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Published on January 21, 2008

Author: Margherita

Source: authorstream.com

The Age of Enlightenment:  The Age of Enlightenment Neoclassic Poetry, Modern Novel, and the New Sensibility The Age of Enlightenment:  We can call the 18th century the age of the enlightenment because it was both a culmination and a new beginning. Fresh currents of thought were wearing down institutionalized traditions. New ideas and new approaches to old institutions were setting the stage for great revolutions to come. The main figures of the enlightenment are fairly well known: Descartes, Pascal, Bayle, Montesquieu, Voltaire, Diderot, and Rousseau. The Age of Enlightenment The Age of Reason:  The Age of Reason The enlighteners launched a fierce attack upon the church power and the autocracy of the feudal system, and called on the development of science and technology and freedom of politics and academic thinking. They believed that reason should be the only basis of one’s thinking and action and attempted to place all branches of science at the service of mankind. That is why the 18th century in England has been called the Age of Reason. The Age of Reason:  The Age of Reason These enlighteners called for a reference to order, reason and rules. They believed that when reason served as the yardstick for the measurement of all human activities and relations, every superstition, injustice and oppression was to yield place to “eternal truth,” “eternal justice,” and “natural equality.” This belief provided theory for the French Revolution of 1789 and the American War of Independence in 1776. Main Themes:  The Enlightenment had its origins in the scientific and intellectual revolutions of the 17c. Enlightenment thinkers felt that change and reason were both possible and desirable for the sake of human liberty. Enlightenment philosophers provided a major source of ideas that could be used to undermine the existing social and political structures. Main Themes The Major Themes of the Era:  Rationalism  logical reasoning based on facts. Cosmology  new world view based on Newtonian physics  analysis of natural phenomena as systems. Secularism  application of scientific theories to religion and society. Scientific method  experimentalism; observation; hypothesis. Utilitarianism (Bentham)  laws created for the common good and not for special interests. The greatest good for the greatest number.         The Major Themes of the Era The Major Themes of the Era:  Optimism & self-confidence  anything is possible (a reversal of medieval thinking). Tolerance  a greater acceptance of different societies and cultures. Freedom  a mind as well as a society free to think, free from prejudice. Mass education. Legal / penal reforms  Beccaria, Bentham. Constitutionalism. The Major Themes of the Era Results of Enlightenment Thought:  contributing factor in the American and French Revolutions. Enlightenment thinking reflected in the U. S. Declaration of Independence. Enlightened Despots. European thought became centered on the belief in reason, science, individual rights, and the progress of civilization. New evangelical religious movements --> Pietists, Methodists. Results of Enlightenment Thought The Development of Literature:  The Development of Literature The first 3 decades: Neoclassicism and Poetry 1740’s - 1750’s: The Rise of Realistic Novels Sentimentalism & Pre-romanticism Literary Development – The Novel:  Literary Development – The Novel Novel emerged as separate genre in 18th century Grew out of the medieval romances and stories of 16th century Established by the English as the chief form of fiction writing Popular with women – both writers and readers Became a means through which readers encountered new ideas England’s 1st professional female author: Aphra Behn (1640-1689):  England’s 1st professional female author: Aphra Behn (1640-1689) Novels Love Letters between a Nobleman and his sister (1683) The Fair Jilt (1688) Agnes de Castro (1688) Oroonoko (c.1688) Drama The Forced Marriage (1670) The Amorous Prince (1671) Abdelazar (1676) The Rover (1677-81) The Feign'd Curtezans (1679) The City Heiress (1682) The Lucky Chance (1686) The Lover's Watch (1686) The Emperor of the Moon (1687) Lycidus (1688) The Rise of the English Novel:  The Rise of the English Novel The Restoration of the monarchy (1660) in England after the Puritan Commonwealth (1649-1660) encouraged an outpouring of secular literature Appearance of periodical literature: journals & newspapers Literary Criticism Character Sketches Political Discussion Philosophical Ideas Increased leisure time for middle class: Coffee House and Salon society Growing audience of literate women The Rise of Novel:  The Rise of Novel The modern English novel, contrary to the traditional romance of aristocrats, gives a realistic presentation of life of the common English people. It was Daniel Defoe (Robinson Crusoe) who did the most significant spade-work for the growth of English novel. Samuel Richardson (Pamela, Clarissa Harlowe), Henry Fielding (The History of Tome Jones, a Foundling), Jonathan Swift (Gulliver’s Travels) and their successors in the last decades of the century, such as Lawrence Sterne (A Sentimental Journey) and Oliver Goldsmith (The Vicar of Wakefield). Modern Novel:  Modern Novel The novel very aggressively and insistently seeks to restrict meaningful, significant, and serious narrative to the actual and familiar world of more or