20070327 WS TB

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Published on June 24, 2007

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Learning Design:creating and sustaining online communities of practice:  Learning Design: creating and sustaining online communities of practice Tim Bilham Director, Education Research and Development School for Health University of Bath Workshop:Festival of Learning, March 2007:  Workshop: Festival of Learning, March 2007 Bath context Your background and experience Educational drivers Our learning and teaching approaches Your educational philosophy and approach Learning design System specification Programmatic level Activity level Effectiveness: Learner engagement-early evaluation Illustrations from programmes for healthcare professionals Your illustrations University of Bath context:  University of Bath context No institutional policy on e-learning (pre 2006) Pilot programmes using Bb, WebCT, a bespoke VLE School for Health (SfH) established 2003 Postgraduate education for professionals Some pre-existing courses delivered through distance learning- text, video, audio SfH takes whole programme approach to e-learning SfH selects Moodle (2004) launches first programme January 2005 University adopts Moodle (2006) Participant contributions:  Participant contributions Introduce yourself and describe your equivalent teaching and (e-)learning context perhaps in terms of departmental and/or institutional strategy Workshop:Festival of Learning, March 2007:  Workshop: Festival of Learning, March 2007 Bath context Your background and experience Educational drivers Our learning and teaching approaches Your educational philosophy and approach Learning design System specification Programmatic level Activity level Effectiveness: Learner engagement-early evaluation Illustrations from programmes for healthcare professionals Your illustrations 1 Traditional e-learning models:  1 Traditional e-learning models Efficiency driven Learners as individuals Flexibility of convenience (access) rather than a flexibility of learning Transmission model Which models are you familiar with? 2 Institutional Strategy:  2 Institutional Strategy Institutional drivers business academic pedagogical technical administrative Which perspective dominates in your institution ? Strategy: Bath:  Strategy: Bath Institutional drivers Creation of new School, support for expansion Increase student numbers Recruit international students Constraints on campus space Increase income from teaching School drivers Inherited a number of ‘conventional’ distance learning courses Largish student numbers: circa 700 on 3 programmes Problems with progression, attrition Material outdated, difficulties in keeping topical Fast-moving clinical areas Staff enthusiastic to innovate Improve quality of learning experience Strategy: Bath:  Strategy: Bath School strategy Postgraduate professional education Part-time and relevant to practice Innovative blended delivery Remote learners and dispersed part-time tutors Learning strategy Learner-centred Activity-driven Establishing communities of practice Effective learner support 3 Drivers in education that inform current models of learning:  3 Drivers in education that inform current models of learning Increased accessibility to information and knowledge Shift in expectations upon professionals and upon educators and trainers Self-directed learning commonplace and supporting and facilitation key to success Do you consider there are different or additional drivers for change? Workshop:Festival of Learning, March 2007:  Workshop: Festival of Learning, March 2007 Bath context Your background and experience Educational drivers Our learning and teaching approaches Your educational philosophy and approach Learning design System specification Programmatic level Activity level Effectiveness: Learner engagement-early evaluation Illustrations from programmes for healthcare professionals Your illustrations The School for Health approach:  The School for Health approach Constructivist learning Communities of practice Reflective practice Knowledge construction Focus upon learning design:  Focus upon learning design Pedagogical policy Social constructivist- communities of practice Learner support- induction, growth, personal development Reflective practice- work based learning, professional development Activity-driven not content-driven School for Health Learning and Teaching Strategy, late 2004 Underpinning pedagogy -School for Health programmes :  Underpinning pedagogy -School for Health programmes Workshop:Festival of Learning, March 2007:  Workshop: Festival of Learning, March 2007 Bath context Your background and experience Educational drivers Our learning and teaching approaches Your educational philosophy and approach Learning design System specification Programmatic level Activity level Effectiveness: Learner engagement-early evaluation Illustrations from programmes for healthcare professionals Your illustrations Sharing approaches:  Sharing approaches Working in