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2006052213550876705

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Education

Published on January 3, 2008

Author: Belly

Source: authorstream.com

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交换和VLAN Switching and VLAN :  交换和VLAN Switching and VLAN 深圳职业技术学院计算机系网络专业 教学目标( Objectives ):  教学目标( Objectives ) 1. 交换机学习主机地址 (Switche Learn Host Address) 2. 两种交换方法(Two Switching Methods) 3. 配置端口安全(Configuring Port Security) 4.密码破解(Password Recovery) 5. VLAN操作(VLAN Operations) 6.配置和验证静态VLAN (Configuring and Verifying Static VLANs) 交换机三种功能 (Three Switch Functions ) :  地址学习(Address learning) 决定转发或过滤(Forward/filter decision) 避免环路(Loop avoidance) 交换机三种功能 (Three Switch Functions ) 交换机学习主机地址 (Switche Learn Host Address):  交换机学习主机地址 (Switche Learn Host Address) 初始MAC地址表是空的 Initial MAC address table is empty MAC address table 0260.8c01.1111 0260.8c01.2222 0260.8c01.3333 0260.8c01.4444 E0 E1 E2 E3 A B C D 交换机学习主机地址 (Switche Learn Host Address):  交换机学习主机地址 (Switche Learn Host Address) A向C发送帧(Station A sends a frame to Station C) 交换机将A的MAC地址和其对应的接口E0放入MAC地址表 Switch caches station A MAC address to port E0 by learning the source address of data frames 该帧向除了E0接口的所有接口泛洪 The frame from station A to station C is flooded out to all ports except port E0 MAC address table 0260.8c01.1111 0260.8c01.2222 0260.8c01.3333 0260.8c01.4444 E0: 0260.8c01.1111 E0 E1 E2 E3 D C B A 交换机学习主机地址 (Switche Learn Host Address):  交换机学习主机地址 (Switche Learn Host Address) D向C发送帧(Station D sends a frame to station C) 交换机将D的MAC地址和其对应的接口E3放入MAC地址表 Switch caches station D MAC address to port E3 by learning the source Address of data frames 该帧向除了E3接口的所有接口泛洪 The frame from station D to station C is flooded out to all ports except port E3 (unknown unicasts are flooded) MAC address table 0260.8c01.1111 0260.8c01.2222 0260.8c01.3333 0260.8c01.4444 E0: 0260.8c01.1111 E3: 0260.8c01.4444 E0 E1 E2 E3 D C A B 交换机过滤帧( Switches Filter Frames):  交换机过滤帧( Switches Filter Frames) A向C发送帧 Station A sends a frame to station C 目的地址已知,帧不被泛洪 Destination is known, frame is not flooded E0: 0260.8c01.1111 E2: 0260.8c01.2222 E1: 0260.8c01.3333 E3: 0260.8c01.4444 0260.8c01.1111 0260.8c01.2222 0260.8c01.3333 0260.8c01.4444 E0 E1 E2 E3 X X D C A B MAC address table 两种交换方法(Two Switching Methods):  两种交换方法(Two Switching Methods) 存储转发特征(Store-and-forward Feature):  存储转发特征(Store-and-forward Feature) 1. 在转发之前整个帧被接收 The entire frame is received before any forwarding takes place. 2.由于交换开始之前要接收完整帧,较大的数据帧延迟较大 Latency is greater with larger frames because the entire frame must be received before the switching process begins. 直通特征(Cut-through Feature):  直通特征(Cut-through Feature) 1.在接收完整帧之前,帧就被转发。 The frame is forwarded through the switch before the entire frame is received. 2.最快的是只要读到目的地址就转发。 At a minimum the frame destination address must be read before the frame can be forwarded. 3.这种模式降低了延迟,但是不进行检错 This mode decreases the latency of the transmission, but also reduces error detection. 直通分类(Cut-through Class):  直通分类(Cut-through Class) 一、快速转发(Fast-forward  ) 1.快速转发提供了最低的延迟 Fast-forward switching offers the lowest level of latency. 2.只要读到目的地址,就立刻转发 Fast-forward switching immediately forwards a packet after reading the destination address. 直通分类(Cut-through Class):  直通分类(Cut-through Class) 二、Fragment-free  (无碎片方式) 1.无碎片方式在转发之前过滤掉碰撞碎片Fragment-free switching filters out collision fragments before forwarding begins. 2.