2006 Risk Communication Case Study Ch ppt

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Information about 2006 Risk Communication Case Study Ch ppt

Published on August 29, 2007

Author: aman

Source: slideshare.net

Crisis / Emergency Risk Communication Case study

蘇丹紅的故事 第三集

 

事件回顧

2006 年 11 月 12 日 亞洲電視本港台: 河北發現有人將致癌的工業用料,混入飼料餵養鴨隻,令鴨蛋黃呈鮮紅色

亞洲電視本港台: 河北發現有人將致癌的工業用料,混入飼料餵養鴨隻,令鴨蛋黃呈鮮紅色

 

11 月 13 日 東方日報

11 月 13 日 星島日報

 

 

11 月 14 日 經濟日報

11 月 15 日 明報

11 月 15 日 星島日報

11 月 16 日 太陽報

11 月 19 日 成報

2006 年 11 月 19 日 福建發現蘇丹紅雞蛋

福建發現蘇丹紅雞蛋

11 月 20 日 經濟日報

11 月 20 日 大公報

2006 年 11 月 20 日 國家質檢總局局長李長江: 通過正規途徑供應香港的雞蛋和鴨蛋都無問題

國家質檢總局局長李長江: 通過正規途徑供應香港的雞蛋和鴨蛋都無問題

11 月 21 日 明報

11 月 21 日 經濟日報

2006 年 11 月 21 日 食物安全中心: 市民毋須恐慌,放心食蛋

食物安全中心: 市民毋須恐慌,放心食蛋

11 月 21 日 頭條新聞

11 月 21 日 新報

2006 年 11 月 21 日 衛生副利及食物局局長: 現時香港的雞蛋是安全的

衛生副利及食物局局長: 現時香港的雞蛋是安全的

11 月 22 日 星島日報

2006 年 11 月 22 日 食物及環境衛生署證實一個神丹鴨蛋樣本和一個來自湖北的雞蛋樣本檢出蘇丹紅

食物及環境衛生署證實一個神丹鴨蛋樣本和一個來自湖北的雞蛋樣本檢出蘇丹紅

11 月 23 日 am730

11 月 23 日 文匯報

11 月 23 日 明報

11 月 23 日 大公報

11 月 23 日 明報

2006 年 11 月 22 日 衛生副利及食物局局長: 根據專家的分析,這些蛋內蘇丹紅的含量不高,對健康的影響不大。每個市民亦應衡量是否願意承受這些風險

衛生副利及食物局局長: 根據專家的分析,這些蛋內蘇丹紅的含量不高,對健康的影響不大。每個市民亦應衡量是否願意承受這些風險

11 月 15 日 人民網

Communications are as critical to outbreak control as laboratory analyses or epidemiology Dr. Jong-wook Lee

溝通失當?

 

 

Principles of Crisis Communication Be First Be Right Be Credible

Emergency Risk Communication: Success Factors Be Empathetic: embody sincere caring Be First: speedy communication First messages are lasting messages Being first indicates preparedness and competence Be Right: accurate content Be Credible: be honest and build trust

Be Empathetic: embody sincere caring

Be First: speedy communication

First messages are lasting messages

Being first indicates preparedness and competence

Be Right: accurate content

Be Credible: be honest and build trust

Bad Communication Adds to Crisis Mixed messages from multiple “experts” Late information “overcome by events” Over-reassuring messages No reality check on recommendations Myths, rumors, doomsayers not countered Improper modeling of behavior, lack of affect, bad humor by spokesperson/leader Public power struggles and confusion (Barbara Reynolds, CDC)

Mixed messages from multiple “experts”

Late information “overcome by events”

Over-reassuring messages

No reality check on recommendations

Myths, rumors, doomsayers not countered

Improper modeling of behavior, lack of affect, bad humor by spokesperson/leader

Public power struggles and confusion

(Barbara Reynolds, CDC)

1) Risk perception

11 月 23 日 星島日報

Proposition 1 “ When people are stressed and upset, they want to know that you care before they care what you know.”

Equation of risk acceptance Risk = Hazard + Outrage

Proposition 2 “Facts about risk appear to play little or no role in determining public perceptions and concerns about risks .”

