2007 26Sep WHMIS SCI180

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Information about 2007 26Sep WHMIS SCI180
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Published on January 22, 2008

Author: Petronilla

Source: authorstream.com

Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS):  Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS) PRESENTED BY: Catherine Drum, BASc(OHS), CRSP Environmental Health & Safety Officer Centre for Environmental Health & Safety Management Ryerson University -- Wisdom Applied 26 September 2007 – SCI180 www.ryerson.ca/cehsm CEHSM:  CEHSM Vice President: Dr. Linda Grayson Assoc Director.: Julia Lewis Staff: Cate Drum, EHS Officer Liz Krivonosov, CBR Officer Margie Hutchinson, Admin Located: 11th floor, Jorgenson Hall Website: www.ryerson.ca/cehsm Centre for Environmental Health & Safety Management:  Centre for Environmental Health & Safety Management Our focus is on developing, promoting and implementing best practices in prevention and risk management CEHSM:  CEHSM Services Consulting Technical Assessments Auditing Investigations Training CEHSM Training Available to You:  CEHSM Training Available to You WHMIS (On-line – Certificate) www.river.dmp.ryerson.ca/cehsm/whmisquiz/ Password: email cdrum@ryerson.ca EHS Orientation to Ryerson (On-line – Certificate) www.river.dmp.ryerson.ca/cehsm/ehstest/ Password: email cdrum@ryerson.ca OHS Orientation (CD ROM – Certificate) Objective:  Objective To help raise your awareness about Health & Safety AND The Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System Injury Statistics:  Injury Statistics Every week, in Ontario: 5400 people were injured on the job 2 people died from a work-related accident 4 people died from a work-related disease Over 49,000 young workers got hurt or even worse last year Why Workers Get Hurt:  Why Workers Get Hurt No training or not enough training No experience or not enough experience Do not know their legal rights Afraid to ask questions Trying to balance several responsibilities Distracted Who Helps Protect Your Health & Safety?:  Who Helps Protect Your Health & Safety? Worker Must follow your employer’s health and safety policies, work safely and report any hazards to your supervisor Supervisors Are responsible to know and train about any hazards in their area of responsibility, including the health and safety policies. Employers Are responsible for setting out their expectations in the health and safety policies, and for appointing competent supervisors Worker Representatives Depending on the size of the workplace, a Health and Safety Representative or Joint Health and Safety Committee will assist the employer in creating a safe and healthy workplace. You have rights and responsibilities for workplace health and safety:  You have rights and responsibilities for workplace health and safety When you start a new job, do you know what your role is in the company health and safety program? Are you familiar with the types of hazards you may encounter? Ryerson’s Environmental Health & Safety Policy -- Students:  Ryerson’s Environmental Health & Safety Policy -- Students Consistent with the intent of the Student Code of Conduct, each student must take all reasonable care to ensure a healthy and safe learning environment. Their responsibilities, therefore, are the same as those detailed in this document for all University employees. Where students are paid to perform work they become workers under the Ontario OHS Act and, therefore, have the same rights and responsibilities outlined in this document and the OHS Act. In addition, any individual performing work on University premises, not for pay, but for educational and other authorized purposes are considered by the University to have rights and responsibilities under the University EHS Management System and supporting programs. Ryerson’s Environmental Health & Safety Policy -- Employees:  Ryerson’s Environmental Health & Safety Policy -- Employees All Employees and Individuals Receiving Financial Remuneration: Every Ryerson employee is a “worker” within the meaning of the Ontario OHS Act and therefore has the rights and responsibilities outlined in the Act and is responsible for: Complying with the rules and procedures developed within the EHS System for performing the work in a safe and healthy manner; Taking an active role in protecting and promoting his or her health and safety; Refraining from activities which may jeopardize the health and safety of others; Taking an active role in fulfilling the requirements of applicable EHS Programs under Ryerson’s EHS System with a view to fulfilling the intent of the EHS Policy; and Reporting forthwith to his or her supervisor, any observed EHS hazards or lapses in the functioning of an EHS program. Here’s the risk:  Here’s the risk A significant number