on Page 45. (简评:这篇阅读需要思考的时间,但没有语言点障碍,所以作为课后作业来培养学生的自主学习和和探究式学习的能力。) Slide165:  Period 4 Listening, talking and translating 听说译 Checking the homework T:Have you dealt with the problems in Reading Task on Page 45? Slide166:  Listening: (on Page 41) T: Well done. Euler loved mathematical puzzles, and finally he started a whole new branch of mathematics called “ topology”. Robert Briggs in our listening material is very interested in biology and especially in the study of plants. Today he is telling his friend Zhang Wei some exciting news. Read the questions before you listen to the tape. This will help you understand the information. (简评:导入语言承上启下,同时对学生听的策略作出要求,使学生对所听材料有所预测。) Slide167:  Choose which of the following statements most closely describes what this listening passage is about. Explain why the others are wrong. This is about a man who wants to name a flower. This is about a man who finds a flower and wants to own it. This is about a man who finds a flower and wants to know if it is a new species of flower. ★ Slide168:  2. Listen to the tape again and try to complete the following passage: To find the name of an unknown flower, first you have to go to see a flower___________. He/ She will look in a special ________ written by Carl Linnaeus. He lived in __________ from ______ to _________. He was very important because he solved a serous problem for _________. He saw all plants and animals produce ___________________________. Some animals produce _______ but others lay ______ while plants __________________. He used these different ways of producing young to put plants and animals into _________. For example, the group called birds lay ______ to produce young and they all have _________. Linnaeus put the plants and animals into smaller groups or species. He gave each one two names. One is for the large group, for example ________ and one is for the species, for example _________. So a parrot would be __________________. He was the first person to successfully classify all plants and animals. specialist book Sweden 1707 1778 biology young plants and animals babies eggs produce seeds groups eggs feathers birds parrot bird, parrot Slide169:  3. Listen to the tape again and try to tell me something about Carl Linnaeus. Slide170:  Listening text: Naming a flower Slide171:  Talking: T: Imagine you are going to meet a specialist about a newly-found flower. Your partner will be the assistant for the flower specialist. You both need a description of the other so you can recognize each other when you meet. Now ring the assistant to sort out the necessary information. Slide172:  These expressions may help you: How will I recognize you? You can recognize me because… I’m tall/ short, fat/ thin, young/ old with… I have large/ small, brown/ green eyes with… What will you wear? What do you look like? My … looks a bit like… What special features do you have? How will I know you? Slide173:  Sample dialogue: S1: Hello. This is Dr Evans’ office. Can I help you? S2: Yes, please. I’d like to change my arrangement to meet Dr Evans. I want to show him this new orchid that I’ve found. We originally arranged to meet in the University laboratory but now I’m unable to do it. S1: Oh yes. I’ve got it down here in this diary. Where would you like to meet now then? S2: Outside the Botanical gardens on Trumpington Road. But it’s always very crowded there, so I wonder if you could give me an idea of how I could recognize Dr Evans? S1: Yes, of course. He’s tall and thin with long, grey hair and glasses. S2: That sounds very clear. What other special features does he have? S1: Yes. He walks with a limp because he broke his leg skiing many years ago. What do you look like? S2: Dr Evans can easily recognize me. I’m short and thin with brown, curly hair. I always a duffle coat and a bobble hat. He’ll know me because I’ll be carrying my flower. S1: I’ll tell him. Thank you for your clear description. I’m sure Dr Evans is looking forward to meeting you. Goodbye. S2: Goodbye. Slide174:  (简评:本环节通过给学生创造了一个相对真实的情景,引导学生描述自己,询问对方情况,为学生学习和运用本单元的功能意念项目提供了很好的交际机会。) Slide175:  Translate these sentences into English, using the words and phrases in brackets. (Ex. 2 on Page 42) 除了去公园以外,这个夏天我就没有出过公寓。