less daily experience and to banish or trivialize the older and manifestly unrealistic genres of epic and romance. For the novel, the ordinary and the specifically and concretely experiential (along with the everyday language specific to that realm) come in this new world of narrative to define the absolute boundaries or limits of reality and by extension of moral significance. Supernatural Elements:  Supernatural Elements It does not mean that writers at that time would simply exclude all supernatural things. But within the materialistic and probabilistic assumptions of the realistic novel, the supernatural can be treated as an object of belief or faith but never presented as a matter of direct and unambiguous experience for the new kind of person who is taken absolutely for granted by modern individualism. Daniel Defoe (1661 - 1731):  Daniel Defoe (1661 - 1731) Master of plain prose and powerful narrative Travel adventure: Robinson Crusoe, 1719 Contemporary chronicle: Journal of the Plague Year , 1722 Picaresques: Moll Flanders, 1722 and Roxana 1724 Defoe as a Novelist :  Defoe as a Novelist A great realist: the charm of his novels is their intense sense of reality, able to give to his story the quality of factual truth from his observation of nature and society. A novelist of imagination: able to create his credible adventurous stories through the use of minute and matter-of-fact details. A storyteller: a gift for organizing details so vividly that his stories are both credible and fascinating. Theme of Robinson Crusoe:  Theme of Robinson Crusoe The book expresses the epic theme of the power of the average man to preserve life and to organize economy in the face of unpromising environment. Defoe depicts Crusoe as a hero struggling against nature and human fate with his indomitable will and hand, and eulogizes creative labour, physical and mental. Crusoe seems to have gone through various stages of human civilization, creating a visual picture that manifests how man’s history has developed from the primitive to the feudal, and then to the capitalistic in the 18th century. Robinson Crusoe :  Robinson Crusoe Slide20:  On the voyage to Africa to buy slaves he met with the most unfortunate shipwreck. Slide21:  Being cast on an island, he decided to stay there and managed his livelihood for himself. Slide22:  In order to protect himself he built a house. Slide23:  Footprint--I stood like one thunder-struck, or as if I had seen an apparition... Slide24:  He fought against cannibal savages coming from the neighbouring islands. Slide25:  Later he rescued one savage from death and named him Friday. Slide26:  In the hope of returning to Europe, he built a boat. Slide27:  Finally an English ship came and took him to Europe. Characterization of Crusoe:  Characterization of Crusoe Crusoe’s character traits have won him the approval of generations of readers. His perseverance in spending months making a canoe, and in practicing pottery making until he gets it right, is praiseworthy. And his resourcefulness in building a home, dairy, grape arbor, country house, and goat stable from practically nothing is clearly remarkable. Rousseau applauded Crusoe’s do-it-yourself independence, and in his book on education, Emile, he recommends that children be taught to imitate Crusoe’s hands-on approach to life. Characterization of Crusoe:  Characterization of Crusoe while not boasting of heroism, Crusoe is nonetheless very interested in possessions, power, and prestige. When he first calls himself king of the island it seems he really does consider himself king. And he teaches Friday to call him “Master,” even before teaching him the words for “yes” or “no,” as if he needs to hear the ego-boosting word spoken as soon as possible. Discovery of a Footprint :  Discovery of a Footprint Crusoe’s discovery of a mysterious single footprint in the sand is one of the most unforgettable and significant events of the novel, since it condenses into one moment Crusoe’s contradictory attitude toward other humans: he has been craving human society, yet when it arrives he is deeply afraid of it. Crusoe himself comments on this irony when he says, “How strange a checker-worker of Providence is the life of man! . . . Today we love what tomorrow we hate!” He hates this human intruder almost as much as he hates the devil himself, whose footprint he originally suspects it is. Discovery of a Footprint :  It is hard to explain why Crusoe immediately leaps to a negative conclusion about the footprint, why he is sure it is the sign of an enemy rather than a friend. Crusoe’s reaction shows how solitude has become his natural state, making any human contact seem unnatural and highly disturbing. Discovery of a Footprint The appearance of Friday:  The appearance of Friday This is a major development in the novel. The sweetness and docility of Friday, who is a cannibal, and the extraordinary ease with which Crusoe overcomes Friday’s two pursuers, leads us to rethink Crusoe’s earlier fear. Crusoe lives in terror of the cannibals for many years, scarcely daring to leave his cave and reduced to a cavemanlike existence. Then, in only a few minutes, he stops two cannibals and makes another his lifelong servant. Suddenly it seems that Crusoe has feared not the savages themselves, but his own exaggerated mental image of them. The appearance of Friday:  The appearance of Friday Thus, Crusoe’s self-awareness arises as a major theme of the novel. Friday’s instantaneous