of workplace injuries occur in the first few days of employment or after a change in duties Getting oriented when you start a new job with a new employer or even with the same employer helps you prevent being injured Have you ever worked with chemicals before?:  Have you ever worked with chemicals before? Household cleaners Lighter fluid Gasoline, motor oil Paint and paint cleaners Cigarette & cigar smoke Pesticides Nail-polish remover, hair spray How do chemicals enter the body?:  How do chemicals enter the body? Inhalation through the respiratory track. Absorption through the skin, the body’s largest organ. Ingestion through the mouth and digestive track. Toxic Effects:  Toxic Effects Once inhaled, absorbed or ingested, a chemical can: enter the blood stream. travel to other parts of the body. Toxic chemicals can cause damage to: Cells Skin Circulatory system Organ tissues (liver, kidney) Reproductive system Nervous system Have you learned about WHMIS or had WHMIS training before?:  Have you learned about WHMIS or had WHMIS training before? At work? At school? At work and At school? No. WHMIS - Introduction:  WHMIS - Introduction WHMIS is an acronym for the Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System It is a hazard communication system developed jointly by the Canadian federal, provincial and territorial governments, business and labor WHMIS is directed toward transmitting information from the supplier to the worker This information will help workers work safely with the hazardous chemical and biological materials at their workplace WHMIS - Introduction:  WHMIS - Introduction There are three major components to WHMIS: Labels Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) Worker Education Application:  Application The term used to describe the hazardous materials that fall under the control of WHMIS is "Controlled Product" A controlled product is any product, material or substance that meets the criteria of one or more of the six WHMIS hazard classes Canadian suppliers are required to classify the controlled products they sell If you produce controlled products on-site for use at your work site, then classifying these products becomes your responsibility Exemptions:  Exemptions Restricted products when packaged as consumer products; Explosives within the meaning of the Explosives Act; Cosmetics, drugs, food and devices within the meaning of the Food and Drugs Act; Pest control products within the meaning of the Pest Control Products Act; Prescribed substances within the meaning of the Nuclear Energy Act; Exemptions:  Exemptions Wood or products made of wood; Manufactured articles; Tobacco or products made of tobacco; Is being transported or handled in accordance with the requirements of the Dangerous Goods Transportation Act (Ontario) or the Transportation of Dangerous Goods Act (Canada). Hazardous Wastes Exemptions:  Exemptions Note: Consumer Products used at the Worksite: Employers who purchase controlled products which are also consumer products are not required to re-label the products while they remain in their original containers and are not required to provide MSDSs for them. However, if the original label becomes illegible or is accidentally removed, or if the product is placed in another container, the employer will be required to ensure that a worksite label is applied. A worksite label for such a product would require only a product identifier and information for the safe handling of the product. Exemptions:  Exemptions Note: Consumer Products used at the Worksite: To meet the provincial WHMIS regulations definitions, the consumer product must meet three different criteria: It must be available to the public at retail outlets; It must be available in quantities and containers normally used by the consuming public; and It must be packaged as a consumer product (i.e. labeled in accordance with the Consumer Chemicals and Containers Regulations). WHMIS Hazard Classifications:  WHMIS Hazard Classifications Class A Compressed Gas Class B Flammable and Combustible Materials Class C Oxidizing Material Class D Poisonous and Infectious Material Class E Corrosive Material Class F Dangerously Reactive Material Slide26:  Symbols found on WHMIS regulated products WHMIS Hazard Classifications:  WHMIS Hazard Classifications Two of the classes, Class B and Class D, are subdivided as follows: Class B Flammable and Combustible Material Division 1: Flammable Gases Division 2: Flammable Liquids Division 3: Combustible Liquids Division 4: Flammable Solids Division 5: Flammable Aerosols Division 6: Reactive Flammable Materials WHMIS Hazard Classifications:  WHMIS Hazard Classifications Class D Poisonous and Infectious Material Division 1: Material Causing Immediate and Serious Toxic Effects Subdivision A: Very Toxic Material Subdivision B: Toxic Material