(apart from) 这些科学实验的结果对于我们非常有价值,它们将有助于我们的研究取得成功。(scientific, valuable; contribute to) 除了提供好的收入,我还提供一套新的公寓给你住。(in addition to ) 没有足够的证据很难作出结论。(draw a conclusion) 在完成写作之后请仔细检查,看看是否所有的句子都说得通。( complete; make sense) 你要去听演讲,对吧?可你看起来对此不是很热心。( attend. Enthusiastic) 工作太多而休息太少往往会导致疾病。(lead to) 政府宣布该疾病已得到控制。(announce; control) 杨教授对助手们要求严格。他们必须按照他的指示做实验。(be strict with) Slide176:  Translate these sentences into English, using the words and phrases in brackets. (Ex. 2 on Page 42) 除了去公园以外,这个夏天我就没有出过公寓。(apart from) 2. 这些科学实验的结果对于我们非常有价值,它们将有助于我们的研究取得成功。(scientific, valuable; contribute to) Apart from going to the park, I have not been outside my flat this summer. The results of the scientific experiments are valuable to us and they will help to contribute to the success of our research. Slide177:  3. 除了提供好的收入,我还提供一套新的公寓给你住。(in addition to ) 4. 没有足够的证据很难作出结论。(draw a conclusion) 5. 在完成写作之后请仔细检查,看看是否所有的句子都说得通。( complete; make sense) In addition to a good income I am offering you a new flat to live in It is difficult to draw a conclusion without enough evidence. Please check carefully after you complete the writing and make sure all the sentences make sense. Slide178:  6. 你要去听演讲,对吧?可你看起来对此不是很热心。( attend. Enthusiastic) 7. 工作太多而休息太少往往会导致疾病.(lead to) You’re going to attend the lecture, aren’t you? But you don’t seem very enthusiastic about it. Too much work and too little rest often leads to illness. Slide179:  8. 政府宣布该疾病已得到控制。(announce; control) 9. 杨教授对助手们要求严格。他们必须按照他的指示做实验。(be strict with) The government announced that the disease was under control. Professor Yang is strict with his assistants. They must do the experiments according to his instructions. Slide180:  (简评:这些语言要点不是很难,稍加强调即可。学习这些要点内容,也为下节课的阅读扫清了一些障碍。) Homework: Do Ex. 3 on Page 43 referring to your dictionary and then try to remember them. Slide181:  Period 5 Reading and writing 阅读写作课 T: All these days we have been talking about scientists and their research work. 1. Listening to the tape once and tell me who and what it is about . It is about Copernicus’ revolutionary theory. (简评:语篇的学习形式也不仅仅是阅读,听也是一种途径。) Slide182:  2. Pre-reading We know the first scientist is Copernicus. He was one of the first scientists to use mathematical observations to collect information. He believed the sun is the center of the universe and the earth and other planets went around it. Slide183:  Birth: Death: Place of Birth: Career: 1491-1494 1496 1497 1514 1543 Read the passage and try other ways to tell me the experiences of Copernicus : Slide184:  (简评):有些信息是语篇中没有提到的,但附录中的Note to the texts 做出了解释;也有的信息可以 根据平时的经验去猜测。通过这种方式,目的是培养学生运用多种渠道去获取信息的能力。 Slide185:  Birth: Death: Place of Birth: Read the passage and find the experiences of Copernicus: February 19, 1473 May 24, 1543 Toruń, Poland Slide186:  Career: 1491-1494 1496 1497 1514 1543 Studied mathematics at Kraków Academy Went to Italy to study astronomy and law at the University of Bologna Began observations of the Sun, Moon, and planets Wrote Commentariolus, an outline of his astronomical ideas, but did not circulate it widely Published De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Celestial) Slide187:  Read through the passage, and tell whether the following statements are true or false. At Copernicus’ time, Christian Church was in charge of many western countries. 2. Copernicus noticed that observed from the earth, some planets appears in front of or behind the earth. 3. Copernicus didn’t show his new theory to his friends until he completed it. 4. His friends were not interested in his ideas. 