servitude to Crusoe also raises questions about Crusoe’s sense of his own rank and power. Without so much as a second thought, Crusoe accepts Friday as a servant and an inferior, assuming his own superiority. Friday may be the first New World “savage” in English literature to force a questioning of whether white people should automatically assume superiority over other races. Robinson Crusoe as a Slave-Owner:  Robinson Crusoe as a Slave-Owner Crusoe is an embodiment of the spirit of individual enterprise and colonial expansion of the rising bourgeoisie. Crusoe is also the very prototype of the empire builder, the pioneer colonist and the slave-owner. The manner in which Friday is received by Crusoe is most significant. Crusoe looks upon Friday as a "creature" whom he will care for, giving him water, food, and clothing. The use of this word is somewhat degrading. Slide35:  The fact that Robinson does not even try to learn Friday's actual name is testimony to the European supremacy theme that runs through the book. He grants Friday his name as he would to any kind of pet. Saving Friday gives the narrator the chance to play God and be in control of something concrete. He is glorifying his religion and himself by saving a life. Slide36:  The affectionate and loyal bond between Crusoe and Friday is a remarkable feature of this novel. Indeed, it is striking that this tender friendship is depicted in an age when Europeans were engaged in the large-scale devastation of nonwhite populations across the globe. It was an unprecedented move in English literature to represent Friday with individual characterization. But, in accordance with the Eurocentric attitude of the time, Defoe ensures that Friday is not Crusoe’s equal in the novel. He is clearly a servant and an inferior in rank, power, and respect. Slide37:  Nevertheless, when Crusoe describes his own “singular satisfaction in the fellow himself,” and says, “I began really to love the creature,” his emotional attachment seems sincere, even if we object to Crusoe’s treatment of Friday as a creature rather than a human being. Slide38:  As the bond between Crusoe and Friday becomes stronger, the similarities between the two men’s cultures gain more importance than their differences. Crusoe is struck by the ease with which Friday learns about the Christian God, finding a close resemblance with the native’s own deity Benamuckee. Friday is less able to understand the devil, but Crusoe does not understand him perfectly either, for he admits that he has more “sincerity than knowledge” in the subject of religious instruction. The Language of Robinson Crusoe:  The Language of Robinson Crusoe The sentences are sometimes short, crisp and plain, but sometimes long and rambling, leaving an impression of casual narration. Language: smooth, easy, colloquial, and vernacular. Crusoe’s particular style of narration, which revolutionized the English novel: he speaks openly and intimately, with none of the grandiose rhetorical effects notable in earlier ages of English literary history. Why do we still find this old story interesting today?:  Why do we still find this old story interesting today? In her essay “Defoe”, Virginia Woolf wrote: “It may be true that Robinson Crusoe is two hundred years of age upon the twenty-fifth of April 1919, but far from raising the familiar speculations as to whether people now read it and will continue to read it, the effect of the bi-centenary is to make us marvel that Robinson Crusoe, the perennial and immortal, should have been in existence so short a time as that.” Seldom is a book so loved by so many people for so long a time, and there must be a reason for this. Hence the question, why…? Possible answers::  Possible answers: 1, a theme of man against nature? realistic description of daily labour showing how a man could scrape a living all by himself in wilderness? 《鲁滨孙》一书的巨大成功也证明,在工业化初见端倪、劳动分工日益强化的情况下,公众对一些自己日渐生疏的劳动技能怀有强烈的好奇之心。(《小说在18世纪的英国》) 孤岛生存与筑巢本能;《小鬼当家》;Walden Slide42:  2, a picaresque novel: narrative loosely structured as a sequence of episodes united only by the presence of the central character, who is often involved in a long journey. Many Chinese wuxia novels belong to the genre of the picaresque, however, different from Robinson Crusoe, most of the wuxia novels are narrated from the perspective of the first person point of view. What’s to Discuss:  Background Knowledge on Jonathan Swift; Swift’s Major Literary Works; Gulliver’s Travels; What’s to Discuss Jonathan Swift: 1667-1745:  Jonathan Swift: 1667-1745 Born in Dublin, Ireland. At 19, he is employed by Sir William Temple, a powerful English statesman. Tutors 8 year old Esther “Stella” Johnson. Develops Ménière’s Syndrome, a disturbance of the inner ear. 1694: Deacon and later Priest in Dublin. Jonathan Swift: 1667-1745:  Falls in love with Jane “Varina” Waring. 1696: returns to Temple’s service. Temple dies in1699. Series of clerical jobs in Ireland. 1704: Tale of the Tub: satire on corruptions in religion and learning. Also Battle of the Books, a mock-epic on the debate between Ancients and Moderns. Jonathan Swift: 1667-1745 Jonathan Swift: 1667-1745:  1707: Involved with The Tatler. Adopts pseudonym Issac Bickerstaff. 1720: Involved with Irish causes. 