Division 2: Materials Causing Other Toxic Effects Subdivision A: Very Toxic Material Subdivision B: Toxic Material Division 3: Biohazardous Infectious Material WHMIS Classes & Symbols:  WHMIS Classes & Symbols Class A - Compressed Gas A substance that at room temperature (20 degrees Celsius) is in the gaseous state and kept under pressure including compressed gases, dissolved gases or liquefied compounds WHMIS Classes & Symbols:  WHMIS Classes & Symbols Class A - Compressed Gas Risks: could explode due to pressure could explode if heated or dropped hazard from both the force of explosion and the release of contents Eg. Acetylene, Oxygen, Nitrogen WHMIS Classes & Symbols:  WHMIS Classes & Symbols Class B - Flammable & Combustible Material A solid, liquid or gas that will ignite and continue to burn if exposed to a flame Combustible liquids have flash point greater than 37.8 degrees Celsius but less than 93.3 degrees Celsius Flammable liquids have a flash point below 37.8 degrees Celsius Risks: may ignite spontaneously may be a material which will release flammable products if allowed to degrade or when exposed to water WHMIS Classes & Symbols:  WHMIS Classes & Symbols Class B - Flammable & Combustible Material Division 1: Flammable Gas any compressed gas that forms a flammable mixture with air (1 atm, < 13%) Division 2: Flammable Liquid Any liquid that has a flash point below 37.8°C Division 3: Combustible Liquid Any liquid that has a flash point between 37.8°C and 93.3°C WHMIS Classes & Symbols:  WHMIS Classes & Symbols Class B - Flammable & Combustible Material Division 4: Flammable Solid Any solid that readily ignites and burns vigorously Division 5: Flammable Aerosol Any product that is packaged as an aerosol and yields a flame projection or flash back Division 6: Reactive Flammable Material Any product that could spontaneous combust or ignite, or is liable to emit a flammable gas WHMIS Classes & Symbols:  WHMIS Classes & Symbols Class B - Flammable & Combustible Material Flammable Gas: Hydrogen, Butane Flammable Liquid: Gasoline Combustible Liquid: Diesel Fuel, Organic solvents Flammable Solid: White Phosphorus, Magnesium Flammable Aerosol: Flammable propellants such as propane, butane and dimethyl ether Reactive Flammable aluminum alkyls, metallic Material: sodium and lithium aluminum hydride WHMIS Classes & Symbols:  WHMIS Classes & Symbols Class C – Oxidizing Material Materials which can cause other materials to burn or support combustion Any material that can cause combustion of another material by producing oxygen or any other oxidizing material Any organic peroxide that contains an R-O-O-R structure WHMIS Classes & Symbols:  WHMIS Classes & Symbols Class C – Oxidizing Material Risks: can cause skin or eye burns increase fire and explosion hazard may cause combustibles to explode or react violently Eg. Ozone, chlorine, & nitrogen dioxide, hydrogen peroxide WHMIS Classes & Symbols:  WHMIS Classes & Symbols Class D – Poisonous and Infectious Material Division 1: Materials Causing Immediate and Serious Toxic Effects Poisons/potentially fatal materials which cause immediate and severe harm Any product that causes acute toxic effects, causing serious illness or death in a short period of time Subdivisions: A: LD50 <50 mg/kg body weight. B: LD50 50-500 mg/kg body weight. WHMIS Classes & Symbols:  WHMIS Classes & Symbols Class D – Poisonous and Infectious Material Division 1: Materials Causing Immediate and Serious Toxic Effects Risks May be fatal if ingested or inhaled May be absorbed through the skin Small volumes have a toxic effect Eg. Styrene, hydrogen cyanide WHMIS Classes & Symbols:  WHMIS Classes & Symbols Class D – Poisonous and Infectious Material Division 2: Materials Causing Other Toxic Effects Any product that causes delayed toxic effects causing serious illness over a long period of time (chronic). Materials which have harmful effects after repeated exposures or over long periods of time Subdivisions: A: <10 mg/kg body weight B: 10-100 mg/kg body weight WHMIS Classes & Symbols:  WHMIS Classes & Symbols Class D – Poisonous and Infectious Material Division 2: Materials Causing Other Toxic Effects Risks: May cause death or permanent injury May cause birth defects or sterility May cause cancer May be sensitizer causing allergies Eg. Asbestos causes cancer, ammonia is an irritant WHMIS Classes & Symbols:  WHMIS Classes & Symbols Class D – Poisonous and Infectious Material Division 3: Biohazardous Infection Material Infectious agents or a biological toxin causing a serious disease or death Includes organisms that cause (or are suspected of causing) serious illness or death. WHMIS Classes & Symbols:  WHMIS Classes & Symbols Class D – Poisonous and Infectious Material Division 3: Biohazardous Infection Material Risks: May cause anaphylactic shock Includes