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Retrieval That Works: FRBR (Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records) and OCLC:  Retrieval That Works: FRBR (Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records) and OCLC Eric Childress OCLC Research SEALL 2006 Raleigh, NC 8 April 2006 Outline:  Outline Background FRBR explained FRBR applied FRBR Explained:  FRBR Explained FRBR basics :  FRBR basics FRBR = Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records Developed by cataloging experts working under the auspices of IFLA (International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions) FRBR is from a document issued by IFLA: Functional Requirements For Bibliographic Records: Final Report (1998) FRBR is a conceptual model (not a standard!) FRBR systematically models the bibliographic universe The FRBR Project:  The FRBR Project Stockholm Seminar on Bibliographic Records (1990) Issued a resolution calling for the commissioning of a study to define the functional requirements of bibliographic records IFLA Study Group on the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records Study (1992-1995): Against the changing environment within which cataloging principles andamp; standards operate… Conceptualize a cataloging code- and implementation-agnostic, generalized view of the bibliographic universe Deliver (1996-1998): A reference (i.e. conceptual) model A report: Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records: Final Report Münich : K.G. Saur, 1998. [viii, 136 pages. ISBN 3-598-11382-X] About the FRBR study…:  About the FRBR study… Primary objectives of the FRBR study: Provide a clearly defined, structured framework for relating bibliographic data to user needs Recommend a basic level of functionality for records created by national bibliographic agencies Modeling the bibliographic universe: Utilizes an entity-relationship framework: Entities = a class of things Relationships = associations among entities Attributes = characteristics of the entities Value of FRBR:  Value of FRBR FRBR study process and report: Fresh look at what functions bibliographic records perform FRBR systematically models the bibliographic universe Helps us answer important questions: What information is of the most value to users of the catalog? How can that most valuable information be used more effectively? Promises to inspire next generation catalogs, etc. Illuminates user tasks Clarifies how catalogs should function Slide8:  'The FRBR model is revolutionary. The (computer) catalogue is not seen as a sequence of bibliographic records and a replica of the traditional card catalogue, but rather as a network of connected data, enabling the user to perform seamlessly all the necessary functions.' -Dr. Maja Žumer. National and University Library, Ljubljana, Slovenia FRBR Explained:  FRBR Explained http://www.biblioteksforeningen.org/komm/katalog/frbr/summary.html (in Swedish…) Four User Tasks::  Four User Tasks: Find entities that match the search criteria Identify entities (confirm that the user has found what they were looking for) Select an entity that matches the user’s criteria Obtain access to the entity through purchase, loan, or through electronic remote access And, maybe a fifth: Navigate FRBR defines 3 groups of entities:  FRBR defines 3 groups of entities Group 1: products of intellectual or artistic endeavor that are named of described in bibliographic records work, expression, manifestation, item Group 2: entities responsible for the intellectual or artistic content, the physical production and dissemination, or the custodianship of such products person, corporate body Group 3: entities that serve as the subjects of intellectual or artistic endeavor concept, object, event, place Slide12:  From William Denton (http://www.frbr.org/) intellectual/ bibliographic units agents 'aboutness' Slide13:  From William Denton (http://www.frbr.org/) Group 1 Entities:  Work Expression Is realized through A distinct intellectual or artistic creation The intellectual or artistic realization of a work The physical embodiment of an expression A single exemplar of a manifestation Group 1 Entities Slide15:  Group 1 Attributes:  Attributes A set of characteristics that serve as the basis for formulating queries and interpreting responses Can be either inherent or externally applied E.g., inherent: the physical medium and dimension of an object E.g., externally sourced: assigned identifiers (e. g., thematic catalog numbers for musical compositions) Attributes of Group 1 Entities:  Attributes of Group 1 Entities Work Work title, form or genre, date, performance medium, intended audience Expression Expression title, form