small groups share your approaches to learning and teaching (especially e-learning). You may find using this matrix helpful. Constructivist learning:  Constructivist learning ‘Only by wrestling with the conditions of the problem at hand, seeking and finding his own solution (not in isolation but in correspondence with the teacher and other pupils) does one learn’ John Dewey, How We Think, 1910 Precedents for constructivist models:  Precedents for constructivist models Dewey (1938, 1964) Montessori (1914,1965) Piaget (1977) Bruner (1986) Vygotsky (1962, 1986) and Gagne (1970) Schön (1987) Lave andamp; Wenger (1991) Wenger (1998) Situated Learning:  Situated Learning ‘Situated learning is education that takes place in a setting functionally identical to that where the learning will be applied’ Wikipedia, 2006 Lave and Wenger, 1991 Implications for work-based learning, for e-learning, for professional practice? Communities of practice:  Communities of practice ‘A community of practice is a network of people who share a common interest in a specific area of knowledge or competence and are willing to work and learn together over a period of time to develop and share that knowledge’ NeLH Specialist Library, Knowledge Management Reflective practice:  Reflective practice ‘involvement in a process of reflection on one’s actions as part of continuing learning is a central characteristic of a professional practitioner’ after Schön a capacity to reflect ….. in action (whilst doing something) and ….. on action (after it has been done) is an important feature of professional development Kolb’s learning cycle:  Kolb’s learning cycle Knowledge construction:  Knowledge construction Physically through their involvement in active learning Symbolically by learners making their own representations of action Socially by conveying meaning to, and receiving meaning from, others Theoretically by learners trying to explain their own incomplete understanding Building knowledge:  Building knowledge ‘We have begun at last to play with digital technologies as a way of meeting the demands of the digital age, but with an approach still born of the transmission model’. Diana Laurillard (2002) Rationale for learning design:  Rationale for learning design Professional learners have invaluable contributions to make ‘new knowledge and learning are properly conceived as being located in communities of practice’ Tennant (1997) Workshop:Festival of Learning, March 2007:  Workshop: Festival of Learning, March 2007 Bath context Your background and experience Educational drivers Our learning and teaching approaches Your educational philosophy and approach Learning design System specification Programmatic level Activity level- a learning design methodology Effectiveness: Learner engagement-early evaluation Illustrations from programmes for healthcare professionals Your illustrations Early experiences (2003-4):  Early experiences (2003-4) Blackboard WebCT Bespoke LMS Bb solution - Care and support workers :  Bb solution - Care and support workers Course Structure:  Blended Learning – Online + F2F 3 phases AS Awareness - E-tivities AS in Context - Case Study Analysis Supporting AS – Developing Reflective Practice Course Structure Evaluating participation:  Evaluating participation 95% participated online. Staff accessed the course every day 56% of all user access was after 6pm. The course content was accessed a total of 9,463 times. Strength of e-tivities:  Strength of e-tivities Build confidence - Safety rail for novice e-learners. Allows contributions from everyone. Gives structure to a potentially chaotic and stressful online environment The framework is inherently motivating – response element. Gives time to build mutual respect and trust. Bespoke solution - Informatics:  Bespoke solution - Informatics Limitations:  Limitations Proprietary (costs andamp; ‘lock-in’) First generation VLE (not flexible enough) Commercial agenda attempting to drive institutional decisions Being used for purposes other than e-learning Transmission model Limited sequencing in learning No social construction of knowledge No indicators of virtual proximity/ human presence Slide34:  Learning Design -system specification:  Learning Design -system specification Drivers andamp; Influences A Learning Environment for SfH:  A Learning Environment for SfH Drivers andamp; Influences Underpinning Pedagogy Objectives for the Learning Experience Requirements of the Learning Environment A Learning Environment for SfH:  A Learning Environment for SfH Key requirements Learning process - event driven. Activities – group discussions using CMC tools that not only provided a channel for communication but also helped to develop social presence, an important precursor for the formation of learning communities. Resources – dynamic, current and aggregated from a variety of sources including tutors and students. Student administration – handle separate cohorts of students and allow electronic submission of assignments. Flexibility/Usability for developers/learners and