viruses, yeasts, moulds, bacteria and parasites which affect humans Includes fluids containing toxic products Includes cellular components Eg. Blood sample containing Hepatitis B virus WHMIS Classes & Symbols:  WHMIS Classes & Symbols Class E – Corrosive Material Materials which react with metals and living tissue Contains all acids and bases that are corrosive Risks: Eye and skin irritation on exposure Severe burns/tissue damage on longer exposure Lung damage if inhaled May cause blindness if eyes contacted Environmental damage from fumes causes visible necrosis (death) of skin tissue Eg. Ammonia, fluorine, hydrochloric acid, Sulphuric acid, Sodium hydroxide WHMIS Classes & Symbols:  WHMIS Classes & Symbols Class F – Dangerously Reactive Material Materials which may have unexpected reactions Contains material that undergo vigorous polymerization, decomposition or condensation. Pressure- or shock- sensitive reactions on contact with water, react by releasing a poisonous gas WHMIS Classes & Symbols:  WHMIS Classes & Symbols Class F – Dangerously Reactive Material Risks: May react with water May be chemically unstable May explode if exposed to shock or heat May release toxic or flammable vapours May vigorously polymerize May burn unexpectedly Eg. Ozone, hydrazine, and benzoyl peroxide, ammonium azide Labeling Requirements under WHMIS:  Labeling Requirements under WHMIS A label includes any mark, sign, device, stamp, ticket, tag or wrapper. There are two basic kinds of WHMIS labels: SUPPLIER LABELS which are on the products when you receive them from the supplier WORKSITE LABELS are those that you prepare and attach on containers at the worksite Supplier Label:  Supplier Label There are seven items of information which must appear on the standard supplier label. Product Identifier Risk Phrases Precautionary Measures Hazard Symbols First Aid Reference to MSDS Supplier Identification Supplier Label:  Supplier Label There are also other requirements about the supplier label: All the above information is to be enclosed in a distinctive hatched border No extraneous information (the hatched border must contain ALL the WHMIS information and ONLY the WHMIS information) With a few exceptions, the color of the label is not important, so long as the label is distinctive against whatever colored background it is on Exceptions…:  Exceptions… There are certain special cases where less than the full seven items are required on the supplier label: Small Quantities ( < 100 ml) For small quantities of a controlled product, labeling requirements are less stringent. Only four of the items are required: Product Identifier Hazard Symbols Supplier Identifier Reference to the MSDS The hatched border is not necessary Exceptions…:  Exceptions… Laboratory Reagents There are special relaxed requirements for supplier labels on laboratory reagents. To qualify, a chemical must: originate from a lab supply house be packaged in quantities of under 10 kg be intended for use solely in a laboratory Exceptions…:  Exceptions… Laboratory Reagents The requirements of a lab reagent label are that it contain only: Product Identifier Risk Phrases Precautionary Measures First Aid Reference to the MSDS, if available The hatched border is not necessary. Workplace Label:  Workplace Label Worksite labels will be required: When the supplier label has been lost or destroyed On individual containers in a bulk shipment For decanted product For controlled products produced and used on site On controlled products from before 1988-10-31 Workplace Label:  Workplace Label There are three requirements for a general worksite label: Product Identifier Information for safe handling Reference to the MSDS The hatched border is not required for worksite labels. Requirements of a Workplace Label:  Requirements of a Workplace Label Normal day-to-day use: Product Identifier Basic Risk Phases Statement that a Material Safety Data Sheet is available For use by one worker on one shift. Container label must display the product identifier For immediate use by a worker. Exempt from labeling requirements. This is being debated. We require a product identifier on all containers. Slide57:  Sample Workplace Label Slide58:  Sample Workplace Label Responsibility of Producing Workplace Labels:  Responsibility of Producing Workplace Labels Primarily that of the worker The employer provides the necessary labels The worker ensures that the correct information is put on the container of the controlled product These labels may be preprinted or blank and filled in with details of the specific material Supplier & Workplace Labels:  Supplier & Workplace Labels You have decanted some strong acid at 5M into a beaker. It looks like water. You intend to use the acid later in the experiment you are running, so you set it down on the bench. Should the beaker