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Published on March 26, 2008

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ORA000003 CDMA2000 Principle ISSUE4.0 :  ORA000003 CDMA2000 Principle ISSUE4.0 HUAWEI, Mobile Network Curriculum Development Section Objectives:  Objectives After this presentation, you will be familiar with: the development of mobile communication system the structure of CDMA2000 network the number planning in CDMA2000 network the techniques used by CDMA system including: source coding, channel coding, interleaving, scrambling, spreading and modulation etc. power control, soft handoff, RAKE receiver F-PCH,F-PICH,F-SYNCH,F-FCH,F-SCH,R-ACH,R-PICH Long code, short code and Walsh code Course Organization:  Course Organization Chapter 1: Introduction Chapter 2: CDMA Techniques & Technologies Chapter 3: CDMA Air Interface Chapter 4: CDMA Core Networks Chapter 5: CDMA Number Planning Development of Mobile Communications :  1st Generation 1980s (analog) 2nd Generation 1990s (digital) 3rd Generation current (digital) 3G provides: Complete integrated service solutions High bandwidth Unified air interface Best spectral efficiency and ……………… a step towards PCS AMPS Analog to Digital TACS NMT OTHERS GSM CDMA IS95 TDMA IS-136 PDC UMTS WCDMA CDMA 2000 TD-SCDMA Development of Mobile Communications Introduction Voice to Broadband Transmission Techniques :  Transmission Techniques Traffic channels: different users are assigned unique code and transmitted over the same frequency band, for example, WCDMA and CDMA2000 Traffic channels: different frequency bands are allocated to different users,for example, AMPS and TACS Traffic channels: different time slots are allocated to different users, for example, DAMPS and GSM FDMA TDMA CDMA User User User User User User Introduction TDMA:  TDMA Frequency Time Power user user user user user Introduction 3G Objectives :  3G Objectives 3G is developed to achieve: Universal frequency band for standard and seamless global coverage High spectral efficiency High quality of service with complete security and reliability Easy and smoothly transition from 2G to 3G, compatible with 2G Provide multimedia services, with the rates: Vehicle environment: 144kbps Walking environment: 384kbps Indoor environment: 2Mbps Introduction Standards for 3G :  Standards for 3G 3G system CDMA2000 3GPP2 FDD mode WCDMA 3GPP FDD mode TD-SCDMA CWTS TDD mode Introduction A Comparison b/w 3G standards :  A Comparison b/w 3G standards WCDMA CDMA2000 TD-SCDMA Receiver type RAKE RAKE RAKE Close loop power control Supported Supported Supported Handoff Soft/hard handoff Demodulation mode Coherent Chip rate (Mcps) 3.84 N*1.2288 1.28 Transmission diversity mode TSTD, STTD FBTD OTD, STS No Synchronization mode Asynchronous Synchronous Asynchronous Core network GSM MAP ANSI-41 GSM MAP Coherent Coherent Soft/hard handoff Soft/hard handoff Introduction Development of CDMA :  CDMA2000 307.2kbps Heavier voice service capacity ; Longer period of standby time 1995 1998 2000 2003 Development of CDMA Higher spectrum efficiency and network capacity Higher packet data rate and more diversified services Smooth transit to 3G Introduction Frequency Allocation In CDMA2000:  Frequency Allocation In CDMA2000 Band Class 0 and Spreading Rate 1 Introduction The transmit frequence point for Base Station is computed by: F=870+N*0.03 N: CDMA Channel Number Frequency Allocation In CDMA2000:  Frequency Allocation In CDMA2000 Band Class 1 and Spreading Rate 1 Introduction The transmit frequence point for Base Station is computed by: F=1930+N*0.05 N: CDMA Channel Number CDMA2000 1X Network Structure:  CDMA2000 1X Network Structure MS: Mobile Station BTS: Base Transceiver Station BSC: Base Station Controller MSC: Mobile Switching Center HLR :Home Location Register VLR: Visitor Location Register PCF: Packet data Control Function PDSN: Packet Data Service Node HA: Home Agent FA: Foreign Agent SCP: Service Control Point Radius: Remote Authentication Dial-in User Service Abis A1(Signaling) A2(Traffic) A11(Signaling) A10(Traffic) A3(Signaling & Traffic) A7(Singaling) Introduction Course Contents:  Course Contents Chapter 1 Introduction Chapter 2 CDMA Techniques & Technologies Chapter 3 CDMA Air Interface Chapter 4 CDMA Core Networks Chapter 5 CDMA Number Planning Correlation :  Correlation (a) (b) Correlation 100% so the functions are parallel Correlation 0% so the functions are orthogonal CDMA Techniques & Technologies +1 -1 +1 -1 +1 -1 +1 Orthogonal Function :  Orthogonal Function Orthogonal functions have zero correlation. Two binary sequences are orthogonal if their “XOR” output contains equal number of 1’s and 0’s 0000 0101 0101 EXAMPLE: CDMA Techniques & Technologies 1010 0101 1111 Information spreading over orthogonal codes :  Information spreading over orthogonal codes CDMA Techniques & Technologies Information recovery :  Information recovery CDMA Techniques & Technologies Spreading and De-spreading :  Spreading and De-spreading information pulse interference White noise The improvement of time-domain information rate means that the bandwidth of spectrum-domain information is spread. S(f) is the energy density. f S(f) The spectrum before spreading information f0 The spectrum before despreading information Interference/noise S(f) f0 f f0 The spectrum after despreading information Interference/noise S(f) f The spectrum after spreading information f0 S(f) f CDMA Techniques & Technologies Signal flow :  Signal flow Interleaving Source coding Convolution & Interleaving Scrambling Spreading Modulation RF transmission CDMA Techniques & Technologies Common Technical Terms :  Common Technical Terms Bit, Symbol, Chip: A bit is the input data which contain information A symbol is the output of the convolution, encoder, and the block interleaving A chip is the output of spreading Processing Gain: Processing gain is the ratio of chip rate to the bit rate. The processing gain in IS-95 system is 128, about 21dB. Forward direction: Information path from base station to mobile station Reverse direction: Information path from mobile station to base station CDMA Techniques & Technologies Source Coding :  In a typical duplex call, the duty ratio is less than 35%. To achieve better capacity and low power consumption, base station reduces its transmission power. Source Coding Vocoder: 8K QCELP 13K QCELP EVRC Characteristics Support voice activity CDMA Techniques & Technologies Channel Coding :  Channel Coding Convolution code or TURBO code is used in channel encoding Constraint length=shift register number+1. Encoding efficiency= (total input bits / total output symbols) convolution encoder Input (bits) Output (symbols) CDMA Techniques & Technologies Turbo Code :  Turbo Code Turbo code is used during the transmission of large data packet. Characteristics of the Turbo code: The input information is encoded twice and the two output codes can exchange information with each other during decoding. The symbol is protected not only by the neighborhood check bits, but also by the separate Check Bits. The performance of a Turbo code is superior to that of a convolution code. CDMA Techniques & Technologies Interleaving :  Interleaving The direction of the data stream 1 2 8 7 3 6 4 5 1 2 8 7 3 6 4 5 1 2 8 7 3 6 4 5 1 2 8 7 3 6 4 5 1 2 8 7 3 6 4 5 1 2 8 7 3 6 4 5 1 2 8 7 3 6 4 5 1 2 8 7 3 6 4 5 1 2 8 7 3 6 4 5 1 2 8 7 3 6 4 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 1 2 8 7 3 6 4 5 1 2 8 7 3 6 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 interleaving CDMA Techniques & Technologies 2 2 2 Scrambling (M) sequence :  Scrambling (M) sequence Two points are important here: Maximum number of shift register (N) Mask The period of out put sequence is 2N-1 bits Only sequence offset is change when the mask is changed PN stands for Pseudorandom Noise sequence CDMA Techniques & Technologies Long Code :  Long Code The long code is a PN sequence with period of 242-1chips The functions of a long code: Scramble the forward CDMA channel Control the insertion of power control bit Spread the information on the reverse CDMA channel to identify the mobile stations CDMA Techniques & Technologies Short Code :  PNa PNc PNb Short Code CDMA Techniques & Technologies Short code is a PN sequence with period of 215 chips Sequence with different time offset is used to distinguish different sectors Minimum PN sequence offset used is 64 chips, that is, 512 PN offsets are available to identify the CDMA sectors (215/64=512). Walsh Code :  Walsh Code W 2n = W n W n W n W n W 1 =0 W 2 = 0 0 0 1 W 4 = Walsh code 64-order Walsh function is used as a spreading function and each Walsh code is orthogonal to other. Walsh Code is one kind of orthogonal code. A Walsh can be presented by Wim where ith (row) is the position and m is the order. For example, W24 means 0101 code in W4 matrix CDMA Techniques & Technologies 1 1 1 0 Walsh Code :  In forward direction, each symbol is spread with Walsh code