1729: A Modest Proposal 1726: Gulliver’s Travels 1742: establishes site for insane asylum (St. Patrick’s Hospital) Jonathan Swift: 1667-1745 Jonathan Swift :  Jonathan Swift For the most part, other than “A Modest Proposal” and Gulliver’s Travels, Swift is out of critical vogue now. There’s not a lot of work being done on him (relatively speaking). But if Swift only wrote these two pieces, he’d be considered a genius today. Brutal Style:  Brutal Style The brutality of Swift’s prose is now out of vogue. Swift had a harsh way of looking at things, basically he was a misanthrope. But as he pointed out in a letter to Alexander Pope, “Principally I hate and detest that animal called man; although I heartily love John, Peter, Thomas, and so forth" Other Traits:  Other Traits He’s also highly scatological (obsessed with excrement or excretory functions) misogynist which I think is less a hatred of women and more his general dislike of stupidity and grossness, though he probably had some sexual hang-ups, as we’d say today Slide50:  He was a practical reformer, involved in the politics of state. He saw satire as an affirmative thing, with constructive intentions; it was a corrective to vices. Swift was the opposite of Addison and Steele (who emphasized man's goodness). Many accused him of being cynical, dark, without hope or compassion. The Battle of the Books (1697):  The Battle of the Books (1697) This book explores the merits of the ancients and the moderns in literature. The author himself pretends to be an objective chronicler of events, but his sympathies are more on the side of the ancients. A Tale of a Tub (1704) :  A Tale of a Tub (1704) Swift's least classifiable work. It drives readers a little mad. And it’s a perfect example of Swift's devastating intellect at work. By its end, little seems worth believing in. The Tale’s Allegory::  The Tale’s Allegory: Concerns three brothers, each represents one of the primary branches of Christianity in the west. Peter, oldest, stands for the Roman Catholic Church. Jack, youngest, represents the various dissenting Protestant churches. Martin, middle born, represent the 'via media' of the Church of England and Lutherans. The Tale’s Symbols:  The Tale’s Symbols The brothers have inherited three coats representing religious practice From their father representing God They have his will to guide them. representing the Bible Comments from Wikipedia.com:  Comments from Wikipedia.com It is probably his most difficult satire, and possibly his most masterful. The Tale is a prose parody, which is divided up into sections of "digression" and "tale." The "tale" satirizes religious excess, while the digressions are a series of parodies of contemporary writing in literature, politics, theology, Biblical exegesis, and medicine. The overarching parody is of enthusiasm, pride, and credulity.” A Tale of a Tub Novel Work (But Not a Novel!):  A Tale of a Tub Novel Work (But Not a Novel!) Swift more or less invents prose parody. the definition he offers is arguably a parody of John Dryden (a cousin) defining "parody" in the "Preface to the Satires." Prior to Swift, parodies were imitations designed to bring mirth, but not primarily in the form of mockery. The satire is relatively unique in that he offers no resolutions. While he ridicules any number of foolish habits, he never offers the reader a positive set of values to embrace. Gulliver's Travels (1726):  Gulliver's Travels (1726) Gulliver's Travels was Jonathan's first big dive into prose. Defoe's novel about Robinson Crusoe had appeared in 1719 and in the same vein Swift makes Lemuel Gulliver, a surgeon and a sea captain, recount his adventures. It was originally intended as an attack on the hypocrisy of the establishment, including the government, the courts, and the clergy (Swift didn't like to restrict himself unduly), but it was so well written that it immediately became a children's favorite. It shows Jonathan's desire to encourage people to read deeper and not take things for granted: readers who paid attention could match all of Gulliver's tall tales with current events and long-term societal problems. Gulliver’s Travels:  Gulliver’s Travels “Satire is a sort of glass wherein beholders do generally discover everybody's face but their own, which is the chief reason so few are offended by it.” --- Swift The satire of Gulliver's Travels makes use of naïveté to convey satirical attacks on society. There are two effective ways for creating satire: inflating triviality by elevating it to grandeur, and deflating grandeur by reducing it to triviality. Gulliver’s Travels: Part I:  Gulliver’s Travels: Part I In part one, Gulliver is wrecked on an island where human beings are six inches tall. The Lilliputians have wars, and conduct clearly laughable with their self-importance and vanities - these human follies only reduced into a miniature scale. Some Pictures:  Some Pictures Title of the Emperor:  Golbasto Momarem Evlame Gurdilo Shefin Mully Ully Gue, most mighty Emperor of Lilliput, delight and terror of the universe, whose dominions extend five thousand blustrugs (about twelve miles in circumference) to the extremities of the globe; monarch of all monarchs, taller than the sons of men; whose feet press down to the centre, and whose head strikes against the sun; at whose nod the princes of the earth shake their knees; pleasant as the spring, comfortable as the summer, fruitful as autumn, dreadful as winter: his most sublime majesty proposes to the man-mountain, lately arrived at our celestial dominions, the following articles, which, by a solemn oath, he shall be obliged to perform: Title of the Emperor Other examples:  Other examples 我乃森那奇里布大帝,全能之帝,寰宇之帝,亚述之帝,四方之帝。