have a label of any kind on it?:  You have decanted some strong acid at 5M into a beaker. It looks like water. You intend to use the acid later in the experiment you are running, so you set it down on the bench. Should the beaker have a label of any kind on it? Yes No MSDS:  MSDS There are NINE categories of information which must appear on the MSDS MSDSs must be readily available to the worker at the WORKSITE MSDSs must be read prior to working with the controlled product MSDSs are to be updated at least every three years and as soon as further information related to the controlled product becomes available MSDS:  Must be available in English and any other language that is used by the workforce. Could be available in paper format or on a computer data base. MSDS MSDS:  There are other stipulations that pertain to MSDSs: The format of the MSDS is not prescribed There is a minimum content (9 categories) that must be supplied. The international MSDS, which is gaining in popularity, contains more information than the minimum requirement of Canadian law Under each of the headings, there are certain fields of information that are required MSDS MSDS:  Blanks are not allowed in any of the required information fields: if the requested information is not applicable to the particular controlled product, the field should be filled with the words "Not Applicable". If the field is applicable, but the exact numerical value is not known, then the phrase "Not Known" should be inserted in the field MSDS MSDS:  The MSDS should also contain any other pertinent safety information which the supplier knows, or ought to know, about the controlled product. This is particularly true for infectious materials where pertinent information such as the transmission vector and the means of killing the organism should be given The MSDS information should be consistent with the label and classification information about the controlled product Note: There are biological MSDS’s available http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/msds-ftss/index.html MSDS Requirements for MSDS:  Requirements for MSDS There are 9 categories: Product Information Hazardous Ingredients Physical Data Fire and Explosion Data Reactivity Data Toxicological Properties Preventative Measures First Aid Measures Preparation Information Example: http://www.ee.ryerson.ca:8080/~jkoch/MSDS_Sheets/nrtmsds.pdf International Requirements for MSDS:  International Requirements for MSDS International Requirements -- 16 categories: Chemical Product and Emergency Telephone Composition/Information on Ingredients Hazards Identification First Aid Measures Fire Fighting Measures Accidental Release Measures Handling and Storage Exposure Controls, Personal Protection Physical and Chemical Properties International Requirements for MSDS:  International Requirements for MSDS International Requirements -- 16 categories: Reactivity Toxicological Information Ecological Information Disposal Considerations Transportation Information Regulatory Information Other Information Example: http://www.terraindustries.com/our_products/ammonia/msds/anhydrous_ammonia.pdf Material Safety Data Sheets:  Material Safety Data Sheets Product/Material Information This section provides the basic information about the product and the supplier. Product name Supplier's name and address Emergency phone number Intended use Material Safety Data Sheets:  Material Safety Data Sheets Hazardous Ingredients The MSDS must identify all the ingredients that meet WHMIS criteria and provide some data on the short term toxicity of either the product or the ingredients. For Each Hazardous Ingredient : Name Concentration or concentration range Chemical Abstracts Registry Numbers LD50 (Lethal Dose 50% - the dose which kills half of the animals in a toxicity test) Material Safety Data Sheets:  Material Safety Data Sheets Physical Data The MSDS provides a range of technical data which allows people to assess how the chemical behaves under differing situations and plan safe work procedures. Physical state Appearance and odour Vapour density, per cent volatile and evaporation rate for products with volatile components Boiling and freezing points and PH (if appropriate) for liquids Material Safety Data Sheets:  Material Safety Data Sheets Specific gravity Coefficient of oil/water separation Water solubility Material Safety Data Sheets:  Material Safety Data Sheets Fire and Explosion Data The MSDS provides information on which the workplace can plan fire prevention and which emergency responders may need in the event that a fire occurs Fire Data: Indication of whether the product is flammable and the conditions under which a fire might occur Means of extinction Material Safety Data Sheets:  Material Safety Data Sheets Fire Data: Flash point (the temperature at which enough of the