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2006 Feb Washington India NewInitiative

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Information about 2006 Feb Washington India NewInitiative
Education

Published on February 20, 2008

Author: Tommaso

Source: authorstream.com

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Slide1:  ABC AND INDIA A.P. Mitra DELHI, ABC Meeting, 13 Feb 2006. Slide2:  India - New Initiatives Slide3:  The range of annual averages of total particulate matter concentrations measured at multiple sites within cities throughout the world for the period 1980 to 1984. Each bar represents a city, as indicated. The orange shading indicates the concentration range recommended by the United Nations Environment Program as a reasonable target for preserving human health. Indian Interest:  Indian Interest Air pollution Trace species like CO, BC, NOx, SO2 etc. Contribution of – Local emissions Transportation Contribution of – Bio-fuel emission Fossil fuel emission Impacts of air pollution Hydrological Cycle Agriculture Human health New Programmes:  New Programmes IMD’s EMRC ISRO’s Campaign Mode measurements Indian Special monitoring sites ABC ( Includes Ozone and Precursors) MAIRS Slide6:  MAIRS Four Major Themes: Semi arid zones Urban and peri-urban areas Coastal Regions High Mountains Observing/Monitoring Networks & Stations:  Observing/Monitoring Networks & Stations Slide8:  BAPMoN and Radiation Network BAPMoN Stations Existing Network of Radiation Stations & BAPMoN Radiation Legend Radiation Network Slide9:  CPCB National Ambient Air Quality Monitoring (NAAQM) Network Slide10:  ATMOSHERIC MONITORING NET WORKS OPERATED AND COORDINATED BY THE IMD Surface observatories:559 Pilot balloon observatories:65 RS/RW observatories:34 Only RS observatories:1 Aviation current weather observatories:71 Aviation forecasting offices at national and international airports:19 Regional area forecast centre:1 Storm detecting radar stations:17 Cyclone detection radar stations:10 High wind recording stations:4 Stations for receiving cloud pictures from satellites Low-resolution cloud pictures:7 High-resolution cloud pictures:1 INSAT-IB cloud pictures (SDUC stations):20 APT Stations in Antarctica:1 AVHRR station:1 10. Data Collection Platforms through INSAT:100 Slide11:  1 Hydrometeorological observatories:701 Non-departmental raingauge stations Reporting3540 Non-reporting5039 Non-departmental Glaciological Observations (Non-reporting) Snowgauges21 Ordinary Raingauges10 Seasonal Snow Poles6 12. Agrometeorological observatories:219 13. Evaporation stations:222 14. Evapotranspiration stations:39 15. Seismological observatories:58 16. Ozone monitoring Total ozone and Umkehr observatories:5 Ozone-sonde observatories:3 Surface ozone observatories:6 ATMOSHERIC MONITORING NET WORKS OPERATED AND COORDINATED BY THE IMD Slide12:  17. Radiation observatories (a) Surface:45 (b) Upper-air:8 18. Atmospheric electricity observatories4 19. (a) Background pollution observatories:10 (b) Urban Climatological Units2 (c) Urban Climatological Observatories13 20. Ships of the Indian Voluntary Observing Fleet203 21. Soil moisture recording stations49 22. Dew-fall recording stations 80 ATMOSHERIC MONITORING NET WORKS OPERATED AND COORDINATED BY THE IMD Slide13:  Special Sites and Special Facilities Slide14:  CONCEPTUAL NETWORK POINT-1 Slide15:  G U I D E L I N E S Indo- Gangetic Plains Food Basket of India Major Source of Pollutants Mountain Region Crucial Region but understudied Western and Eastern Himalayas different Sites for Monitoring Transboundary pollutants Mapping Strategies : New IMD efforts Global Carbon Cycle Project : US-India Slide16:  Centre on Global Change Research vessel - Sagar kanya Slide17:  Hanle Darjeeling Sundarbans Port Blair CO ~ 150-600 ppbv O3 ~ 60-80 bbbv CO ~ 250-700 ppbv O3 ~ 10-45 bbbv CO ~ 150-650 ppbv O3 ~ 10-40 bbbv O3~30-60 ppbv Delhi O3- 10-70 ppbv BC- 5-25 µg/m3 Trace gas measurements facilities in India Special Observation Sites Total Ozone : Dobson Total Ozone : Brewer Ozone Surface Ozonesonde Slide18:  Western Himalayas : Leh, Stakana, Hanle, Pantnagar 3 campaigns in Summer 2000 2002 2003 Slide19:  HANLE Slide20:  Himalayan Chandra Telescope on Mt. Saraswati in Hanle, Ladakh Slide21:  Hanle, Laddakh Observatory Lat.: 32046’N Long.: 78057’E Alt.: 14823 feet Observatory of Indian Institute of Astrophysics At Mount Sarswati Laddakh, India Slide22:  Eastern Himalayas : Darjeeling & Sangdongfu Slide23:  Darjeeling Hills Campaign Measurements July, 1999 May, 2001 April, 2003 November, 2003 Ozone CO NOx CO2 Aerosol UV Slide25:  2001 SPOT OF OBSERVATION Slide26:  CO, OZONE at Darjeeling Slide28:  Observational Site Campaigns: Dec 10, 2001- Jan 4, 2002 Apr 11 – Apr 21, 2003 January 2004 Parameters: Ozone CO NOx Aerosol UV Slide29:  SUNDARBAN Slide30:  PORT BLAIR Slide34:  Emission Factors Inventories Slide35:  Distribution of total CO emissions over the Indian region on a larger scale at State level for 2001. Slide39:  <=400 401 - 800 801 - 1200 1201 - 1800 1801 - 2200 2201 - 2600 2601 - 3000 CO emission (Gg) > 3000 CO emissions Statewise Slide40:  <=30 31 - 60 61 - 90 91 - 120 