5. Since he was not afraid of being attacked by the Church, Copernicus published his book as soon as he finished working on it. 6. Newton, Einstein, and Hawking are all scientists who made contribution to the study of the universe. T F T F F T Slide188:  3. Use the reading to help you draw the two theories of the universe. A diagram showing the solar system with the earth at its centre A diagram showing the solar system with the sun at its centre Slide189:  4. It would be an exciting and happy thing to find out a new theory. Which words can express his feelings at that time? How do you understand it ? Nicolaus Copernicus was frightened and his mind was confused. (简评:对于语篇的学习,不仅是通过语篇来学习知识点,还要引导学生学会去欣赏语言。) Slide190:  5. Read the passage again and tell me why Nicolaus Copernics had hidden his theory for so many years? Because the powerful Christian Church would have punished him for even suggesting such an idea. They believed God had made the world and for that reason the earth was special and must be the centre of the solar system. Slide191:  6. Discuss in groups: If you were Nicolaus Copernicus, would you have hidden your theory for so many years? Give a reason. (简评:通过对这个问题的讨论,激发学生的文化意识和情感态度,从而引导学生树立起正确的人生观和价值观。) Slide192:  7. Well, most of you would not like to hide the new theory. Now suppose you are at his time, just write a short letter asking Copernicus to publish his idea so everyone can read them. Slide193:  (简评: 有了以上几个问题的层层深入, 写作就感觉是水到渠成的事了.) Slide194:  First you need to collect your ideas. For example: ① He believes his new theory is true. ② there are problems with the present theory. ③ He has done many years of observations to prove his new theory is true. ④Science can not develop unless people publish their ideas. ⑤ Time will show if his theory is true or not. Slide195:    书信(letters)      一般分为私人信函(Personal letters)和正式信函(Business letters)。英文书信从信封到正文,其格式与汉语有许多不同。书信由以下几个部分构成:    Slide196:   a. 信头(Heading)   寄信人地址和写信日期,写在信封右上角,地址由小到大。      例:NO. 1 Middle School    22 Taibai Road    Jining, Shandong    China, 212700    August 15, 2007    Slide197:   b. 信内地址(Inside address)   收信人姓名、地址在左上方,位置比信头低一至二行。私人信件一般不写信内地址。  c. 称呼(Greeting/Salutation) d. 正文(Body)   信的正文另起一行,缩进5个字母。写信与写文章一样,要分段写,每段有一个中心思想,内容要表达清楚,语言要简单明了,态度要诚恳礼貌。   Slide198:  (1)开头带有寒暄,客气的套语。如: A:感谢类开头:Thank you for your kind/ interesting/ last letter which arrived yesterday. B:喜悦类开头:I was /am so pleased/ very happy/ much delighted to receive your letter. Slide199:  (1)开头带有寒暄,客气的套语。如: C: 探寻类开头:How are you? / How are you getting on? / I often think of you, how have you been recently? D: 致歉类开头:I was sorry to hear that… / Sorry for delaying this letter for so long, but… Slide200:  (2)正文要写事情, 要分段落。 (3)结尾有寒暄,客气的套语,来表达自己的心愿。如: Best wishes to you! Remember me to your family ! Hoping to hear from you soon! I’m looking forwards to hearing from you soon. Please give my best regards to your family. /I hope……等。 Slide201:  e. 结束语(Ending) 结束语写在信结尾语下隔开一行处,从中间或偏右写起。 Yours truly/ sincerely,   f. 签名(Signature) 写上写信人的姓名。    Slide202:  60 sichuan Roan Hong kou District, Shanghai The People’s Republic of China October 2nd, 2006 Peacock Santa Clara CA USA Dear Turner, -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ----------------------------------------. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. I hope to hear from you soon. Yours ever, Liu Yang Slide203:  Discuss the writing plan in pairs: Beginning: Paragraph 1: Paragraph 2: Summing up: Slide204:  Sample writing: Dear Nicolaus Copernicus, I am a student studying astronomy and I would very much like to read your new theory about the solar system. I hope you will publish it for several reasons. I understand the problems with the present theory. The way the planets move is not what you would expect if the earth was the centre of the universe. It is also odd that the brightness of some stars seems to change. So I agree with you that we need a new theory. I know your observations have been very carefully carried out over many yea

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