material evaporates to form an ignitable mixture with air) Flammable limits (concentration range over which the vapour/air mixture will burn) Auto ignition temperature Hazardous combustion products Explosion data Sensitivity to impact Sensitivity to static electric ignition Material Safety Data Sheets:  Material Safety Data Sheets Reactivity (Instability) Data WHMIS requires that the supplier provide information about the possible hazardous chemical reactions that might occur Many laboratory chemicals are highly reactive Even some of the trades or custodial chemicals can react with other chemicals or can react if exposed to heat or mixed with catalysts or activators Stability Sensitivity to shock or temperature or pressure changes Reactivity Incompatibility - chemicals which, if allowed to contact the product, could create a reaction hazard Hazardous decomposition products Material Safety Data Sheets:  Material Safety Data Sheets Toxicological Properties WHMIS requires the supplier to describe how people might come into contact with the product and what the short and long term effects would be if someone was over-exposed Route of entry into the body Effects of acute (short term) exposure Effects of chronic (long term) exposure Legal exposure limit Material Safety Data Sheets:  Material Safety Data Sheets Preventive Measures One of the most useful sections of the MSDS Supplier lists suggestions for the precautions which should be taken in storing, handling, using and disposing of the product These suggestions need to be considered carefully The supplier cannot always know in detail how we are going to use the chemical You should review the information in this section with your supervisor and assess how appropriate the supplier's suggestions are in your particular work situation Engineering controls - equipment needed to prevent over-exposure Material Safety Data Sheets:  Material Safety Data Sheets Personal protective equipment - gloves, respirators, impervious clothing, etc. Use and handling procedures Storage requirements Leak and spill procedures Shipping information Disposal practices Material Safety Data Sheets:  Material Safety Data Sheets First Aid Measures The MSDS provides first aid information similar to that presented on the product label This information will allow people to help someone who has been made unwell by a chemical In all but the most minor cases, the affected person should be treated at the Ryerson Health Centre or the nearest hospital The medical personnel will need a copy of the MSDS, or at least label information, to effectively treat the victim Material Safety Data Sheets:  Material Safety Data Sheets Preparation The regulations require the supplier to indicate who prepared the MSDS when it was prepared a phone number to contact the person who prepared the document Material Safety Data Sheets:  Material Safety Data Sheets What is meant by the term "synergism"? Synergism comes from the Greek word "synergos" meaning working together. It refers to the interaction between two or more "things" when the combined effect is greater than if you added the "things" on their own (a type of "when is one plus one is greater than two" effect). In toxicology, synergism refers to the effect caused when exposure to two or more chemicals at a time results in health effects that are greater than the sum of the effects of the individual chemicals. When chemicals are synergistic, the potential hazards of the chemicals should be re-evaluated, taking their synergistic properties into consideration. Material Safety Data Sheets:  Material Safety Data Sheets What are related terms? In addition to synergism, other terms are used to define the toxicologic interactions. Additive Effect - This action occurs when the combined effect of two or more chemicals is equal to the sum of the effect of each agents given alone (they do not interact in a direct way); for example: 2 + 2 = 4 This effect is the most common when two chemicals are given together. Potentiation - This effect results when one substance that does not normally have a toxic effect is added to another chemical, it makes the second chemical much more toxic; for example: 0 + 2 > 2, not just 2 Material Safety Data Sheets:  Material Safety Data Sheets Antagonism - Antagonism is the opposite of synergism. It is the situation where the combined effect of two or more compounds is less toxic than the individual effects; for example: 4 + 6 < 10 Antagonistic effects are the basis of many antidotes for poisonings or for medical treatments. For example, ethyl alcohol (ethanol) can antagonize the toxic effects of methyl alcohol (methanol) by displacing it from the enzyme that oxidizes the methanol In comparison, a synergistic effect is the situation where the combined effect of two chemicals is much greater than the sum of