121 - 200 201 - 300 > 300 CO emission (Gg) CO emissions Gridwise Slide45:  1990 1992 1997 1998 2000 2002 1990 CO2 CH4   -Fossil -Fuel, -Rice -Animals 1990 CO2 CH4   -Transport, -Coal mines, -1992 CH4 camp. -Tier-II method animals   1990 CO2 , CH4 N2O, NOx, CO, NMVOC Additional sources: Biomass burning, cement manufacturing, oil & methodology or animal manure, crop residue, soils and municipal solid waste Base year Gases Sectors Ref. Mitra, 1991 Mitra, 1992 ALGAS, India, 1998 1998 CH4   1998 methane campaign, CH4 emission coefficients developed for rice paddied grown on organically amended soils in India 1990, 1994, 1998 and 2000 N2O, Mostly all sources MAC Asia report, 1999 Present report Chronology of development of Inventory by NPL Year of Operation 1990 1992 1997 CH4 IPCC accepts seasonally integrated approach and new classification of rice fieldsbased on water regimes 1990-1995 1996-1998 1998 2002 Parashar et. al., 1997 CO2 emissions in India in 1990 and 1994:  CO2 emissions in India in 1990 and 1994     Slide47:  Statewise Methane Emission Slide48:  Distribution of Methane Density Slide49:  Region wise Distribution of Methane Slide51:  State wise CH4 Emissions for 1994 District wise CH4 Emission for West Bengal for 1994 Slide52:  Regional NOx Emission Strength for INDIA Slide53:  CO2, BC, CO and SO2 Note : On a per capita basis BC emissions from China and USA roughly equal ; Indian’s emission slightly smaller. Modeling Efforts:  Modeling Efforts MATCH MOZART WRF-CHEM GIS Slide55:  OH concentration from MATCH over Indian region Slide56:  http://envis.tropmet.res.in/ Slide58:  WRF-CHEM model - Atmospheric Chemistry Group (NCAR) Applications: Capability to simulate chemistry and aerosols online as well as offline within the WRF model. To simulate the coupling between dynamics, radiation and chemistry. Forecasting chemical weather, testing air pollution abatement strategies, planning and forecasting for field campaigns and the assimilation of satellite and in-situ chemical measurements Slide59:  Chemistry package consists of : Dry Deposition coupled with the soil/vegetation scheme. Two choices for biogenic emissions : Online calculation of biogenic emissions (as in Simpson et. al 1995 and Gunther et. al 1994) includes emissions of isoprene, monoterpenes, and nitrogen emissions by soil. The EPA Biogenic Emissions Inventory System (BEIS) version 3.11.       Slide60:  Anthropogenic emissions are computed from the EPA NEI-99 data inventory (for US and Canada) The RADM2 chemical mechanism (Quasi steady state Approximation method with 22 diagnoised, 3 constant and 38 predicted species)   Photolysis (Madronich scheme coupled with hydrometeors) Aerosols (MADE/SORGAM aerosol parameterization Slide61:  Chemistry package consists of : Dry Deposition coupled with the soil/vegetation scheme. TTwo choices for biogenic emissions Online calculation of biogenic emissions (as in Simpson et. al 1995 and Gunther et. al 1994) includes emissions of isoprene, monoterpenes, and nitrogen emissions by soil. 2. The EPA Biogenic Emissions Inventory System (BEIS) version 3.11.       Slide62:  Chemistry package consists of : Dry Deposition coupled with the soil/vegetation scheme. Two choices for biogenic emissions Online calculation of biogenic emissions (as in Simpson et. al 1995 and Gunther et. al 1994) includes emissions of isoprene, monoterpenes, and nitrogen emissions by soil. 2. The EPA Biogenic Emissions Inventory System (BEIS) version 3.11.       Slide63:  Anthropogenic emissions are computed from the EPA NEI-99 data inventory (for US and Canada) The RADM2 chemical mechanism (Quasi steady state Approximation method with 22 diagnoised, 3 constant and 38 predicted species)        Photolysis (Madronich scheme coupled with hydrometeors) Aerosols (MADE/SORGAM aerosol parameterization HEAT – ISLAND characteristics of DELHI using WRF-CHEM model :  HEAT – ISLAND characteristics of DELHI using WRF-CHEM model Chemistry not included Domain: No. of Grids in x-direction = 50 No. of Grids in y-direction = 50 Grid spacing in x and y – direction = 1000m vertical levels = 15 Run hours - 36, Run mode - 3-Dimensional Initialization - 5:30 IST Input Meteorological data - GFS 10 resolution data for every 6 hours (NCEP) Slide65:  1 2 4 5 7 8 16 1. Urban 2. Dry land Cropland and Pasture 4. Mixed Dry land, Irrigated Cropland and Pasture 5. Cropland / Grassland and Mosaic 7. Grassland 8. Shrub land 16. Water bodies                                                       Temperature distribution in and around DELHI on the simulation day:  Temperature distribution in and around DELHI on the simulation day 4 4 Slide67:  http://envis.tropmet.res.in/ Temperature distribution in and around DELHI on the simulation day:  Temperature distribution in and around DELHI on the simulation day 4 4 Slide69:  4 4 Slide70:  Wind field in and around DELHI on the simulation day Simulated diurnal variation of temperature and comparisons with observations at Safdurjung and Palam :  Simulated diurnal variation of temperature and comparisons with observations at Safdurjung and Palam Slide73:  Indo-Gangetic Plains

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