2006 Health nutrition

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Information about 2006 Health nutrition
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Published on March 4, 2008

Author: Woodwork

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HEALTH AND NUTRITIONAL ASPECTS OF PULSES:  HEALTH AND NUTRITIONAL ASPECTS OF PULSES Dr. G.N.V.Brahmam, M.B.,B.S., D.P.H., Deputy Director National Institute of Nutrition Jamai-Osmania (P.O), Hyderabad – 500 007 Phone: (O) 91- 040 - 27019141 (Telefax) 27008921- 27 Ext.286 (PABX) (R) 27208711 E-mail: gnvbrahmam@yahoo.com HEALTH AND NUTRITION :  HEALTH AND NUTRITION HEALTH “… is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well being and not merely absence of disease or infirmity” - - - WHO NUTRITION “ … is a process of ingestion of food, digestion, absorption, assimilation, and utilization of various nutrients” Slide3:  MALNUTRITION “ ….. a pathological state that results from ingestion of one or more nutrients, either in excess or deficient quantities over a period of time.” Undernutrition : Due to deficient intakes Overnutrition : Due to excess intakes SIGNIFICANCE OF NUTRITION:  SIGNIFICANCE OF NUTRITION Normal Growth, development and functions Epidemiological data reveals strong association between undernutrition and morbidity & mortality. Chronic degenerative disorders such as coronary heart disease, hypertension, Type 2 diabetes, certain types of cancers, etc. are related to diet and nutritional status Undernutrition in early Childhood is associated with chronic degenerative disorders in later life SIGNIFICANCE OF NUTRITION (Contd.):  SIGNIFICANCE OF NUTRITION (Contd.) Consumption of foods rich in dietary fiber, anti oxidants etc., is associated with reduced risk of certain types of cancers. Obesity and overweight are also associated with Increased risk of developing cancer of the breast, colon, endometrium, gallbladder, esophagus, pancreas, kidney, etc. DETERMINANTS OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS:  DETERMINANTS OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS Food production Land Ownership Type of land Rain fall Geographic conditions Agricultural techniques Use of hybrid seeds Use of fertilizers Population Family Size Urbanisation Religion Community Occupation Income Drought/Floods Wars Illiteracy Ignorance Taboos PDS Rural Dev. Prog. Employment generation prog. Infections Diarrhoeas Resp. Infections Malaria Others Infestations Hook worms Round worms Giardiasis etc., Environmental sanitation Personal hygiene Safe drinking water H H FOOD SECURITY FOOD INTAKE NUTRITIONAL STATUS Agro-climatic factors Demographic factors Socio-economic factors Disasters Availability of & participation in developmental programmes Socio-cultural factors Environmental factors Pathological Conditions Physiological factors • Pregnancy • Lactation • Breast feeding practices • Infant & child Feeding practices Slide7:  HOUSEHOLD FOOD SECURITY: Ability of the Household to access food which is culturally acceptable and adequate in terms of quality, quantity and safety for all members of the household throughout the year, in order to ensure active and healthy life HOUSEHOLD FOOD INSECURITY: Presently or potential inability to consume food which is adequate, having all the nutrients essential for a healthy and productive life. DETERMINANTS OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS:  DETERMINANTS OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS Food production Land Ownership Type of land Rain fall Geographic conditions Agricultural techniques Use of hybrid seeds Use of fertilizers Population Family Size Urbanisation Community Occupation Income Drought/Floods Wars Religion Literacy Ignorance Taboos PDS Rural Dev. Prog. Employment generation prog. Infections Diarrhoeas Resp. Infections Malaria Others Infestations Hook worms Round worms Giardiasis etc., Environmental sanitation Personal hygiene Safe drinking water H H FOOD SECURITY FOOD INTAKE NUTRITIONAL STATUS Agro-climatic factors Demographic factors Socio-economic factors Disasters Availability of & participation in developmental programmes Socio-cultural factors Environmental factors Pathological Conditions Physiological factors • Pregnancy • Lactation • Breast feeding practices • Infant & child Feeding practices Slide9:  INFECTION AND UNDERNUTRITION ….. a Vicious Cycle UNDERNUTRITION Frequent Infections Reduced Food intake/ absorption Lowered resistance to Infections Death … GROWTH Increase in Physical Mass Eg. Weight, Height etc. … DEVELOPMENT Functional Capability Eg. Mental, Physiological etc. … MAINTENANCE Body Processes :  … GROWTH Increase in Physical Mass Eg. Weight, Height etc. … DEVELOPMENT Functional Capability Eg. Mental, Physiological etc. … MAINTENANCE Body Processes Good Nutrition is Essential for Proper: FOODS :  FOODS Foods Are complex substances, which on digestion are split in to simpler substances called as ‘nutrients’. NUTRIENTS :  NUTRIENTS Macronutrients Carbohydrates (Energy) Proteins (Body building, Protection) Fats (Dense Energy) Micronutrients Vitamins (Fat soluble: A,D,E,K) (Water Soluble: B comp., Vit. C) Minerals (Iron, Iodine, Calcium, Zinc) Slide14:  BALANCED DIET … is one which consists of foods from different groups in such proportions, so as to meet the daily requirements of various nutrients for optimal growth, development and maintenance of health. Slide15:  LEAST COST BALANCED DIET [For an Adult Male doing sedentary Work] Recommended Quantity (g) Cereals : 460 Pulses : 40 GLV : 50 Other Veg. : 60 Roots & Tubers : 50 Milk & M.P. : 150 Fats & Oil : 20 Sugar & Jaggery : 30 Slide16:  PULSES : Poor Man’s Meat Rich in: -- Proteins -- B Comp. Vitamins But poor in : -- Vitamin A -- Vitamin C Raw Pulses have “Trypsin Inhibitor” which interferes with Digestion of Proteins. However, it gets destroyed in normal cooking. Proteins:  Proteins Complex organic nitrogenous compounds. Constitute about 20% of the body weight in an adult. Made up of smaller units, called as Amino Acids (AA). About 24 Amino acids are needed by the human body, of which 9 are essential amino acids, because they can not be synthesized in the body, and hence must be obtained from extraneously (Diet). Essential Amino Acids:  Essential Amino Acids Valine Histidine Leucine Isoleucine Lysine Phenylalanine & Tyrosine Methionine & Cystine Threonine Tryptophan LIMITING AMINO ACIDS:  LIMITING AMINO ACIDS Cereal proteins are deficient in lysine and threonine , but rich in methionine. Pulse proteins are deficient in methionine & Tryptophan, but rich in lysine Therefore, by judicious mixing of cereals and pulses, the overall quality of proteins in the diets can be improved. Functions of Proteins:  Functions of Proteins Development of Muscle, -- Body Tissues, -- Hormones, -- Enzymes Repair and maintenance Required for a wide range of metabolic processes in the body Sources of Proteins:  Sources of Proteins Animal sources: Milk, meat, eggs, cheese, fish, etc. These proteins contain all the AA - biologically complete proteins. Vegetable sources: pulses and legumes, cereals, beans, nuts, oil seeds, etc. Slide22:  CONSUMPTION OF PULSES IN THE RURAL COMMUNITIES Average Consumption of Pulses (g/CU/Day) -- Time trends :  Average Consumption of Pulses (g/CU/Day) -- Time trends Source: NNMB Rural Surveys RDI % Households by number of Types of Pulses Consumed :  % Households by number of Types of Pulses Consumed Source: NNMB Rural Surveys PERCENT Commonly Consumed Pulses in the Rural Areas:  Commonly Consumed Pulses in the Rural Areas Source: NNMB Survey 2000 Report Slide26:  Average Consumption of Pulses (g/CU/Day) by Occupation Community Type of Family Type of House Grams Grams Slide27:  Average Consumption of Pulses (g/CU/Day) by Land Holding (Acres) Per Capita Income (Rs./Month) Source: NNMB Second Repeat Survey Mean daily Intake of Pulses and Legumes (as % RDI) by Age and Gender:  Mean daily Intake of Pulses and Legumes (as % RDI) by Age and Gender Grams Age in Years Source: NNMB Second Repeat Survey Mean Intake of Pulses and Legumes (g/Day) Among Adults:  Mean Intake of Pulses and Legumes (g/Day) Among Adults Grams Source: NNMB Second Repeat Survey Frequency Distribution (%) of HH Consumption of Pulses (g/CU/Day):  Frequency Distribution (%) of HH Consumption of Pulses (g/CU/Day) Source: NNMB Survey 2000 Report Distribution (%) of Households according to Percent of RDA by Pulses & Legumes:  Distribution (%) of Households according to Percent of RDA by Pulses & Legumes Source: NNMB Second Repeat Survey Distribution (%) of Individuals according to intake of Pulses and Legumes as % of RDA :  Distribution (%) of Individuals according to intake of Pulses and Legumes as % of RDA Source: NNMB Survey 2000 Report KESARI DAL (Lathyrus Sativus):  KESARI DAL (Lathyrus Sativus) Slide34:  Grass pea, chikling pea, Indian vetch, khesari, batura, matri etc. India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, Ethiopia, Europe, West Asia and North Africa Major States in India MP, Maharashtra, Bihar, Orissa, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh Production figures of Lathyrus in 1995: India 0.800 Million tonnes Bangladesh 0. 174 Million tonnes Pakistan 0. 045 Million tonnes Lathyrus Sativus Slide35:  Proximate Composition of Lathyrus Sativus Protein 25.6 - 28.4 % Carbohydrate 48.0 - 52.4 % Fat 0.58 - 0.8 % Ash 2.90 - 4.6 % BOAA (Neuro-toxin) 0 .22 - 2.0 % Slide36:  Neuro Lathyrism Characterized by: - Heaviness & stiffness of limbs - Muscle cramps - Tremors - Exaggerated ankle/knee jerks - Altered gait - Spastic paraperisis Slide37:  Recent outbreaks of Neurolathyrism Afghanistan 2001 Nepal 1998 Ethiopia 1997 ( Getahun etal Tropical Medicine International Health 10, 2005 ) Neurolathyrism outbreaks in last three decades in India Madhya Pradesh: 1975 ( Dwivedi & Misra, Proc. of Nutr soc.India 1975) Maharastra : 1977 (Kulkarni etal IJMR 1977) Sporadic cases Karnataka, AP& Maharastra 1995 (Bhat & Amruth 1995) Maharastra 2003 (Sudershan & Babu 2003) Slide38:  Four Pronged Strategy for Prevention and Control of Lathyrism Educating community against using LS as staple Persuade to parboil before cooking Dissuade landlords from paying wages in the form of Lathyrus Encouraging to identify and propagate low BOAA strains Slide39:  CONCLUSIONS Though contribution of Pulses to total protein requirement is low, it is very essential to improve the quality of protein. Average consumption of pulses, ingeneral is relatively poor and much lower than the recommended levels. The consumption is relatively better in the States of Gujarat, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Madhya Pradesh. Slide40:  CONCLUSIONS (Contd.) The average consumption of pulses is gradually decreasing over the period, probably because of lowered production and escalating costs. Therefore, there is an urgent need to improve the extent of consumption of pulse through: - Increased the production - Increased availability, and - at affordable price.

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