the effects of each agent given alone, for example: 2 + 2 >> 4 (maybe 10 times or more) Material Safety Data Sheets:  Material Safety Data Sheets Why does synergism occur? While the mechanisms of synergism can change from situation to situation, most of the time there appears to be an effect on the enzymes that regulate or influence the way our bodies work. Our bodies have enzymes that are designed to do specific "jobs". For example, there is an enzyme that helps break down alcohol - this is why we do not stay intoxicated "forever" after consuming alcohol. These enzymes normally transform (metabolize) the foreign substances (alcohol in this example) into less toxic or non-toxic substances which are eliminated out of the body. With synergism, an enzyme function could either be inhibited (restricted) or accelerated in some way. Either way, the result is that the chemicals are either "free" or "enhanced" to cause a greater biologic effect in the body. Material Safety Data Sheets:  Material Safety Data Sheets What are examples of synergism? There are various examples including: (a) Carbon tetrachloride and ethanol (ethyl alcohol) are individually toxic to the liver, but together they produce much more liver injury than the sum of their individual effects on the liver. (b) The much higher incidence of lung cancer resulting from occupational exposure to asbestos in smokers (compared to exposed non-smokers). Material Safety Data Sheets:  Material Safety Data Sheets (c) The toxicity of some insecticides notably pyrethrin (from chrysanthemums) and synthetic pyrethrins (pyrethroids) can be increased many times by the addition of compounds which themselves are not insecticides. These synergists are sesamin, sesamolin, piperonyl butoxide, MGK-264 (bicycloheptenedicarboximide) and sesamex. Piperonyl butoxide is perhaps the most widely used synthetic pyrethrin synergist. The insecticide activity of pyrethrins increases tenfold when 1 part piperonyl butoxide is mixed with 9 parts pyrethrin. There are no reports available on toxic effects on humans resulting from the exposure to piperonyl butoxide. Material Safety Data Sheets:  Material Safety Data Sheets (d) Barbiturate drugs have a greater effect on the central nervous system (CNS) by causing CNS depression when taken with general anesthetics, alcohol (acute consumption) narcotic analgesic (pain reliever) and other sedative hypnotic drugs. (Adapted from: Klaassen, C., 2001. "Casarett and Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons. 6th Edition" ) Material Safety Data Sheets:  Material Safety Data Sheets Mutagen pH Levels Sensitizer Solubility Specific Gravity Target Organ Effects Teratogen Vapour Density Where can I get the MSDS sheets for my labs?:  Where can I get the MSDS sheets for my labs? In the labs From the library All of the above None of the above Not sure Types of Worker Training:  Types of Worker Training Worker Education understanding of WHMIS MSDS Labels Significance of the information obtained from labels and MSDS understanding of duties of employer, supervisor and workers Types of Training:  Types of Training Workplace Specific Training must include: the chemicals used in the workplace and their hazards job safety instructions for each task proper storage, handling and disposal procedures for each chemical the types of engineering controls that are available to offset chemical hazards location of MSDS Types of Training:  Types of Training location of showers, eye wash stations, etc. procedures for first aid or emergency response when and what type of personal protective equipment must be worn, including: inspection, limitations of use, proper donning and removal procedures, and care and storage instructions maintenance and repair procedures for equipment Worker Responsibility:  Worker Responsibility Important goal of WHMIS training is that the worker show that they have an understanding of the information and that they USE IT. Supervisor Responsibility:  Supervisor Responsibility Ensure that all the information is provided to the worker by following these steps: Step 1. Determine all of the chemical products that are stored or used in your area. Begin with the WHMIS inventory, but also include non-controlled products, such as consumer commodities, pesticides and materials that may not be considered to be hazardous, such as oils, greases and soaps, etc. List them all. On-line chemical inventory: http://www.river.dmp.ryerson.ca/cehsm/chemicalinventory/ Supervisor Responsibility:  Supervisor Responsibility Step 2. Determine what hazards each of the chemical products present. Check MSDSs and other information sources to ensure that all hazards are known. Step 3. Once you know what chemicals are in use in each area, determine the specific locations, including machinery, equipment, pipes and vessels, where