Walsh code is used to distinguish the user in forward link For IS95A/B, in the reverse, every 6 symbols correspond to one Walsh code. For example, if the symbol input is 110011,the output after spreading is W5164 (110011=51). For CDMA2000, in the reverse, Walsh function is used to define the type of channel (RC 3-9) Walsh Code CDMA Techniques & Technologies Variable Walsh codes :  Variable Walsh codes Data rate -bps- The different Walsh codes corresponding to different data rates CDMA Techniques & Technologies Modulation-QPSK :  Modulation-QPSK I Q I channel PN sequence 1.2288Mcps Q channel PN sequence 1.2288Mcps Baseband filter Baseband filter Cos(2pfct) Sin(2pfct) I(t) Q(t) s(t) A 1.2288Mcps: the PN chip rate of the system . After being spread, all the forward channels in the same carrier are modulated by means of QPSK(OQPSK in the reverse), converted into simulation signals and transmitted after clustering. CDMA Techniques & Technologies Slide33:  Power Control Handoff Diversity and RAKE CDMA Techniques & Technologies Power Control :  Power Control Reverse power control Open loop power control Closed loop power control Inner loop power control: 800 Hz Outer loop power control Forward power control Message transmission mode: threshold transmission periodic transmission Closed loop power control . CDMA Techniques & Technologies Reverse Open Loop Power Control :  Reverse Open Loop Power Control The transmission power required by the mobile station is determined by the following factors: Distance from the base station Load of the cell Circumstance of the code channels The transmission power of the mobile station is relative to its received power. Transmitting Power CDMA Techniques & Technologies Reverse Closed Loop Power Control :  Reverse Closed Loop Power Control BTS Power Control Bit Eb/Nt Value FER Value Inner Loop Power Control Outer Loop Power Control Change in Eb/Nt Value CDMA Techniques & Technologies BSC BTS Forward Power Control:  Forward Power Control MS measures the frame quality and informs the base station to the result i.e. whether it is in the threshold or periodical mode. Base station determines whether to change the forward transmitting power or not. In IS-95 system, the forward power control is slow but in CDMA2000 system it is fast. CDMA Techniques & Technologies Message Transmission Mode Forward Closed Loop Power Control :  Forward Closed Loop Power Control Compared with IS-95 system, CDMA2000 the forward quick power control is fast. Power Control Bit Eb/Nt Value CDMA Techniques & Technologies BTS Handoff :  Handoff Soft handoff It is a process of establishing a link with a target sector before breaking the link with the serving sector Softer handoff Like the soft handoff, but the handoff is occurred between multi-sectors in the same base station Hard handoff Hard handoff occurs when the two sectors are not synchronized or are not on the same frequency. Interruption in voice or data communication occurs but this interruption does not effect the user communication CDMA Techniques & Technologies Soft/Softer Handoff :  Soft/Softer Handoff Multi-path combination in the BSC during soft handoff Multi-path combination in the BTS during softer handoffs CDMA Techniques & Technologies Pilot Set :  Pilot Set Active Set Candidate Set Neighbor Set Remaining Set The pilot set, corresponding to the base station being connected The pilot set, not in the active set but potential to be demodulated The pilot set, not included in the active set or the candidate set but being possible to be added in the candidate set Other pilot sets the set of the pilots having same frequency but different PN sequence offset CDMA Techniques & Technologies T_ADD,T_DROP,T_TDROP :  T_ADD,T_DROP,T_TDROP T_ADD, T_DROP and T_TDROP affect the percentage of MS in handoff. T_ADD & T_DROP is the standards used to add or drop a pilot. T_DROP is a timer. CDMA Techniques & Technologies Comparison Threshold :  Comparison Threshold Pilot P1 Pilot P2 Pilot P0 t0 T_COMP×0.5dB t1 t2 T_ADD Pilot strength P0-Strengh of Pilot P0 in Candidate Set. P1,P2-Stength of Pilot P1,P2 in Active Set. t0-Pilot strength Measurement Message Sent, P0>T_ADD t1-Pilot strength Measurement Message Sent, P0>P1+T_COMP*0.5dB t2 -Pilot strength Measurement Message Sent, P0>P2+T_COMP*0.5dB CDMA Techniques & Technologies Transition Between Pilot Sets :  Transition Between Pilot Sets T_ADD T_DROP Pilot 1 Pilot strength Pilot 2 T_TDROP T_TDROP Neighbor Set Candidate Set Active Set