我睿智圣明,众神宠眷,维护真理,伸张正义。……我乃十全英雄,无所不能,我乃众王之王。我乃雷霆电火,烧尽一切不顺,击杀万般邪恶……——《湮没的世界》(按:森那奇里布即《圣经·历代志》中之西拿基立) 明武宗朱寿:奉天征讨威武大将军镇国公 威武大将军太师镇国公朱寿 总督军务威武大将军太师镇国公朱寿 Lilliput:  Lilliput The voyage to Lilliput serves mainly to satirize the British system of selecting rulers and their general lack of democracy. In Lilliput an important office is usually filled by the applicant who can jump the highest and decorations are awarded to the best leaper and creeper, which is clearly intended to typify the way of governing at the time, where offices and favours were granted to favourites rather than to the best or most worthy candidate. Clearly, Swift intends for us to understand this episode as a satire of England’s system of political appointments and to infer that England’s system is similarly arbitrary. Slide64:  斯威夫特没有始终如一地把小人国当作讽刺的靶子。格列佛……称许地提到当地的教育和司法制度,几乎将它描述为一种理想的乌托邦。甚至以绳技表演选拔人才的制度也可能有一个并非不合理的起因……这些选拔制度在初创时也出于与上述原则相似的考量(检验人的忠顺或勇敢), 只不过“人类的劣根性”及后来“当派纷争愈演愈烈”, 所以制度在历史沿革中渐渐被败坏,沦为可笑的争宠途径。其实,任何的评比又何尝没有这一面的负效应?许多的事莫不都是如此走向荒唐?读着读着,我们不免会不自在起来,从荒诞的事态中认出习以为常的事情,把自己的笑收回许多。——黄梅〈小说在18世纪的英国〉 Part II:  Gulliver's second voyage takes him to Brobdingnag. Part II Brobdingnag:  Brobdingnag Gulliver’s continued adventures in Brobdingnag serve to illustrate the importance of physical size. Reduced to a twelfth of the size of the people who surround him, Gulliver finds all of his pride and importance withering away. Without physical power to back him up—whether the normal level that he experiences in England or the extraordinary level of his time in Lilliput—it is impossible for Gulliver to maintain the illusion of his own importance. The Queen comments on the British way of governing:  The Queen comments on the British way of governing “I cannot but conclude the bulk of your natives to be the most pernicious race of little odious vermin that nature ever suffered to crawl upon the surface of the earth.” Clearly, this country is not without imperfections, as is illustrated by Gulliver's descriptions of the hideousness of the characters and the rather vulgar behaviour of some of them (such as urinating in front of him or sitting him astride a nipple), but the reader will perhaps begin to realise that there may be better ways to govern than by the methods currently in practise. Part III:  Part III In the 3rd voyage contemporary scientist are held up for ridicule: science is shown to be futile unless applicable to human betterment. Gulliver then travels to the flying island of Laputa and the nearby continent and capital of Lagado. There he meets pedants obsessed with their own special field and utterly ignorant of the rest of the life. Part III:  Part III On the island of Glubbdubdrib Gulliver encounters a community of sorcerers who can summon the spirits of the dead, allowing him to converse with Alexander, Julius Caesar, Aristotle and others. He also meets Struldbrughs, who are immortal and, as a result, utterly miserable and become senile in their 80s. Part IV:  Part IV Gulliver visits the land of Houyhnhnms, where horses are the governing class and have reason and all good and admirable qualities; while Yahoos, hairy, wild, low and despicable brutes, resemble human beings not only in appearance but also in almost every other way. Summary of Ch. VII, Part IV:  Summary of Ch. VII, Part IV Gulliver develops such a love for the Houyhnhnms that he no longer desires to return to humankind. His master tells him that he has considered all of Gulliver’s claims about his home country and has come to the conclusion that Gulliver’s people are not so different from the Yahoos as they may at first have seemed. He describes all the flaws of the Yahoos, principally detailing their greed and selfishness. He admits that Gulliver’s humans have different systems of learning, law, government, and art but says that their natures are not different from those of the Yahoos. Analysis:  Analysis This desire is echoed later by the Romantics, who, writing in the nineteenth century, idealized pastoral simplicity and a return to nature. In the case of the Romantics, however, this love of nature was a response to the urbanization and industrialization of European society. In Swift’s case, the return to nature is a two-pronged tool for satire, skewering both human civilization itself and those who would look to animals for a model of how to live. P. 41, Para. 2: … I entered on a firm resolution never to return to humankind, but to pass the rest of my life among these admirable Houyhnhnms, … Difficult Places in the Text:  Difficult Places in the Text Page 43 para. 4: He said, "it was common, when two Yahoos discovered such a stone in a field, and were contending which of them should be the proprietor, a third would take the advantage, and carry it away from them both;" which my master would needs contend to have some kind of resemblance with our suits at law; wherein I thought it for our credit not to undeceive him; since the decision he mentioned was much more equitable than many decrees among us; because the plaintiff and defendant there lost nothing beside the stone they contended for: whereas our courts of equity would never have dismissed the cause, while either of them had any thing left. courts of equity:  courts of equity 衡平法院,或称大法官法院(Court of Chancery),是与普通法并列的王室法院,由枢密院中负责司法事务的大法官来管理。三个普通法法院在大厅的一边,大法官法院则在另一边。大法官法院中实行衡平法。当事人在普通法法院中得不到正义,就穿过大厅寻求大法官的救助。 Slide75:  它说,两只“野胡”在地里发现了这样的一块石头,正在为此相争不下的时候,第三者占了便宜将石头拿走了,这样的事也是常有的。