  Perception of risks All risks are not accepted equally Voluntary vs. involuntary Personally controlled vs. controlled by others Familiar vs. exotic Natural origin vs. manmade Reversible vs. permanent

All risks are not accepted equally

Voluntary vs. involuntary

Personally controlled vs. controlled by others

Familiar vs. exotic

Natural origin vs. manmade

Reversible vs. permanent

  Perception of risks Statistical vs. anecdotal Endemic vs. epidemic (catastrophic) Fairly distributed vs. unfairly distributed Generated by trusted vs. mistrusted institution Adults vs. children Understood benefit vs. questionable benefit

Statistical vs. anecdotal

Endemic vs. epidemic (catastrophic)

Fairly distributed vs. unfairly distributed

Generated by trusted vs. mistrusted institution

Adults vs. children

Understood benefit vs. questionable benefit

 

Be Careful With Risk Comparisons Are they similarly accepted based on high/low hazard (property/people measure) high/low outrage (emotional measure) A. High hazard B. High outrage C. Low hazard D. Low outrage

Are they similarly accepted based on

high/low hazard (property/people measure)

high/low outrage (emotional measure)

11 月 25 日 明報

2) Information released late

神丹日誌 11 月 17 日,食環署獲悉裕華國貨有出售神丹健康食品有限公司的鴨蛋,但沒詳細資料,也沒有公布 11 月 18 日,內地驗出神丹公司的蛋類產品含蘇丹紅,國家質檢局局長籲港人注意有關品牌 11 月 20 日,食環署稱神丹公司含蘇丹紅的鴨蛋及雞蛋並無供港;同日取得裕華的鴨蛋化驗

11 月 17 日,食環署獲悉裕華國貨有出售神丹健康食品有限公司的鴨蛋,但沒詳細資料,也沒有公布

11 月 18 日,內地驗出神丹公司的蛋類產品含蘇丹紅,國家質檢局局長籲港人注意有關品牌

11 月 20 日,食環署稱神丹公司含蘇丹紅的鴨蛋及雞蛋並無供港;同日取得裕華的鴨蛋化驗

神丹日誌 11 月 21 日,(衛福局局長表示毒蛋沒進口香港,市面雞蛋安全後)食環署於深夜發出新聞稿,公告裕華曾展銷神丹蛋,並售出逾 1000 隻 11 月 22 日,食環署證實一個神丹鴨蛋樣本檢出蘇丹紅

11 月 21 日,(衛福局局長表示毒蛋沒進口香港,市面雞蛋安全後)食環署於深夜發出新聞稿,公告裕華曾展銷神丹蛋,並售出逾 1000 隻

11 月 22 日,食環署證實一個神丹鴨蛋樣本檢出蘇丹紅

Timing is key! “ First out” sets the agenda, shapes the message Don’t avoid communication - even if you have nothing specific to say Establish a presence with your spokesperson Set a schedule for communications - and stick to it !

“ First out” sets the agenda, shapes the message

Don’t avoid communication - even if you have nothing specific to say

Establish a presence with your spokesperson

Set a schedule for communications - and stick to it !

Give the public what you have when you have it The mistake response officials make is waiting to release information until all the facts are in Your speed at releasing information is a marker for your preparedness Release what you know, acknowledge what you don’t yet know and tell them how you’re getting answers

The mistake response officials make is waiting to release information until all the facts are in

Your speed at releasing information is a marker for your preparedness

Release what you know, acknowledge what you don’t yet know and tell them how you’re getting answers

3) Over-reassurance

11 月 23 日 文匯報

 

Uncertainty Tell people What you know What you don’t know The process you’re using to try and get some answers

Tell people

What you know

What you don’t know

The process you’re using to try and get some answers

Uncertainty Don’t over-reassure A high estimate of harm modified downward is much more acceptable to the public than a low estimate of harm modified upward.

Don’t over-reassure

A high estimate of harm modified downward is much more acceptable to the public than a low estimate of harm modified upward.

Uncertainty Confidence vs. uncertainty Instead of making promises about outcomes, express the uncertainty of the situation and a confident belief in the “process” to fix the problem and address public safety concerns.

Confidence vs. uncertainty

Instead of making promises about outcomes, express the uncertainty of the situation and a confident belief in the “process” to fix the problem and address public safety concerns.

 

4) Paternalistic attitude

11 月 16 日 中國新聞網

(3) Paternalistic attitudes The worst thing you can do is to tell a frightened person they have no reason to be frightened Never tell people “don’t worry” Treat the public like intelligent adults Tell them what you know that makes you less afraid

The worst thing you can do is to tell a frightened person they have no reason to be frightened

Never tell people “don’t worry”

Treat the public like intelligent adults

Tell them what you know that makes you less afraid

 

5) Action steps

Give people things to do Anxiety is reduced by action and a restored sense of control Symbolic behaviors (e.g., going to a candlelight vigil) Preparatory behaviors (e.g., buying water and batteries) Contingent “if, then” behaviors (e.g., creating an emergency family communication plan)

Anxiety is reduced by action and a restored sense of control

Symbolic behaviors (e.g., going to a candlelight vigil)

Preparatory behaviors (e.g., buying water and batteries)

Contingent “if, then” behaviors (e.g., creating an emergency family communication plan)

Give people things to do Recommend a 3-part action plan You must do X You should do Y You can do Z

