2005317110534 9

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Information about 2005317110534 9

Published on April 22, 2008

Author: Silvestre

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开 放 英 语 IV:  开 放 英 语 IV This Is English 4 制作者:王丽 羌华 朱剑 19. Urban and Rural Worlds:  19. Urban and Rural Worlds Main functions: Study vocabulary related to urban growth and change in rural environments; Study the use of present participles; Study the use of comparatives with the…the…; Study the use of linking words; Study the structure the superlative+present perfect+ever Some vocabulary:  Some vocabulary total: add up to ; forecast: predict increase: grow bigger; demand: need Migration: movement from one place to another; due to: because of Five-fold: five times; range: variety Mega-city: big city; drive: cause Deforestation: loss of trees Drive (people) out: force (people) to leave; improved: better Experienced: known; huge: very big indeed The use of present participle:  The use of present participle Used as attributive clause: Sixty million people who live in rural areas are moving to cities every year. Sixty million people living in rural areas are moving to cities every year. 每年有六千万住在农村的人口移居到城市。 This growth, which is happening mainly in Southeast and Africa, has dramatic consequences. This growth, happening mainly in Southeast and Africa, has dramatic consequences.这种增长主要发生在东南亚和非洲地区,有着巨大的影响。 The use of present participle:  The use of present participle Used as adverbial: Civil war or regional conflicts also cause disruption, driving people out of rural areas. 内战或地区冲突也会引发在社会动荡不安,从而迫使人们逃离农村地区。 在这个句子中,driving引导的现在分词短语用作结果状语。 The…the…比较结构:  The…the…比较结构 该结构的形式为“the+比较级”,表示“越….,就越….”。For example: The smaller the families, the higher the standard of living.家庭越小,生活水平就越高。 The more educated they are, the better they care fore their families.他们受教育的程度越高,就越能更好地照顾他们的家庭。 How much shall I cook? The more, the better. Don’t talk about it. The less said, the better. 别讲了!少说为佳。 The+最高级+现在完成时+ever结构:  The+最高级+现在完成时+ever结构 该结构的形式为:the+最高级+定语从句(现在完成时+ever结构,ever置于主要动词之前),常用来谈论重要的事件或经历,表示“迄今为止已经完成或经历过的最······的事情”。For example: It is the best film I’ve ever seen.那是我看过的最好的电影。 Compare: It is one of the best concerts I have ever been to. 那是我去过的最好的音乐会之一。 It is the best concerts I have ever been to. 那是我去过的最好的音乐会。 Translation Practice:  Translation Practice 现在分词短语的翻译:现在分词在句中一般起定语或状语的作用。在翻译现在分词短语时,我们一般将其译为一个句子即可。但注意译过来的句子不一定再充当定语或状语了。 For example: I walked down the hill into town, ignoring the flashes of lightning all round me.我顾不上一路的电闪雷鸣,沿着山路向市区走去。 The man leaning against the door is Alice’s boyfriend. 倚在门口的那个男子是爱丽思的男友。 Having been trained twice, he is a safe efficient driver. 由于受过两次训练他开车又快又安全。 20.The Consumer Society or Wasteful Society?:  20.The Consumer Society or Wasteful Society? Main function: Study vocabulary related to food,waste and recycling; Study the use of the model verbs can and must in the passive; Study the zero conditional; Review the simple and continuous present perfect. Past participle as attributive:  Past participle as attributive 过去分词可以用作定语。如是单词,常置于所修饰的名词之前,相当于形容词,常含有被动意义。过去分词短语用作定语时,一般置于其所修饰的名词之后,其意义相当于一个被动形式的定语。For example: 1. A lot of food bought nowadays is convenience food. A lot of food which is bought nowadays is convenience food. 2. People employed by fast-food chains are often paid a low salary. People who are employed by fast-food chains are often paid a low salary. Present perfect and present perfect continuous:  Present perfect and present perfect continuous 现在完成时表示说话时动作已经完成或结束,现在完成时则表示说话时动作仍在持续进行。现在完成时强调的是动作的结果,而现在完成进行时强调的是动作的延续性。 For example: The government has banned the import of items… 政府已经禁止进口诸如······之类的物品。 