tutors A Learning Environment for SfH:  A Learning Environment for SfH Objectives for the new learning experience – 1 Reduce the feelings of isolation felt by our distance learners Exploit the experience and expertise of both tutors and students as a valuable resource for the programme Provide opportunities to engage with ‘real world’ problems alongside study of theoretical concepts. A Learning Environment for SfH:  A Learning Environment for SfH Objective for the new learning experience – 2 Create a resource that could be used and reused in a variety of ways dependant on individual needs as learners and as medical practitioners. Build on the intrinsic motivation of students by providing supportive frameworks of engaging collaborative activities. Recognise our tutors and students as professional practitioners and members of an evolving community of practice. Learning design -programmes:  Learning design -programmes Process modules- reflective practice, PDP driven Topic modules The Salmon five stage model:  The Salmon five stage model Induction programme:  Induction programme The practice development processPractice related module:  The practice development process Practice related module Learning design - activities:  Learning design - activities A learning design methodology Situation Grouping Bridge Questions Exhibit Reflections Gagnon and Collay (2005) A framework for designing:  A framework for designing ‘people in specific groups and roles engage in activities using an environment with appropriate resources and services.’ Koper and Tattersall (2005) people materials activities Gibbs and Gosper (2006) Workshop:Festival of Learning, March 2007:  Workshop: Festival of Learning, March 2007 Bath context Your background and experience Educational drivers Our learning and teaching approaches Your educational philosophy and approach Learning design System specification Programmatic level Activity level Effectiveness: Learner engagement-early evaluation Illustrations from programmes for healthcare professionals Your illustrations Social view:  Social view Social view:  Social view Topic view:  Topic view Slide50:  Sport and Exercise Medicine Online:  Sport and Exercise Medicine Online Learning design- activities:  Learning design- activities Learning design- activities:  Learning design- activities SfH learning design methodology:  SfH learning design methodology Gagnon and Collay (2005) Situation……………......Task, timing Grouping………….........Format, resources Bridge………………......Connection Questions…………........as part of task Exhibit……………….......Response Reflections………….......built into process and Response School for Health activity model, 2006 Learning design- activities:  Learning design- activities Slide56:  Slide57:  Practice-based learning:  Practice-based learning Slide59:  http://moodle.bath.ac.uk/course/view.php?id=5 http://moodle.bath.ac.uk/moodle5/course/view.php?id=266 Evaluation:  Evaluation Logs of participation and posting Analysing posts in the fora Collecting student and tutor comments during the pilot through individual journals and at the end of the pilot through focus group interviews Keeping a diary of our own personal reflections as developers The Sports Doctor unit:  The Sports Doctor unit Regular discussion events with colleagues Activities and resources linked to paper based texts Monitoring progress:  Monitoring progress 42 students over 2 months Conclusion:  Conclusion e-learning has largely assumed the educational paradigms of traditional teaching ………. driven by a ‘teacher’ model Individualistic learning Teacher-student knowledge transmission Located outside the workplace Occurs as a result of teaching Conclusion:  Conclusion ……..but e-learning can be designed to support the process of engagement with a community of practice Team working, inter-professional learning Social construction of knowledge Situated in practice Reflecting on practice and sharing of good practice Future work:  Future work Systematic evaluations Before and after Comparing delivery methods Cross-organisational studies Thank you:  Thank you Tim Bilham t.d.bilham@bath.ac.uk Rationale for the new programme:  Rationale for the new programme One week session Less busy less stress Easy to keep track of posts – messages arrive in an email from the fora Longer posts Fewer posts More student autonomy Lower virtual proximity Few social exchanges More accommodating of flexible participation. Two hour evening session Busy sometimes stressful Sometimes difficult to keep track of posts if many fora are in use Short posts Large number of posts High degree of tutor leading e.g. questions and narrowing focus High virtual proximity Most of the social exchanges occur here Less accommodating of flexible participation A Learning community:  A Learning community Current articles from external sports or medical sources Latest news from the course team and updates from the tutors Communication tools for keeping in touch with colleagues and tutors Slide69: 

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