Candidate Set Neighbor Set TIME 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 CDMA Techniques & Technologies Transmit Diversity :  Transmit Diversity Time diversity Block interleaving, error-correction Frequency diversity The CDMA signal energy is distributed on the whole 1.23MHZ bandwidth. Space diversity The introduction of twin receive antennas . The RAKE receivers of the mobile station and the base station can combine the signals of different time delay. During a handoff, the mobile station contacts multiple base stations and searches for the strongest frame CDMA Techniques & Technologies Transmission Diversity :  Transmission Diversity The forward transmission diversity types in CDMA2000 1X are TD (Transmit Diversity) OTD (Orthogonal Transmit Diversity) The data stream is divided into two parts, which will be spread by the orthogonal code sequence, and transmitted by two antennas. STS (Space Time Spreading) All the forward code channels are transmitted by the multi-antennas. Spread with the quasi-orthogonal code Non-TD CDMA Techniques & Technologies Transmission Diversity :  Transmission Diversity The Transmission Diversity Technology enhances the receive performance of MS. CDMA Techniques & Technologies The Principle of RAKE Receiver :  The Principle of RAKE Receiver RAKE antennas help to overcome on the multi-path fading and enhance the receive performance of the system CDMA Techniques & Technologies Course Contents:  Course Contents Chapter 1 Introduction Chapter 2 CDMA Techniques & Technologies Chapter 3 CDMA Air interface Chapter 4 CDMA Core Network Chapter 5 CDMA Number Planning Physical Channel in IS-95A :  Physical Channel in IS-95A Forward channel Forward Pilot Channel Forward Sync Channel Forward Paging Channel Forward Traffic Channel (including power control sub-channel) Reverse channel Access Channel Reverse Traffic Channel CDMA Air Interface Pilot Channel :  Pilot Channel A pilot channel: Assist mobile station to be connected with CDMA network Handles multi-path searching Provide the phase reference for coherent demodulation and help the mobile station estimate the transmission power The mobile station measures and compares the pilot channel powers from the base stations during the handoff Forward pilot channel is spread over W0 and modulated with short code directly BTS transmits the pilot channel continuously CDMA Air Interface Sync Channel :  To QPSK coder 2.4kbps 4.8kbps 4.8kbps Code symbol Repetitive code symbol 1.2kbps Convolution encoder r=1/2,K=9 symbol repetition Block interleaving Sync Ch bits W3264 Sync Channel The sync channel is used by the mobile station to synchronize with the network. W32 is used to spread Sync Channel. The synchronization message includes: Pilot PN sequence offset: PILOT_PN System time: SYS_TIME Long code state: LC_STATE Paging channel rate: P_RAT Here note that, sync channel rate is 1200bps CDMA Air Interface Paging Channel :  To QPSK coder Paging channel bits 19.2/9.6Kbps 19.2kbps 19.2kbps Code symbol 9.6/4.8 kbps Convolution encoder r=1/2,K=9 Symbol repetition Block interleaving Paging channel address mask Long code PN generator decimator 1.2288Mcps 19.2kbps Repetitive code symbol Paging Channel The paging channel transmits: System parameters message Access parameters Neighbors list CDMA channels list message The paging channel accomplishes: Paging to MS Assign traffic channel to MS The frame length of a paging channel is 20ms W1 ~ W7 are spared for the Paging Channels spreading CDMA Air Interface W164 Forward Traffic Channel :  Forward Traffic Channel I Ch PN sequence (1.2288 Mcps) PN 1.2288 Mcps Repetitive symbol 19.2kbps 8.6kbps 9.6 kbps 4.8kbps 2.4kbps 1.2kbps Add frame quality indicator bits(12,10,8,6) Add 8 encoded tail bits Convolution encoder r=1/2,K=9 Symbol repetition Forward traffic channal (172/80/40 or 16bits/frame) Block interleaver 19.2kbps MUX Long code generator Power control bits Q Ch PN sequence (1.2288 Mcps) Baseband filter I(t) Q(t) decimator + QPSK Modulation 4.0kbps 2.0kbps 0.8kbps 19.2ksybps 9.6ksybps 4.8ksybps 2.4ksybps Sin(2pfct) Cos(2pfct) is used to transmit data and signaling information. Walsh code CDMA Air Interface decimator Baseband filter Reverse Access Channel :  Reverse Access Channel 4.8 kbps (307.2kbps) PN chips 1.2288 Mcps Orthogonal spreading Repetitive symbol 8.8 kbps Code symbol 14.4 kbps 4.4 kbps 4.8 kbps Add 8 encoder tail bits Convolution encoder r=1/3,K=9 Symbol repetition Access channel (80 bits/frame) Block