Guangdong Province, in the southeast of China, has been suffering from problems caused by imported waste electrical goods like computers. 中国东南部的广东省一直为进口的废弃电器产品(如计算机)所造成的问题而深受其苦。 过去分词短语的翻译:  过去分词短语的翻译 过去分词短语在句中一般起定语或状语的作用。在翻译过去分词短语时,我们一般将其译为一个定语或者状语。For example: The Olympic Games first played in 776 BC did not include women players until 1912. 公元前776年首次举行的奥运会没有女运动员参加,直到1912年这种情况才得到改变。 There will be television chat shows hosted by robots in the near future. 在不远的将来将会出现由机器人主持的电视谈话节目。 21. Looking After the World:  21. Looking After the World Study vocabulary about sources of energy and about marine life; Revise giving advice and suggestions with modal verbs; Study the continuous future; Study the first conditional further; Study the perfect infinitive used with reporting verbs in the passive. The future continuous:  The future continuous 将来进行时由“will/will not(won’t)+be+现在分词”构成,强调在将来某一特定时间正在进行或要发生的动作。For example: Next month, the Arctic Sunrise will be visiting the Philippines and Thailand. 下个月,北极日出号将访问菲律宾和泰国。 上句的否定和疑问式为: Next month, the Arctic Sunrise won’t be visiting the Philippines and Thailand. Will the Arctic Sunrise be visiting the Philippines and Thailand next month? Unless 引导的真实条件句:  Unless 引导的真实条件句 Unless引导的真实条件句,表示“如果不”或“除非”,相当于“if not”, 其结构与if引导的真实条件句一样:unless从句用一般现在时,主句用一般将来时。For example: Unless I buy a bike, I’ll have to use the car. 除非我买辆自行车,否则我就不得不开车。 上句可以改写为: If I don’t buy a bike,I’ll have to use the car. 与if一样,unless 引导的真实条件句可以放在句首或句尾。例如上句可改为: I’ll have to use the car unless I buy a bike. 情态动词should的翻译:  情态动词should的翻译 情态动词should的翻译要根据其在语境(上下文)中的具体含义而定,而不一定总是表示“应该”。 例如: The musician believed that music should express the thought and feeling of its own time in history. 这位音乐家认为音乐应当表达其所处历史年代的思想感情。 She earns a good salary, so she shouldn’t be badly off. 她薪水不低,不应该很拮据的。 It is strange that he should marry her. 他竟和她结婚了,真是奇怪。 22.Globalisation and Language:  22.Globalisation and Language Main function: Study vocabulary to do with language; Study the progressive infinitive; Study be going to for prediction; Review the future perfect; Study the use of likely,probably and possibly. the Progressive Infinitive:  the Progressive Infinitive 不定式的进行式由“to be+现在分词”构成,该结构与现在进行时一样,强调动作正在进行。与之相比,不定式的一般式由“to+动词原形”构成,表示客观事实或普遍真理。试比较: Over 300million people are estimated to speak English as a second language. 据估计,三亿多人将英语作为第二语言进行交流。 At the moment over one billion people are said to be learning English. 据说目前有十亿多人正在学习英语。 Be going to for prediction:  Be going to for prediction 前面我们学过了be going to 表示将来的打算。它也可以用来表示预测。 Chinese is going to become more widely spoken. 汉语将被更广泛地使用。 It’s unlikely that they’re going to shift English from its position of dominance. 他们(这些语言)不大可能改变英语的统治地位。 在上面的句子中,will可以代替be going to, 表示预测。 Review the future prefect:  Review the future prefect 将来完成时由“will/won’t +have +过去分词” 构成,表示将来某一时间完成某事。 By 2003, the number of native English-speaking web users will have dropped to 29%. 到2003年,以英语为母语的网络使用者的人数将下降到29%。 In about 20 years time,Spanish,French,Arabic and Chinese will also have taken in this connecting role.大约20年后,西班牙语,法语,阿拉伯语和 汉语也将起到这种联系沟通作用。 Study the use of likely,probably and possibly:  Study the use of likely,probably and possibly 1.Likely,probably 和 possibly均表示可能性。likely 表示可能性较大,一般构成短语“to be+likely +不定式” Many languages are likely to die out.许多语言可能会消亡。 2.probably也表示可能性较大。 He will probably send us an email tomorrow.他很可能明天会给我们发电子邮件。 3.possible 表示某事可能会发生,也可能不会发生。 English will probably decline in use as the major Internet language.英语作为主要的网络语言,其作用有可能会下降。 情态动词must的翻译:  情态动词must的翻译 情态动词must的翻译要根据其在语境中的具体含义而定,不一定总是表示“必须”。例如: You must see that film. You really shouldn’t miss it. 你一定要看看那部电影。真不该错过。(must 表示强烈的建议) You must recycle your rubbish. 你不需回收垃圾。