我的主人偏要认为这跟我们在法庭上打官司有点相似,我则觉得我们最好还是不要让它蒙在鼓里,因为它提到的那种裁决的方法比起我们的许多法律来要公平得多;在它们那里,原告和被告除丢了它们争夺的那块石头外,并没有别的损失,可在我们的衡平法庭上,不把原告和被告整得一无所有,法庭是决不会结案的。 Page 45, last paragraph:  Page 45, last paragraph I expected every moment that my master would accuse the Yahoos of those unnatural appetites in both sexes, so common among us. But nature, it seems, has not been so expert a school-mistress; and these politer pleasures are entirely the productions of art and reason on our side of the globe. 我时刻都等待着我的主人来指责男女“野胡”身上这些违反自然的欲望,那在我们中间是十分普遍的。可是造物似乎还不是一位手段非常高明的教师;这些较为文雅的享乐,在我们这一边的地球上,却完全是艺术和理性的产物。 Comment:  Comment In the first three voyages, it is easy to identify with Gulliver, but in the last voyage he becomes so alienated from humanity that it is difficult to sympathize with him. This shift in our loyalty is accompanied by a shift in the method of satire. Whereas in the first voyages we can look through Gulliver’s eyes—sharing his astonishment at the Lilliputians’ miniature society, his discomfort at being the plaything of the Brobdingnagian giants, and his contempt for the tyrannical intellectualism of the Laputans—here, in the fourth voyage, we are forced to step back and look not with Gulliver, but at him. Defamiliarization:  Defamiliarization The distinctive effect achieved by literary works in disrupting our habitual perception of the world, enabling us to “see” things afresh. Shklovsky argued that art exists in order to recover for us the sensation of life which is diminished in the “automatized” routine of everyday experience. (inspectors)—Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms The Structure:  The Structure The four parts make an organic whole, with each being an independent structure, yet complementing the others and contributing to the central concern of study of human nature and life. The exaggerated smallness in Part I works just as effectively as the exaggerated largeness in Part II. Part III furthers the criticism of the western civilization and deals with different malpractices and false illusions about science, philosophy, history and immortality. The last part leads the reader to a fundamental question: What on earth is a human being? Swift’s style:  Swift’s style 他的散文纯朴犀利、准确有力,有人曾拿鲁迅先生的散文风格和斯威夫特的相比。英国18世纪初期两位散文家:笛福和斯威夫特,文章都写得具体、生动、朴素、有力。但笛福的散文和斯威夫特的散文比较起来,就看得出这两个作家一个是商人,另一个是学者。笛福的语言反映出英国资产阶级注重实际的性格,因此它是非常有条理的、简单明了的、准确的、实事求是的。而斯威夫特的语言却在平易中见机智,在冷静中见热情,在具体事物中见抽象的哲理。因此说斯威夫特的散文风格较笛福的要高出一筹。——李赋宁 Samuel Richardson (1689-1761) :  Samuel Richardson (1689-1761) Richardson’s Life:  Richardson’s Life born in Derbyshire, the son of a carpenter. known for skill in letter-writing and often employed by girls to write love-letters. When 17, he was apprenticed to a printer, and followed the trade to the end of his life. In 1739, he began to write a series of letters, which could be published as models for people. It occurred to him to write down the story of a beautiful and virtuous maidservant who succeeded in marrying her youthful master, and the result was Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded, an epistolary novel. The success of Pamela led to:  The success of Pamela led to On the one hand a parody of it, Joseph Andrews by Fielding in 1742 (full title: The History of the Adventures of Joseph Andrews and His Friend Mr. Abraham Adams). On the other hand to another epistolary novel by Richardson, Clarissa Harlowe, or Virtue Triumphant in 1747-48, which brought the author European fame. His third and last novel, Sir Charles Grandison, was published in 1754. Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded :  Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded It is a long series of letters, supposedly by a Pamela Andrews to her parents and two friends telling them in great detail her adventures at her employer’s house. The chief contribution of Richardson’s Pamela to the development of the English novel lies in the penetrating psychological study of the heroine employed for the first time in English prose fiction. Pamela marked a defining moment in the emergence of the modern novel. In the words of one contemporary, it divided the world “into two different Parties, Pamelists and Anti-Pamelists.” Clarissa Harlowe, or the History of a Young Lady:  Clarissa Harlowe, or the History of a Young Lady Clarissa is attracted to Robert Lovelace whose rejection of her sister intended for him makes him ineligible for her. When forced to marry a man she dislikes, she runs away with the help of Lovelace who abducts her to a brothel and tries all he can to seduce her. When Lovelace later offers to marry her, she refuses. Eventually she dies, and a cousin of hers, who witnesses her tragic end, challenges Lovelace to a duel and kills him. Clarissa Harlowe’s Influence:  Clarissa Harlowe’s Influence In France it was highly praised by the great French Enlighteners Denis Diderot and Jean Jacques Rousseau. In Germany it’s known for its influence upon Goethe, particularly upon his The Sorrows of Young Werther. In England the novel had its effect upon Fanny Burney of the last decades of the 18th century and upon Jane Austen of the early 19th century. Slide87:  Richardson sympathized with women in their inferior social status and entered into detailed psychological study of his female characters. He showed the conflict between the helpless woman and the social evils, and laid bare the moral hypocrisy of the aristocratic-bourgeois society of his day. His sympathy for the suffering heroine ends in sentimentality, making him the earliest