interleaving 28.8 kbps Data burst randomizer Long code PN generator Frame rate Long code mask Repetitive symbol used by MS to initiate communication or respond to Paging Channel Walsh code CDMA Air Interface I Ch PN sequence (1.2288 Mcps) Baseband filter I(t) Q(t) QPSK Modulation Sin(2pfct) Cos(2pfct) Baseband filter Q Ch PN sequence (1.2288 Mcps) 1/2 PN chips Delayed time=406.9ns Reverse Traffic Channel :  Reverse Traffic Channel used to transmit data and signaling information CDMA Air Interface 8.6kbps 9.6 kbps 4.8kbps 2.4kbps 1.2kbps Add frame quality indicator bits(12,10,8,6) Add 8 encoded tail bits convolution encoder r=1/3,K=9 Symbol repetition Reverse traffic channel (172/80/40 or 16 bits/frame) Block interleaver 4.0kbps 2.0kbps 0.8kbps 28.8Ksybps 14.4Ksybps 7.2Ksybps 3.6Ksybps 4.8 kbps (307.2kbps) PN chips 1.2288 Mcps Orthogonal spreading Data burst randomizer Long code PN generator Frame rate Long code mask Walsh code I Ch PN sequence (1.2288 Mcps) Baseband filter I(t) Q(t) QPSK Modulation Sin(2pfct) Cos(2pfct) Baseband filter Q Ch PN sequence (1.2288 Mcps) 1/2 PN chips Delayed time=406.9ns Initialization of the MS :  Initialization of the MS Synchronous Channel message contains the LC_STATE, SYS_TIME, P_RAT, and synchronizes with the system. CDMA Air Interface BTS CDMA2000 Forward Channel :  CDMA2000 Forward Channel Forward CDMA2000 channel F-CACH F-CPCCH F-PICH F-CCCH F-DCCH F-FCH F-PC F-SCCH F-SCH F-PICH F-TDPICH F-APICH F-ATDPICH F-SYNCH F-TCH F-BCH F-PCH F-QPCH subchannel (RC1~2) (RC3~9) Note: Only the channels with black color are being implemented in Huawei equipment. The function of F-PICH, F-SYNCH, F-FCH, F-PC, F-SCCH, F-PCH are the same as those of IS95. We will only discuss F-SCH, F-QPCH F-DCCH in the following slides. CDMA Air Interface Forward channel :  Forward channel These channels are newly defined in CDMA2000 system. CDMA physical channels are classified in common channels and dedicated channels: Common physical channels: Forward Pilot Channel(F-PICH) Forward Synchronous Channel(F-SYNC) Forward Paging Channel(F-PCH) Forward Broadcast Control Channel(F-BCCH) Forward Quick Paging Channel(F-QPCH) Forward Common Power Control Channel(F-CPCCH) Forward Common Assignment Channel(F-CACH) Forward Common Control Channel(F-CCCH) These channels are compatible with IS-95 system Dedicated physical channel: Forward Dedicated Control Channel(F-DCCH) Forward Fundamental Channel(F-FCH) Forward Supplemental Channel(F-SCH) These channels are used to establish the connection between a base station and a specific mobile station. The CDMA2000 system adopts multiple data rates and the different combinations of channels can achieve a performance superior to that in IS-95 system. CDMA Air Interface F-QPCH :  F-QPCH It transmits OOK-modulated signal which can be demodulated by MS simply and rapidly. The channel adopts 80ms as a QPCH timeslot. Each timeslot is divided into paging indicators, configuration change indicators and broadcast indicators, all of which are utilized to inform the MS whether to receive paging message, broadcast message or system parameters in the next F-PCH. Rapid and simple demodulation. MS no need to monitor F-PCH for long time, so the standby time is prolonged. CDMA Air Interface F-SCH :  F-SCH F-SCH is typically used for high speed data applications, while F-FCH is used for common voice and low speed data application. When a data call is established, firstly, F-FCH will be allocated to the user. If the speed of data for user exceeds 9.6kbps, F-SCH will be allocated. CDMA Air Interface F-DCCH :  F-DCCH It is used for the transmission of specific user signaling information during a call. Each forward traffic channel may contain one F-DCCH. Support 5ms frame. Support discontinuous transmission. CDMA Air Interface Forward Radio Configuration (RC) :  Forward Radio Configuration (RC) Radio Configuration(RC): A set of Forward Traffic channel and Reverse Traffic Channel transmission formats that are characterized by physical parameters such as data rates, modulation characteristics, and spreading rate. Spreading Rate: Equivalent to chips rate, e.g., 1.2288Mcps. ** Same as IS95 CDMA Air Interface Reverse Channel :  Reverse Channel Reverse CDMA2000 channel R-ACH R-TCH operation (RC1~2) R-EACH operation R-CCCH operation R-SCCH R-FCH R-TCH operation (RC3~6) R-EACH R-PICH R-CCCH R-PICH R-DCCH R-PICH 0~7 0~1 R-SCH R-FCH 0~2 0~1 subchannel R-PC Only the channels in dark color are used in Huawei equipment. The