(这里must表示一种义务或必要性) “We must be coming into London station”,he said, “I can recognise some buildings.” “我们准是要进伦敦车站了”,他说,“我能认出一些建筑物。”(这里must表示逻辑上的推断,即一种可能性。) 23.the World of Communication :  23.the World of Communication Main function: 1.Study language related to the media 2.Extra your knowledge of linking words and phrases 3.Study the use of whom 4.Review reported speech and reporting verbs. Use of linking words and phrases:  Use of linking words and phrases 1.on the other hand …….on the other hand 该连接短语用来对比不同的事物,表示“一方面 …….另一方面” On the one hand there are the political changes which have taken place world. in the On the other hand there are the had.一方面,世界政治已经发生变化;technological changes we’ve 另一方面,我们 也经历了技术变革。 2.not only …….but also 表示“不仅 ……而且” This makes it much easier not only to produce radio and TV broadcast,but also to broadcast a lot more radio and television.这不仅使得制作广播和电视节目变得更为简单,而且 使得播出更多的广播和电视节目变得更为容易。 Use of whom:  Use of whom whom 置于介词后面的用法一般用于现在正式的书面语中,在非正式用语中,通常以who开头,以介词结尾。 So the question is –should they be controlled and if so,by whom? 因此问题是:传媒公司应该受到管制吗?如果应该,那么由谁来管制呢? 连接词语的翻译:  连接词语的翻译 英译汉中连接词语常可以省略,也可以以适当的方式译出,这体现了汉语和英语的差别,即汉语凭借内在的语法关系构成一个看似松散实则紧密的单复句,而英语主要靠连接词语组成一个有机整体。例如, This makes it much easier not only to produce radio and TV broadcast, but also to broadcast a lot more radio and television.这就不但使得无线电广播和电视广播制作变得容易多了,而且能更便于更多的无限和电视节目。 25.Working Life and Technology:  25.Working Life and Technology Main functions: Study language related to work and technology; Review using to need; Learn to use the structures used to and be/get used to; Study the language of cause and effect; Learn to describe technical problems and solutions; Learn more about writing email. Need 的用法:  Need 的用法 need后接名词或动词不定式。例如: You will need special card from reception.你需要从接诊处把你一张特殊的磁卡。 You need to know about them before you can start work.在你上班之前你需要了解它们(这些变化)。 need后接动名词,即动词的-ing形式,该结构相当于“need+不定式的被动式”。例如: It will need replacing (=need to be replaced)every two months.它每两个月就需要更换一次。 Used to 和be/get used to 的用法:  Used to 和be/get used to 的用法 1.used to +动词原形 在Course Book 2的Unit 27和Course Book 3的Unit 1中,我们学习了这种结构。该结构表示过去的习惯性动作或状态,而现在这种动作或状态已经不复存在。因此该结构常用来进行今昔对比。例如: Remember you used to wait ages before the information came up on the screen?well, now it’s very quick.你还记得当初需要等候很长时间信息才能在电脑屏幕上显示出来吗?现在,它可快多了。 I used to talk to everyone a lot ,but now we communicate by email most of the time.我过去常和每一位同事聊天,但现在我们多数时候是通过电子邮件进行交流的。 注意used to 的否定形式:   I didn’t use to smoke, but I do now.我过去不吸烟,但我现在吸烟。 Slide30:  2.be/get used to +名词/动名词 该结构相当于be/get accustomed to,表示“习惯于……”。be used to强调状态,表示“完全习惯于……”;get used to强调变化,表示“开始或正在习惯于……”。例如: I’m used to writing emails.我习惯写电子邮件。 I’m getting used to writing emails.我在逐渐习惯写电子邮件。 Be/get used to可以用于任何时态,其疑问和否定形式与to be或to get的结构相同。例如: Are you used to writing emails? I’m not used to writing emails. Have you got used to writing emails? I won’t get used to writing emails. Get used to 常与can’t连用。表示“无法习惯于……”或“无法适应于……”。例如: I can’t get used to the new computer system.我无法适应新的电脑系统。 I can’t get used to writing emails to people in the same room.我无法适应给同一办公室的同事发电子邮件。 表达因果关系:  表达因果关系  我们在Book3 Unit16中学习了一些表达因果关系的词句。例如: Poor education leads to unemployment.接受教育不足导致失业。 Low interest rates may cause inflation. 低利率会引发通货膨胀。 在 Activity9的备忘录中,出现了更多的表达因果关系的方式。例如: X happens causing Y Misspelling of patients’ names has resulted in the duplication of records causing inaccuracy in patients’data .拼错患者的姓名致使重复病历的产生,从而造成患者资料的不准确。 X happens leading to Y …double-bookings have increased,leading to confusion…重复预约增多,造成混乱。 Slide32:  X has led to Y The practice of not switching off the computers when you leave your office at the end of the day has led to computers not functioning the next morning.