exponent of the sentimental tradition in 18th century English literature. Henry Fielding (1707-1754) :  Henry Fielding (1707-1754) Defoe, Richardson, & Henry Fielding have been considered to be three greatest founders of English novel, of whom Fielding is generally considered to be the greatest of English novelist of the 18th century, and undoubtedly one of the most artistic that English literature has ever produced. Fielding as a Playwright:  The passion in letters urged him to write his first play in 1728 Love in Several Masques. In 1730-1737 he wrote about 28 plays, including operas, comedies, tragedies, and burlesques. He later came into have his own Little Theatre. Some of his plays were characterized by their acid satire on the corruption of the government, such as The Historical Register for the Year 1736. Finally a parliamentary act was passed and the closing of his Little Theatre was closed; his career as playwright ended. Fielding as a Playwright Slide90:  Fielding’s fictional writing started in 1742, when he published his first novel Joseph Andrews, a parody of Richardson’s Pamela and an acid satire on the false sentimentality and the conventional virtues of Richardson’s protagonist. Then came The Life of Mr. Jonathan Wild the Great, which ridiculed, through the retelling of the adventures of a notorious thief of the London underworld, the darkness of the English society as a whole. The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling (1749). Amelia (1751). Fielding as a Novelist The History of the Adventures of Joseph Andrews and of his friend Mr. Abraham Adams, Written in Imitation of the Manner of Cervantes:  The History of the Adventures of Joseph Andrews and of his friend Mr. Abraham Adams, Written in Imitation of the Manner of Cervantes It was first intended as a burlesque of the dubious morality and false sentimentality of Richardson’s Pamela. The rest of the narrative has to do chiefly with the adventures on the road of Andrews and his friend Parson Adams and his sweetheart Fanny, and with the gradual removal of the hindrances to the united bliss of Joseph and Fanny following their return to the country. Differences between Richardson & Fielding :  Differences between Richardson & Fielding Richardson has no humour, minces words, and moralizes, and dotes on the sentimental woes of his heroines. Fielding is direct, vigorous, hilarious, and coarse to the point of vulgarity, and full of animal spirits. He tells the story of a vagabond life, not for moralizing, like Richardson, or for emphasizing a forced repentance, like Defoe, but simply because it interests him, and his only concern is “to laugh men out of their follies.” The dominating qualities of Joseph Andrew are its excellent character-portrayal, timely entrances and exits, robustness of tone and hilarious, hearty humour. The History of Jonathan Wild the Great:  The History of Jonathan Wild the Great Wild is the notorious criminal of the London underworld who was hanged in 1725. In the novel, Wild organizes a corporation of thieves and robbers. He enforces very strict discipline and punishes each rebel whenever necessary. Finally he is caught and is hanged at Tyburn. The purpose is to demonstrate the petty division between a great rogue and a great soldier or a great politician such as Sir Robert Walpole, the Prime Minister. The History of Tom Jones, A Foundling a comic epic in prose :  The History of Tom Jones, A Foundling a comic epic in prose Tom, is a boy adopted by Mr. Allworthy and brought up with Blifil who is envious of Allworthy’s fondness for the foundling and of Tom’s intimacy with the beautiful Sophia. He plays some dirty tricks so that Mr. Allworthy drives Tom out of the house. Tom, takes the road to London, and Sophia, in rebellion against her father, marches out for London too. The two have many adventures on the road, but in the end, they are happily united. Blifil is condemned and gets deserved punishment. Slide95:  Tom became a national hero in England, standing for a wayfaring Everyman expelled from the paradise and finally to approach perfectness. Tom Jones brings its author the name of the “Prose Homer.” It touches upon almost all kinds of persons in all corners of the 18th century English society, and draws a panoramic picture of the society of his day, manifesting the semi-feudal and semi-capitalist distinction of the society. Plot construction: 3 divisions (6 books each): in the country, on the highway, and in London. By these, Fielding has indeed achieved his goal of writing a “comic epic in prose.” Main Features of Fielding’s Novels:  Main Features of Fielding’s Novels Fielding’s novels are told directly by the author. This enables him to develop his stories in a straightforward manner, and also affords him opportunities of giving personal explanations. His broad panoramic pictures of his age and his penetrating social criticism. Satire abounds in his works. Fielding believed in the educational function of the novel. The object was to present a faithful picture of life, “the just copies of human manner.” Fielding is a master of style whose command of language is remarkable. Father of English Novel:  Father of English Novel Fielding has clearly broadened the scope of the English novels of realism. He was the first to set out, both in theory and practice, to write specifically a comic epic in prose, and the first to give the modern novel its structure and style. Fielding adopted the third person