of the expression, language of the expression, type of score, scale of a map Manifestation Manifestation title, publisher, date of publication, form of carrier, dimensions, manifestation identifier (e.g. ISBN), terms of availability Item Location or call number, barcode, provenance, condition, access restrictions on an item Slide18:  From: http://www.nla.gov.au/lis/stndrds/grps/acoc/tillett2004.ppt OCLC FRBR work set algorithm used to cluster related WorldCat records:  OCLC FRBR work set algorithm used to cluster related WorldCat records Original English Translation Illustrated edition Abridged edition Adaptation Expressions Work¹ Work² e¹ e² e³ e¹ An example of a law title:  An example of a law title Original Microform edition 5th edition Expressions Work e¹-e3 m1 e4 Handbook of the Law of Torts William Prosser (1941) 2nd-4th editions [Braille] 5th edition, Student edition e5 Worldcat:  Worldcat Manifestations Works Items (est: holdings*1.5) 59,879,322 47,423,810 1,531,400,969 35,372,459 28,542,021 1,194,751,352 Total Print books Slide22:  Works with 1 manifestation: 87% Works with between 2 and 5 manifestations: 12% Works with andgt; 5 manifestations: 1% Works with 1 manifestation: 43% of total holdings Works with between 2 and 5 manifestations: 40% of total holdings Works with andgt; 5 manifestations: 17% of total holdings Manifestations By Holdings Works in WorldCat Top 10 works in WC by holdings:  Top 10 works in WC by holdings 10 Slide24:  http://www.tezuka-gu.ac.jp/public/seiken/sub4/frbr_tab5-1.jpg Complex relationships can exist among works, expressions, manifestations, items Closely-related resources may form a 'super work' Barbara Tillet (LC) has done analysis on resource-to-resource relationships Slide25:  From William Denton (http://www.frbr.org/) Group 2 – Responsible Entities:  Group 2 – Responsible Entities Entities responsible for the intellectual or artistic content, the physical production and dissemination, or the custodianship of such products Group 2 entities: Person Corporate Body And perhaps a third … Family Attributes of Group 2 Entities:  Attributes of Group 2 Entities Attributes of Group 2 entities: Person Names, dates, titles or other designations Corporate body Name, number, place, date, other designation Slide28:  From William Denton (http://www.frbr.org/) Group 3 - Subject Entities:  Group 3 - Subject Entities Entities that serve as the subjects of intellectual or artistic endeavor Group 3 entities: Concept: topical subject heading Object: name for an object Event: name for an event Place: name for a place Plus the Group 1 and 2 Entities: Works about Works/Expressions/Manifestations/Items Works about Persons and/or Corporate Entities Attributes of Group 3 Entities:  Attributes of Group 3 Entities Attributes of Group 3 entities: Concept term Object term Event term Place term Since the initial FRBR report…:  Since the initial FRBR report… Statement of International Cataloguing Principles Approved by the IFLA Meeting of Experts on an International Cataloguging Code (Frankfurt, 2003) Adapts and expands the Paris Principles (1961) Expands scope from: Textual works to all types of materials Choice and form of entry to all aspects of bibliographic andamp; authority records First principle remains: Serve the convenience of the users of the catalogue Working the FRBR/FRANAR framework…:  Working the FRBR/FRANAR framework… All work now under the FRBR Review Group: Group 1 entities [bibliographic]: The IFLA Study Group on the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records, 1992-1998 Various follow-on work underway (Clarifying 'expression' ; Clarifying FRBR for continuing resources, more…) Group 2 entities [authorities]: Functional Requirements and Numbering of Authority Records (FRANAR) Working Group Group 3 entities [subject access]: Working Group on Subject Relationships FRBR Applied:  FRBR Applied Applying FRBR in services:  Applying FRBR in services Incorporating the concepts of the FRBR model in systems: Superior presentation of search results Esp. in large files – more intuitive clustering May help streamline library cataloging Reduces repeated keying of work-related info Bibliographic andamp; management intelligence New insights into works (e.g., OCLC’s 1000 list) Libraries can operate at workset level (e.g., ILL) FictionFinder:  FictionFinder An OCLC experimental prototype Supports searching andamp; browsing of fiction materials cataloged in WorldCat Fiction records — 2.8 million Unique works — 1.4 million Total holdings — 130 million Employs FRBR to: Build a 'work' view andamp; cluster related records Support the creation of special indexes OCLC Research team: Diane Vizine-Goetz (lead) Roger