function of R-ACH,R-FCH,R-SCCH are the same as those in IS95. We will only discuss R-PICH,R-SCH in the following slides. CDMA Air Interface Types of Reverse Channel :  Types of Reverse Channel Reverse channel includes reverse common channel and reverse dedicated channel. Reverse common channel: Reverse Access Channel(R-ACH) Reverse Enhanced Access Channel(R-EACH) Reverse Common Control Channel(R-CCCH) Reverse Dedicated Channel Reverse Pilot Channel(R-PICH) Reverse Dedicated Control Channel(R-DCCH) Reverse Fundamental Channel(R-FCH) Reverse Supplemental Channel(R-SCH) Reverse Supplemental Code Channel (R-SCCH) CDMA Air Interface R-PICH :  N is the Spreading Rate number Reverse Pilot Channel R-PICH The Function of Reverse Pilot Channel Initialization Tracing Reverse Coherent Demodulation Power Control Measurement Base station enhances the received performance and increases the capacity by means of coherent demodulation of the Reverse Pilot Channel. CDMA Air Interface Reverse Channels :  Reverse Channels Fundamental Channel: Fundamental Channel is used for the transmission of user information to the base station during a call, and can be used to transmit defaulted voice services as an independent Traffic Channel. Dedicated Control Channel The Dedicated Control Channel is used for the transmission of user and signaling information to a base station during a call. Supplemental Channel/Supplemental Code Channel These channels are used for the transmission of user information, mainly data services, to the MS. The Reverse Traffic Channel contains up to two supplemental channels and up to seven supplemental code channels. CDMA Air Interface Reverse Radio Configuration (RC) :  Reverse Radio Configuration (RC) RC: Radio Configuration RC1~RC2:IS-95A/B RC3~RC4:CDMA2000 1X RC5~RC6: CDMA2000 3x ** Same as IS95 CDMA Air Interface RC Combination Regulation :  RC Combination Regulation RC1 and RC2 corresponds respectively to rate set 1 and rate set 2 in IS- 95A/B system. CDMA2000 Forward RC: RC1~RC5 Reverse RC: RC1~RC4 Rules: Forward RC1, Reverse RC1 Forward RC2, Reverse RC2 Forward RC3 or RC4,Reverse RC3 Forward RC5, Reverse RC4 CDMA Air Interface Course Contents:  Course Contents Chapter 1 Introduction Chapter 2 CDMA Techniques & Technologies Chapter 3 CDMA Air Interface Chapter 4 CDMA Core Network Chapter 5 CDMA Number Planning A typical CDMA Network :  A typical CDMA Network CDMA Core Network CDMA Interfaces :  CDMA Interfaces MSC: Mobile-service Switching Center BSC: Base Station Controller MC: Short Message Center HLR: Home Location Register BTS: Base Transceiver Station VM: Voice Mailbox VLR: Visitor Location Register OMC: Operation & Maintenance Center AC: Authentication Center SCP: Service Control Point Other MSCs MC/VM MSC/SSP/VLR OMC HLR/AC SDH GMSC/SSP SCP STP IOS4.0 SS7 IS-41 IS-41 IS-41 IS-41 Mobile Customer Service Center SS7 TCP/IP SS7 IS-41 BTS BTS BSC MS IS95---- CDMA2000 INTERNET Other PLMNs PSTN/ISDN CDMA Core Network Network Interface :  Network Interface CDMA Core Network CDMA Services :  CDMA Services Businesses, enterprises Mobile virtual private network Mobile high-speed network access Advertising services Free phone Family Familiarity number Life & amusement Schools, groups Universal account number Sectorized and time-shared charge Broadcast news Individuals Individualized services Privacy CDMA Core Network CDMA Feature Services---Example 1 :  CDMA Feature Services---Example 1 Where is my mobile phone? It is lucky to have Ruyi lock! Ruyi lock Features: a mobile phone user can dial the access code and input the PIN code to lock/unlock his mobile phone by using any fixed telephone instead of registering and paying at a business hall. Why can’t I make a call the moment I picked it up? CDMA Core Network CDMA Feature Services---Example 2 :  CDMA Feature Services---Example 2 FOLLOW ME Features: a user can activate call forwarding of his/he MS from any phone to ensure that any incoming call of a mobile phone user will not be lost. You can register for a forwarding service on your own I forgot to bring my mobile phone, but I will have an important customer to meet this afternoon. What should I do? CDMA Core Network CDMA Feature Services---Example 3 :  CDMA Feature Services---Example 3 Does that guy still bother you recently? He can no longer reach me! Why? Ask me to input a password? Friendshipcom Features: After a called user subscribes for this service, the system requires password to caller. A call is accomplished