无碎片方式在转发之前要读到帧的前64字节 Fragment-free switching waits until the packet is determined not to be a collision fragment(>64bytes) before forwarding 配置SVI地址(Configuring SVI Address):  配置SVI地址(Configuring SVI Address) Switch(config)#interface vlan 1 Switch(config-if)#ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0 Switch(config-if)#no shutdown 配置端口安全(Configuring Port Security):  配置端口安全(Configuring Port Security) Switch(config)#int f0/1 Switch(config-if)#switchport mode access Switch(config-if)#switchport port-security Switch(config-if)#switchport port-security mac-address 0060.6700.dd5b Switch(config-if)#switchport port-security violation restrict Switch#sh port-security Secure Port MaxSecureAddr CurrentAddr SecurityViolation Security Action (Count) (Count) (Count) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Fa0/1 132 1 0 Restrict 密码破解(Password Recovery):  密码破解(Password Recovery) 1. 拔掉电源(Unplug the power cable) 2.按下mode按钮(hold down the mode button) 3.输入flash_init (type flash_init) 4.执行dir flash: (type dir flash:) 5.重命名配置文件 (rename flash:config.text flash:config.old) 6.启动(Boot) 7.在进入setup模式提示下输入N (enter N at the prompt to start the setup program.) 密码破解(Password Recovery):  密码破解(Password Recovery) 8. 进入特权模式(switch>enable) 9. 重命名配置文件 (rename flash:config.old flash:config.text) 10. 将配置文件拷贝到RAM中运行 (copy flash:config.text system:running-config) 11.修改密码 (enable password cisco) 12.存盘(write) 13.重启(reload) Slide17:  VLAN预览(VLAN Overview) 分段Segmentation 灵活 Flexibility 安全 Security 3rd floor 2nd floor 1st floor SALES HR ENG 1 VLAN =1广播域=1逻辑子网 A VLAN = A broadcast domain = Logical network (subnet) Slide18:  VLAN操作(VLAN Operations) 每一个逻辑的VLAN就像一个独立的物理网桥 Each logical VLAN is like a separate physical bridge Slide19:  VLAN操作(VLAN Operations) Switch B Green VLAN Black VLAN Red VLAN 同一个VLAN可以跨越多个交换机 VLANs can span across multiple switches Slide20:  VLAN操作(VLAN Operations) Switch B Green VLAN Black VLAN Red VLAN Trunk TRUNK链路携带多个VLAN的数据 Trunks carries traffic for multiple VLANs Trunks利用特定的封装来识别不同的VLAN Trunks use special encapsulation to distinguish between different VLANs Fast Ethernet VLAN成员模式(VLAN Membership Modes):  VLAN成员模式(VLAN Membership Modes) VLAN5 静态VLAN (Static VLAN) 动态VLAN(Dynamic VLAN) MAC = 1111.1111.1111 Trunk VMPS 1111.1111.1111 = vlan 10 VLAN10 Port e0/9 Port e0/4 配置静态VLAN (Configuring Static VLANs):  配置静态VLAN (Configuring Static VLANs) 1.创建VLAN (create the VLAN ) Switch#vlan database Switch(vlan)#vlan vlan_number Switch(vlan)#exit 2.将接口指定到VLAN中 assign the VLAN to one or more interfaces : Switch(config)#interface fastethernet 0/9 Switch(config-if)#switchport access vlan vlan_number 配置静态VLAN实例 (Configuring Static VLANs Example):  配置静态VLAN实例 (Configuring Static VLANs Example) Switch#vlan database Switch(vlan)#vlan 2 name v2 VLAN 2 added: Name: v2 Switch(vlan)#vlan 3 name v3 VLAN 3 added: Name: v3 Switch(vlan)#vlan 4 name v4 VLAN 4 modified: Name: v4 Switch(vlan)#no vlan 4 Deleting VLAN 4... Switch(vlan)#exit APPLY completed. Exiting.... Switch(config)#int f0/2 Switch(config-if)#switchport mode access Switch(config-if)#switchport access vlan 2 Switch(config-if)#int f0/3 Switch(config-if)#switchport mode access Switch(config-if)#switchport access vlan 3 Switch(config-if)#end 验证静态VLAN配置 (Verifying Static VLANs Configuration):  验证静态VLAN配置 (Verifying Static VLANs Configuration) Switch#sh vlan brie VLAN Name Status Ports ---- -------------------------------- --------- ------------------------------- 1 default active Fa0/1, Fa0/4, Fa0/5, Fa0/6 Fa0/7, Fa0/8, Fa0/9, Fa0/10 Fa0/11, Fa0/12 2 v2 active Fa0/2 3 v3 active Fa0/3 1002 fddi-default active 1003 token-ring-default active 1004 fddinet-default active 1005 trnet-default active Switch# 思考题(Questions):  思考题(Questions) 1. 交换机三种主要的功能是什么? 2. 交换机怎样学习主机地址? 3. 什么是存储转发? 4. 什么是快速转发? 5. 什么是无碎片方式转发? 6. 简述交换机密码破解的步骤? 7. 什么是VLAN?

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