Thompson Carol Hickey Lance Osborne J.D. Shipengrover New version: Available later in 2006 Improved navigation andamp; work-based displays Slide36:  Slide37:  Alphabetical browse display in redesigned interface Slide38:  Nearly 20,000 works retrieved The record for Don Quixote represents 2,300+ editions Slide39:  Don Quixote work view aggregates information from 2,367 editions in 40,212 libraries Slide40:  Don Quixote work view limited to Spanish language editions ordered by latest publication date Slide41:  Link to OCLC WorldCat Find in a Library Service Edition (manifestation) record display Slide42:  Live Search:  Live Search OCLC Research prototype Features: Quick searches target with each additional keystroke of search term/phrase Retrieves ordered, FRBR-inspired results (combined with holdings-based ranking) Narrow-by Dewey attributes (expressed as captions) OCLC Research Team: Thom Hickey (lead) Jenny Toves Ralph LeVan Files being prototyped: Phoenix Public+DDC LCSH Slide44:  Search results automatically regenerate as searches are entered Slide45:  Search categories automatically update as search results update Slide46:  Narrow by natural facets ('categories') of any given result set Slide47:  item data drawn from Phoenix Public’s OPAC Questions?:  Questions? Eric Childress Consulting Project Manger OCLC Research http://www.oclc.org/research/staff/childress.htm Resources on FRBR :  Resources on FRBR IFLA-related FRBR resources:  IFLA-related FRBR resources IFLA FRBR Review Group http://www.ifla.org/VII/s13/wgfrbr/wgfrbr.htm Functional requirements for bibliographic records : final report / IFLA Study Group on the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records ; Approved by the Standing Committee of the IFLA Section on Cataloguing. Münich : K.G. Saur, 1998. viii, 136 pages. ISBN 3-598-11382-X also online: http://www.ifla.org/VII/s13/frbr/frbr.htm FRBR Bibliography: http://www.ifla.org/VII/s13/wgfrbr/bibliography.htm FRBR in 21st century catalogues (Workshop held at OCLC) http://www.oclc.org/research/events/frbr-workshop Statement of International Cataloguing Principles http://www.loc.gov/loc/ifla/imeicc/source/statement-draft_jan05.pdf Selected additional resources:  Selected additional resources Boston, Tony, Bemal Rajapatirana and Roxanne Missingham 'Libraries Australia: Simplifying the Search Experience' (2005) http://www.nla.gov.au/nla/staffpaper/2005/boston1.html Denton, William. 'FRBR and Fundamental Cataloguing Rules.' (2003) http://www.miskatonic.org/library/frbr.html Tillett, Barbara, What is FRBR?: A Conceptual Model for the Bibliographic Universe (2004) http://www.loc.gov/cds/FRBR.html OCLC FRBR-related activities:  OCLC FRBR-related activities OCLC Resarch FRBR page: http://www.oclc.org/research/projects/frbr/ OCLC Research projects: Audience Level http://www.oclc.org/research/projects/audience Curiouser http://www.oclc.org/research/projects/curiouser OCLC FRBR Algorithm http://www.oclc.org/research/projects/frbr/algorithm.htm Fiction Finder http://fictionfinder.oclc.org/ xISBN http://www.oclc.org/research/researchworks/xisbn/ Top 1000 titles http://www.oclc.org/research/top1000 OCLC production services: Open WorldCat http://www.oclc.org/worldcat/open FRBR-inspired FirstSearch WorldCat (coming in 2006) OCLC Research Presentations on FRBR:  OCLC Research Presentations on FRBR Diane Vizine-Goetz FictionFinder: Don Quixote to Graphic Novels (PPT:1.4MB/24slides) WebWise 2006, 17 February 2006, Los Angeles,California (USA) Eric Childress What's FRBR? (PowerPoint:1.1MB/43 slides) Central Ohio Chapter, American Society of Information Science andamp; Technology, 21 July 2005, Columbus, Ohio (USA) Brian Lavoie and Roger C. Schonfeld (Ithaka) A Systemwide View of Library Collections (PowerPoint:300K/35slides) CNI Spring 2005 Task Force Meeting, 4-5 April 2005, Washington, DC (USA) Thom Hickey FRBR: Algorithms and Applications (PowerPoint:1.17MB/40slides) California Library Association pre-conference Institute, 12 November 2004, San Jose, California (USA) Edward T. O'Neill Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records: OCLC's Experience Identifying and Using Works (PowerPoint:26MB/35 slides) FRBR Workshop, 8–9 July 2004, Frankfurt (Germany) Other FRBR tools, activities, etc.:  Other FRBR tools, activities, etc. AusLit http://www.austlit.edu.au/about/metadata FRBR Blog http://www.frbr.org/ LC FRBR Display Tool http://www.loc.gov/marc/marc-functional-analysis/tool.html RLG’s RedLightGreen http://www.redlightgreen.org/ VisualCat (Denmark) http://www.portia.dk/pubs/VisualCat/Present/VisualCatOverview20050607.pdf VTLS http://www.vtls.com/Corporate/FRBR.shtml

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