only if the password is correct. Otherwise, the call will be rejected or transferred. CDMA Core Network CDMA Feature Services---Example 4 :  CDMA Feature Services---Example 4 Intra-group user LOOK FOR service Feature 1: When a user makes a call to an intra-group user, the terminals of all intra-group users ring in-turn or simultaneously until there is a reply. CDMA Core Network CDMA2000---Data Services :  CDMA2000---Data Services 0 32 64 9.6 128 144 384 2,000 Video Streaming Voice Text Messaging Still Imaging Audio Streaming Electronic newspaper High-quality videoconference Telephone (Voice) Voice Mail E-Mail Fax Electronic book Sports, news and weather report on demand Singing room Low-quality videoconference JPEG Still Photos Mobile Radio Video Surveillance, Video Mail, Travel Image Data Weather, transportation, news, sports and securities Mobile TV E-commerce Remote Medical Service Data rate in Kbps CDMA Core Network Locating Services :  3GPP2 uses the following 3 standards for MS location: Locating Services GPS-aided measurement Accuracy: suburbs---10m. City zone---30~70m. Indoor --unable to locate Response time: 3~10s Measurement of base station pilot phase Accuracy: 50~200m Response time: 3~6s Locating of a cell ID Accuracy: depends on the size of a cell Response time: within 3s CDMA Core Network Locating Services :  110! Bandit! The system transfers the alarm to the nearest alarm processing center based on the location. An emergency button can be set on a user’s mobile phone to so that an alarm can be reported without any conversation or delay. Locating Services CDMA Core Network Equal Access of Toll Calls :  PSTN CDMA/ INTERNET Users who subscribe for toll services Original toll route Toll route after subscription MSC/GMSC HLR Operators who subscribe for toll services Help mobile operators to absorb large quantities of toll services Users subscribe to select toll operators to ensure quality of service. Enable users to save toll call charge (premium strategy) Make an IP toll call without dialing a preamble Equal Access of Toll Calls CDMA Core Network Course Contents:  Course Contents Chapter 1 Introduction Chapter 2 CDMA Techniques & Technologies Chapter 3 CDMA Air Interface Chapter 4 CDMA Core Network Chapter 5 CDMA Number Planning Definition of Coverage Areas :  Definition of Coverage Areas Location area MSC area PLMN area Service area Sector area CDMA Number Planning Cell area Parameters Involved :  Parameters Involved In a CDMA system, the following parameters are defined to identify a user and his location: MIN/IMSI MDN ESN TLDN SID/NID LAI GCI SIN SSN CDMA Number Planning MIN/IMSI :  MIN/IMSI Mobile subscriber identity/international mobile subscriber identity For example, 0907550001/460030907550001 Not more than 15 digits 3 digits 2 digits IMSI MCC MNC MSIN NMSI CDMA Number Planning MDN :  MDN CC + MAC + H 0 H 1 H 2 H 3 + ABCD International mobile subscriber DN National valid mobile subscriber number Mobile directory number For example, 8613307550001 CDMA Number Planning ESN :  ESN A unique Electronic Serial Number (ESN) is used to identify single MS. An ESN includes 32 bits and has the following structure: 31......24 23......18 17......0 bit Manufacturer’s number retained equipment SN For example, FD 03 78 0A (the 10th Motorola 378 mobile phone) The equipment serial number is allocated by a manufacturer. CDMA Number Planning TLDN :  TLDN Temporary local directory number For example, 8613344755001 CDMA Number Planning SID/NID :  SID/NID MSCID (Exchange Identity) = System Identity (SID) + Exchange number (SWIN) is used to represent a certain set of equipment in an NSS network. For example, Unicom CDMA Shenzhen MSC is labeled as 3755+01 CDMA Number Planning Location Area Identity (LAI) :  Location Area Identity (LAI) PAGING message is broadcast within a local area, the size of which depends on traffic, paging bearer capability, signaling flow , etc. Format: MCC+MNC+LAC MCC: Mobile Country Code, 3 digits. For example, China is 460. MNC: Mobile Network Code, 2 digits. For example, the MNC of Unicom is 03. LAC: Location Area Code, a 2-byte-long hexadecimal BCD code. 0000 cannot be used with FFFE. For example, 460030100 CDMA Number Planning Global Cell Identity (GCI) :  Global Cell Identity (GCI) The unique ID of a cell in PLMN Format: LAI+CI CI: Cell Identity, a 2-byte-long hexadecimal BCD code, pre defined by the engineering department. The first 3 digits and the last digit represent the base station number