Recommend a 3-part action plan

You must do X

You should do Y

You can do Z

6) Public power struggle

11 月 23 日 太陽報

11 月 23 日 東方日報

11 月 24 日 成報

11 月 26 日 蘋果日報

(5) Public power struggles or confusion All partners need to have clearly defined roles and responsibilities Let the public perceive a united front with multiple jurisdictions working cooperatively for the good of their community

All partners need to have clearly defined roles and responsibilities

Let the public perceive a united front with multiple jurisdictions working cooperatively for the good of their community

Avoiding pitfalls Pitfall: Organizational identity Do: Use personal pronouns ("I," "we"). Don't: Take on the identity of a large organization. Pitfall: Blame Do: Take responsibility for your share of the problem. Don't: Try to shift blame or responsibility to others.

Pitfall: Organizational identity

Do: Use personal pronouns ("I," "we").

Don't: Take on the identity of a large organization.

Pitfall: Blame

Do: Take responsibility for your share of the problem.

Don't: Try to shift blame or responsibility to others.

What does the world want to see? Acceptance of responsibility Willingness to take positive steps

Acceptance of responsibility

Willingness to take positive steps

Audience judgments about your message Accuracy of Information __________ Speed of Release Empathy + Openness CREDIBILITY Successful Communication = + TRUST

影響

11 月 25 日 蘋果日報

11 月 24 日 東方日報

11 月 23 日 經濟日報

11 月 24 日 太陽報

11 月 23 日 太陽報

11 月 22 日 蘋果日報

11 月 26 日 新報

Costs of Ineffective Health Risk Communication High level of public outrage Irreplaceable loss of trust Loss of credibility Difficulty in reaching resolution on a public health issue Does not result in desired behaviour changes Unnecessary human suffering due to high levels of anxiety, fear, worry and outrage

High level of public outrage

Irreplaceable loss of trust

Loss of credibility

Difficulty in reaching resolution on a public health issue

Does not result in desired behaviour changes

Unnecessary human suffering due to high levels of anxiety, fear, worry and outrage

討論

It could have been better if … Communication objectives First message Key messages Spokesperson Sensitive questions

Communication objectives

First message

Key messages

Spokesperson

Sensitive questions

Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication To provide accurate and timely information as well as essential coordination during a crisis or emergency To inform the public of potential risks and steps being taken during a crisis or emergency To aid individuals, stakeholders, or communities to accept the imperfect nature of choices and to make best possible decisions during a crisis or emergency

To provide accurate and timely information as well as essential coordination during a crisis or emergency

To inform the public of potential risks and steps being taken during a crisis or emergency

To aid individuals, stakeholders, or communities to accept the imperfect nature of choices and to make best possible decisions during a crisis or emergency

What the public seeks from your communication The public wants to know what you know The public wants to accomplish 5 things Gain the wanted facts needed to protect them, their families and their pets Make well-informed decisions Have an active, participatory role Act as a “watch-guard” over resources Recover or preserve well-being and normalcy

The public wants to know what you know

The public wants to accomplish 5 things

Gain the wanted facts needed to protect them, their families and their pets

Make well-informed decisions

Have an active, participatory role

Act as a “watch-guard” over resources

Recover or preserve well-being and normalcy

First message in a crisis An expression of empathy Confirmed facts and action steps What you don’t know about the situation What’s the process Statement of commitment Where people can get more information

An expression of empathy

Confirmed facts and action steps

What you don’t know about the situation

What’s the process

Statement of commitment

Where people can get more information

Key Word Message Map 1 Message Map Stakeholder: Question/Concern Key Message/Fact 1. Key Message/Fact 2. Key Message/Fact 3. Keywords: Supporting Fact 1.1 Keywords: Supporting Fact 1.3 Keywords: Supporting Fact 1.2 Keywords: Supporting Fact 2.1 Keywords: Supporting Fact 2.2 Keywords: Supporting Fact 2.3 Keywords: Supporting Fact 3.1 Keywords: Supporting Fact 3.2 Keywords: Supporting Fact 3.3

The leader as a spokesperson Take the EOC or agency from an “it” to a “we” Express empathy and then give directions for action Rally the community in a crisis

Take the EOC or agency from an “it” to a “we”

Express empathy and then give directions for action

Rally the community in a crisis

 

Frequently asked questions How certain are you that the situation is under control? Why wasn’t this prevented from happening? What else can go wrong? What are you not telling us? Do you accept responsibility for what happened? What would you like to say to those who have been harmed and to their families?

How certain are you that the situation is under control?

Why wasn’t this prevented from happening?

What else can go wrong?

What are you not telling us?

Do you accept responsibility for what happened?

What would you like to say to those who have been harmed and to their families?

11 月 23 日 商報

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