narration, in which the author becomes the all-knowing god. In planning his stories, he tries to retain the grand epical form of the classical works but at the same time keeps faithful to his realistic presentation of common life as it is. Tobias Smollett (1721-1771):  Tobias Smollett (1721-1771) He was was a Scottish surgeon on a battleship, where he picked all the evils of the navy and of the medical profession to use later in his novels. He wrote five novels in entirety, among which three are successful and significant: The Adventure of Roderick Random (1748), The Adventure of Peregrine Pickle (1751) and The Expedition of Humphrey Clinker (1771). His picaresque novels were modeled on Cervantes’s Don Quixote. He was the first of the 18th century English novelists to use a maritime and an international setting for his stories. Sentimentalism:  Sentimentalism One of the significant and popular trends in English literature in the second half of the 18th century is sentimentalism. Sentimentalism is overindulgence in one’s emotion for the sake of his overwhelming discontent towards the social reality, and pessimistic belief and emphasis upon the virtue of man. Sentimentalist Literature:  Sentimentalist Literature Poetry: Thomas Gray's An Elegy Written in a Country Church Yard. Drama: Richard Brinsley Sheridan and his The Rivals (1775) and The School of Scandal, a fine comedy of manners, was staged in 1777. Fiction: Oliver Goldsmith and his The Vicar of Wakefield (1776); and Lawrence Sterne and his Tristram Shandy (1760-1767). Tristram Shandy:  Tristram Shandy Originally published in 9 short volumes from 1759-66, Tristram Shandy is a comic novel that was enormously popular during Sterne's lifetime. Such are the digressions into Tristram Shandy's eccentric family that the main character does not appear until the 4th volume. Yet this is all part of the humour of a story that takes longer to tell than the life does to live! Slide102:  Though Tristram's conception takes place in Volume 1 (and is intimately connected with the winding of a clock), he is not actually born until the work's 3rd volume, so constantly does the expression of his opinions intrude upon the narrative of his life. For Sterne as for John Locke in his Essay Upon Human Understanding (1690), people's apprehension of time is subjective; as Sterne expresses it, `the idea of duration ... is got merely from the train and succession of our ideas, - and is the true scholastick pendulum'. Slide103:  Published in 9 volumes between 1759 and 1766, Laurence Sterne's comic meta-novel, The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman, remains one of the most engaging reflections on the nature of The Book. The text purports, as the title indicates, to set out the "autobiography" of Tristram Shandy, however, the birth of the hero, which the author sets about to discuss on the 1st page, does not finally occur until volume 4 and he is not breeched until volume 6. Slide104:  Instead the novel largely concerns itself with events and personages from before the author's birth: his father Walter's obsession with the influence of the proper name on a man's character, his Uncle Toby's hobby of re-enacting famous sieges, the death of Yorick the Parson from the ill-effects of rumour -- these are among the many, many little tales the novel tells. Slide105:  What the story is about is of secondary importance to how it is told. It is thoroughly performative, not so much a story but an extended act of and meditation on story-telling. Sterne's narrative logic is one which favours the endless freeplay, the infinite possibilities of writing over the exigencies of plot, the logic of cause and effect and the desire for closure. Each time our narrator verges on a new event, or we think that we are about to pick up the thread of a previous storyline, the text suddenly veers off on yet another tangent. Shandy's logic of digression :  Shandy's logic of digression “Digressions, incontestably, are the sunshine; --they are the life, the soul of reading; --take them out of this book for instance, --you might as well take the book along with them; [...] restore them to the writer; --he steps forth like a bridegroom, --bids All hail; brings in variety, and forbids appetite to fail.” Slide107:  With its heterogeneous materials, non-linear narrative, regular appeals to the reader, and self-reflexive commentary on the nature of the book, Tristram Shandy anticipates many of the techniques of hypertext fiction. Though it achieves its effects in part because the reader is still forced to proceed through the text page by page, from beginning to end (and thus its frustration of linearity becomes all the more apparent), Sterne's novel remains not only a rich resource of ideas and techniques for writers (and readers) interested in the possibilities of the writerly text, but a perfect meeting of formal innovation and comic genius. Laying Bare its Device:  Laying Bare its Device “Sterne mocks the artificial formula of the picaresque novel which tries to trace the picaro’s life ‘from birth to death’. He highlights this convention by exaggeration: we start with the precise moment of Tristram’s…” (Selden 38) “Sterne parodies the novel’s usual sequential pattern of chapters and preliminaries by transposing chapters, leaving one blank (to be filled in by the reader), and placing dedication and preface in the middle of the book.” (Selden 38)

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