2006 Blueberry Talk

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Information about 2006 Blueberry Talk
Education

Published on January 22, 2008

Author: Venere

Source: authorstream.com

Slide1:  Amanda Ferguson Sears and Terry Jones University of Kentucky, Horticulture Robinson Station Blueberry Production Blueberry History:  Blueberry History One of the few fruit crops native to America. Increasing in popularity. Different Varieties: Highbush Blueberry Rabbiteye Blueberry Lowbush Blueberry Huckleberry “Youth Berries”:  “Youth Berries” Flavanoids and antioxidants decrease the bodies oxidative stress. Pterostilbene lowers cholesterol. Good source of fiber. Proanthocyanidins prevent urinary tract infections and stave off eye fatigue. Resveratol reduces the risk of heart disease and cancer. Found to have anti bacterial properties. The Blueberry Blues…:  The Blueberry Blues… Not enough planning Poor site selection Poor site preparation Failure to establish and monitor irrigation system Slide5:  No soil test Did not properly incorporate peat moss into a raised bed No bird/predator control Labor Plant Site Development:  Site Development Chisel point breaks up any hard pan, improves drainage Covering disks shape and form bed Rotating barrel compresses hill Site Development:  Site Development Raised beds Better drainage Roots develop above compacted wet zones Prior to Planting:  Prior to Planting Incorporate peat with soil Peat tilled uniformly into entire bed Dig hole for planting Dig a good deep hole 24” wide x 18” deep Mix 1 gal peat in bottom of hole Pollination:  Pollination Bumblebees vs. honeybees Hive number 2/A Good pollination = larger berry 80% blossoms Cross pollination Irrigation:  Irrigation Soil should be damp but not wet 1-2 inches of rainfall every 10 days Insufficient moisture will reduce the bud formation for next year’s crop Drip irrigation with point source emitters. Birds:  Birds Trellising utilized for netting Nets should be placed two weeks before first harvest Nets should be removed after last harvest Product Sources:  Product Sources Spec Trellising www.spectrellising.com info@spectrellising.com 1-800-237-4594 Washington Ag & Vineyard Enterprises jhudak2@televar.com 1-509-786-2114 Labor:  Labor On average, it takes 5½ minutes to pick 1 qt of blueberries. So, it takes just under 3 minutes to pick approximately one pound of blueberries. Ex. 20lbs of berries x 3 minutes= 60 minutes Blueberry diseases…:  Blueberry diseases… John Hartman Extension Plant Pathologist University of Kentucky Blueberry stem canker diseases cause dieback:  Blueberry stem canker diseases cause dieback When individual blueberry branches die, the cause is usually a stem or branch canker. Cankers which girdle the stem disrupt nutrient and water flow and foliage dies. Blueberry cankers are caused by several different kinds of fungi including Phomopsis, Botryosphaeria, and Fusicoccum. These fungi often cause cankers on blueberries growing under stressful conditions such as winter injury, drought, or nutrient imbalance. Blueberry stem canker symptoms:  Blueberry stem canker symptoms Fungal cankers are typically oval shape and disrupt stem functions. Fungal fruiting bodies can sometimes be seen (right). Cankers and dead branches should be pruned out. Phytophthora root rot causes death of blueberry plants:  Phytophthora root rot causes death of blueberry plants Phytophthora root rot occurs in the wettest part of the field. Avoid root rot by providing good soil drainage. Additional disorders and diseases affect Kentucky blueberries:  Additional disorders and diseases affect Kentucky blueberries Iron deficiency (left) occurs when soil is not acid enough. This disorder can make plants more prone to canker diseases. Botrytis blossom blight (below) reduces blueberry yields. Blueberry Research at Robinson Station:  Blueberry Research at Robinson Station Two sites Robinson Station (Quicksand, KY) Reclaimed Surface Mine (Laurel Fork, KY) Blueberry bushes were planted in 1996 Growth, yield, and survival of 21 cultivars A randomized block design Plants are 4 ft. apart in raised beds 14 ft. apart. 2005 Soil Test:  2005 Soil Test Robinson Station Laurel Fork Fertilization:  Fertilization Fertilizing started in spring of 1997 In 2005, 5-20-20 (5lbs/100ft row) Sulfur coated urea (5lb/50ft row) side dress at bloom, and again three weeks later Two applications of urea (0.2lb/50ft row) in mid and late July through drip lines. Site Comparison:  Site Comparison Laurel Fork Disturbed mine site 750 ft. higher elevation than Quicksand Better air drainage Bark chips for mulch Low residual nitrogen levels Irrigation from remote pond Site Comparison:  Site Comparison Quicksand, KY Normal silt loam site More problems with Phytophthora Sawdust Mulch Irrigation from North Fork of KY River Production:  Production Began harvesting blueberries in 2000 Harvested about once a week during production seasons Production:  Production Hand Picked June 6st to July 25th Requires one to two days to develop full flavor Pick once a week Top Five Producers from Quicksand, 2005:  Top Five Producers from Quicksand, 2005 Top Five Producers from Laurel Fork, 2005:  Top Five Producers from Laurel Fork, 2005 Cumulative blueberry yield for Quicksand and Laurel Fork plantings, 2000-2005:  Cumulative blueberry yield for Quicksand and Laurel Fork plantings, 2000-2005 *These cultivars are 1 year younger than the other cultivars in the trial. Cultivars in red are varieties which are shared in the top ten from each location. Cumulative blueberry yield for Quicksand and Laurel Fork plantings, 2000-2005:  Cumulative blueberry yield for Quicksand and Laurel Fork plantings, 2000-2005 *These cultivars are 1 year younger than the other cultivars in the trial. Cultivars in red are varieties which are shared in the top ten from each location. Cumulative blueberry yield for Quicksand and Laurel Fork plantings, 2000-2005:  Cumulative blueberry yield for Quicksand and Laurel Fork plantings, 2000-2005 *These cultivars are 1 year younger than the other cultivars in the trial. Cultivars in red are varieties which are shared in the top ten from each location. Slide31:  ANY QUESTIONS? 2005 Pounds per Bush:  2005 Pounds per Bush *These cultivars are 1 year younger than the other cultivars in the trial. 2005 Pounds per Bush:  2005 Pounds per Bush *These cultivars are 1 year younger than the other cultivars in the trial. 2005 Pounds per Bush:  2005 Pounds per Bush * These cultivars are 1 year younger than the other cultivars in the trial. 1. Ozark Blue at Laurel Fork are 3 years old.

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