the products are used and which employees may be exposed. Supervisor Responsibility:  Supervisor Responsibility Step 4. Determine exactly how the material is used, how much of it is used per job and per day, when it is used, and for how long. Is it diluted? Is it sprayed? Is it used only inside a machine? Is it allowed to evaporate to dryness? Is the part or machine where the chemical is used at room temperature or hot? Answers to these questions will help you determine just how much training will be required. Supervisor Responsibility:  Supervisor Responsibility Step 5. Determine the possible routes of exposure to the employee and the routes of entry the material may take during use. Step 6. Determine what engineering controls, such as ventilation, are available in the area of use. Make sure the proper equipment is available, such as safety containers, grounding and bonding straps. Supervisor Responsibility:  Supervisor Responsibility Step 7. After reviewing the specific uses of the materials and engineering controls, determine whether employees are still required to wear personal protective equipment. If so, is it readily available and is it capable of performing under all conditions of use? Step 8. If the materials are not consumed in the process, is there a proper waste disposal procedure available? Supervisor Responsibility:  Supervisor Responsibility Step 9. Are there first aid and emergency procedures in place in case of accidents, fires, leaks and spills? Is the proper emergency equipment available? If the answer to either of these questions is no, develop the procedures and obtain the proper equipment before training begins. Step 10. Determine whether there are written job safety instructions available for each task within the workplace. If not, write them and have them available at the worksite. Definitions:  Definitions Odour Threshold The airborne concentration (in ppm) at which an odour becomes noticeable. Vapour Density The density of a vapour compared to the weight of an equal amount of air. Vapour Pressure The pressure (in mm Hg ) of gas in equilibrium with its solid or liquid form. Definitions:  Definitions Evaporation Rate The rate at which a liquid changes to vapour at normal room temperature. Upper Explosive Limit (UEL) The highest concentration of vapour which will explode on contact with a source of ignition. Lower Explosive Limit (LEL) The lowest concentration of vapour which will explode on contact with a source of ignition. Autoignition Temperature Minimum temperature to cause spontaneous combustion (no ignition source). Toxicological Properties:  Toxicological Properties The toxicity of a chemical is primarily a function of dose. Each chemical has a target organ or part of the body that they affect. Two types of poisoning: Acute (immediate effect). Chronic (long-term effect). Acute Poisons:  Acute Poisons Irritant causes inflammation of the mucous membrane. Asphyxiant interferes with the body’s ability to use oxygen. Hepatotoxin damages liver tissue Neurotoxin damages the central nervous system Chronic Poisons:  Chronic Poisons Carcinogen causes cancer Mutagens causes irreversible changes to the genetic material Teratogens causes damage to a developing fetus Toxins decreases the fertility in men or women Synergistic effects causes an interaction so that their combined effect is greater than the sum of their individual effects Exposure Limits:  Exposure Limits Limits that a normal worker can be exposed to for 8 hours a day, 5 days a week without any adverse effect. There are various terms that can be used to define these: TLV: threshold limit value TWA: time weighted average Other Measures of Exposure:  Other Measures of Exposure LD50 Lethal Dose -the amount of a single exposure of a chemical that will kill 50% of a population LC50 Lethal Concentration - the concentration in air of a chemical that will kill 50 % of a population (usually over 4 hours). Summary:  Summary Perform a Risk Assessment on the work that you are doing Be familiar with the work that is going on in the same lab as you YOU must know the hazards, the associated risks and control measures in order to protect yourself, your colleagues and Ryerson Resources:  Resources Centre for EHS Management Website www.ryerson.ca/cehsm/ WHMIS On-line Quiz (Certificate): https://www.river.dmp.ryerson.ca/cehsm/whmisquiz/ Ministry of Labour (MOL): www.gov.on.ca/LAB/english/hs/whmis/index.html Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System Regulations 192.75.156.68/DBLaws/Regs/English/900860_e.htm Resources:  Resources Canadian Centre for Occupational Health & Safety (CCOHS) www.ccohs.ca/oshanswers/legisl/intro_whmis.html www.ccohs.ca/oshanswers/legisl/msdss.html University of Toronto http://www.utoronto.ca/safety/whmis1.htm

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