and the sector number respectively. For an omni-directional site, the last digit of CI is 0. For example, 4600301001230 shows base station number 123 contains an omni-directional site CDMA Number Planning Sender Identification Number (SIN) :  Sender Identification Number (SIN) MSC number The MSC number stipulated by Unicom is 460 + 03 + 09 + H0H1H2H3 + 1000. HLR number The HLR number stipulated by Unicom is 460 + 03 + 09 + H0H1H2H3 + 0000. SMC number The SMC number stipulated by Unicom is 460 + 03 + 09 + H0H1H2H3 + 2000. SCP number The SCP number stipulated by Unicom is 460 + 03 + 09 + H0H1H2H3 + 3000. CDMA Number Planning Sub-System Number (SSN :  Sub-System Number (SSN SSN of MSC: 8 SSN of VLR: 7 SSN of HLR: 6 SSN of AC: 10 SSN of SMC: EE SSN of SCP: EF SSN of A interface: FE/FC SSN of SCCP management: 1 CDMA Number Planning Voice Channel Routing :  Voice Channel Routing CDMA Number Planning Signaling Route :  Signaling Route CDMA Number Planning Example of Signaling Network :  Example of Signaling Network Route from an LSTP to the LSTP not located in this macro cell HLR in Chongqin to MSC in Fujian (two LSTPs respectively at the transmit end and receive end) CDMA Number Planning Interconnection of CDMA with PSTN :  Interconnection of CDMA with PSTN CDMA Number Planning Review :  Review Chips rate: 1.2288Mcps IS-95A/B is a subset, RC1/RC2 Apply the coherent demodulation to the reverse pilot channel Forward transmit diversity: OTD and STS Forward quick power control at 800HZ rate Improve the standby time by introducing the quick paging channel. Variable frames: 5ms, 20ms, 40ms and 80ms Introduce TURBO code into channel encoding The maximum rate of a physical layer is up to 307.2K CDMA Technology Slide100:  Development of CDMA Standards in China CDMA standards currently adopted in China are mainly based on the USA standards with few alterations. For example, in USA the emphasis is put on the dual service support i.e. CDMA and AMPS compatibility, while in China there is no such requirement. Therefore, the settings of frequency and basic channels, IMSI and others parameters need to be modified. Likewise, there is also the need to modify network interface IS-41 series of standards. Case study: China Unicom Network :  Case study: China Unicom Network In China Unicom CDMA project, phase 1, a narrow-band CDMA network, named IS-95B (enhanced IS-95) is being constructed. With total capacity is 15,000,000, subscribers handling, covering over 200 cities. Currently, both nationwide and international roaming tests have conducted successfully with the CDMA networks of HongKong, South Korea and Japan via the TSI international gateway bureau. Besides, a CDMA intelligent network will be constructed to provide intelligent value-added services like Pre-Paid Charging (PPC) and Virtual Private Network (VPN) etc. The whole CDMA20001X network was launched in air in the second half of 2002. Why CDMA2000? :  Why CDMA2000? Increase the system capacity Forward quick power control Forward transmit diversity: OTD,STS Coherent modulation applied on the pilot channel.(about 3dB) The introduction to Turbo code The stronger ability to resist interference The improved error-correcting encoding (applying Turbo code in medium/high rate data transmission) Why CDMA2000?:  Why CDMA2000? Support high rate SCH, with the maximum rate of a single channel being up to 307.2kbps. Improve the standby time Use the quick paging channel Forward compatibility Radio-frequency part Baseband part, such as RC Summary:  Summary Brief Development History of Mobile Communication Analog--digital--code division Objectives of 3G and comparison of 3 systems Technical features of CDMA Key technologies: power control, soft handoff,RAKE receiver and cell breath Other technologies: source coding, channel coding, interleaving, scrambling, spreading and modulation Channel structure: pilot, synchronization, paging, access and service Technical features of CDMA2000 1X Walsh and Turbo codes Questions:  Questions What power control modes are there in CDMA2000 system and how are they implemented? Describe the soft handoff process? Describe the process and functions of cell breath? Describe the implementation process of service channels (forward and reverse)? Describe the technical features of CDMA2000? Describe the initialization process of a mobile phone? What are the functions of a long code, short code and Walsh code in CDMA system?

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