下班离开办公室时不关计算机的做法导致第二天上午计算机不能正常运行。 X has resulted in Y Misspelling of patients’ names has resulted in the duplication of records…拼错患者的姓名致使重复病历的产生。 X Therefore,Y …many doctors…arrived late, and therefore were not fully trained in the new system. 许多医生迟到,因而他们没能全面接受关于新系统的培训。 X Consequently, Y …were not fully trained in the new system. Consequently ,further training days will take place…他们没能全面接受关于新系统的培训,因此,将另外安排培训时间。 描述技术问题与建议解决办法:  描述技术问题与建议解决办法 询问 What’s the problem? What’s the matter? 说明问题 There’s something wrong with X. X is not working. I’m/I’ve been having a bit of trouble with X. I’m/I’ve been having a problem with X. It keeps+动词-ing形式(用于描述具体问题) 建议解决办法 Are you sure (that)+从句? Have you tried+动词-ing形式? It might be+名词 The best thing to do is (to)+动词原形 Translation Practice:  Translation Practice 情态动词might的翻译 情态动词might的翻译要根据其在语境(上下文)中的具体含义而定,不一定总是表示“可能,也许”。例如: 1. I might be the CEO by this time next year.没准儿明年这个时候我就是首席执行官了。(这里might表示实现的可能性很小,注意和may的细微差异) 2. We might meet again after Christmas,if you agree.如果你同意,我们可以在圣诞节后再次见面。(这里表示客气的建议或请求) 3. You might close the door behind you.请你随手关门。(这里表示轻微的责备) 26.Technology and Personal Life:  26.Technology and Personal Life Main functions: Learn vocabulary related to mobile phones,computing and emails; Review functional language for giving advice; Study the third conditional; Revise the use of the gerund; Study language for talking about what annoys you. 虚拟条件句:表示与过去事实相反的假设:  虚拟条件句:表示与过去事实相反的假设 当表示与过去事实相反的假设时,虚拟条件句的构成形式为“If+动词的过去完成式,would(could)+动词的现在完成式”。例如: If they had given up(searching),I would have died.如果当时他们放弃了搜寻,那么我就没命了。 If I hadn’t hadmy mobile phone,the shot would have killed me.如果当时我没带手机的话,那颗子弹就会要了我的命。上述两句话实际表达的意思是: They didn’t give up(searching),therefore I did not die. I had my mobile phone,therefore the shot did not kill me. 与其它条件句一样,如果主从句颠倒位置,中间不 需用逗号隔开。 The shot wouls have killed me if I hadn’t had my mobile phone. 表达建议:  表达建议 表达建议有多种方式。例如: There are two things you need to think about.One is…, and the other is … . There are two things you need to think about.One is which network to use and the other is the handset itself.你需要考虑两件事:第一是使用哪一个网络,第二是话机本身。 You should+动词原形 You should get a monthly payment plan. 你应该办理一个月供计划. I’d recommend + 名词词组( I’d=I would) I’d recommend my network.我愿意推荐我(使用)的网络 Slide38:  You need to + 动词原形 You need to work out how often you are going to use the phone. 你是否将经常使用电话. The best thing to do is +(to)动词原形 The best thing to do is (to)go to one or two shops and see what they’ve got. 最好的办法是去一两个商店逛逛,看看他们有什么. You’d better +动词原形 You’d better get a pre-payment plan.你最好办理一个预付计划. 祈使句 Choose a plan with a low monthly payment.选择一个月供较低的方案. 动名词与动词不定式:  动名词与动词不定式 英语中有些动词只能后接不定式作宾语.这些动词包括to afford,to agree,to arrange,to decide,to fail,to hope,to learn,to manage,to plan, to promise,to refuse等.例如: They agreed to pay him £100.他们同意支付给他一百英镑. I learned to speak French at school.我在上学时学会说法语. 英语中有些动词只能后接动名词作宾语.这些动词包括to admit,to avoid,to deny, to enjoy, to finish, to give up,to mind, to suggest等.例如: I avoid talking to her.我避免与她说话. He finished doing the work quickly.他迅速地做完工作. 英语中有些动词既可后接不定式也可后接动名词作宾语,这些动词包括to begin,to continue,to hate,to like,to like,to love,to prefer,to start等.但是,有些动词后接不定式和动名词意思不同,如to forget,to regret,to remember等. 生气与烦恼的表达方式:  生气与烦恼的表达方式 表达生气与烦恼有多种方式.例如: It really irritates me when+从句 It really gets me nerves when+从句当……时,我真是恼火. X is always+动词的-ing形式 X总是…… What annoys me is……让我恼火的是…… The thing that makes me most angry is……最让我气愤的是…… Why can’t you/she(etc.)+动词原形? 该句句型在表达生气的同时,暗示什么样的行为是正确的.例如:Why can’t you shut the door when you come in ?在你进来的时候为什么不能关上门呢? Translation Practice:  Translation Practice It+be+形容词/过去分词+that结构的翻译 这里,在我们所谈的结构中,主要指两种形容词/过去分词,其一是由表情感转来的,如interesting等;另一种就是由表动作的动词转来的,如advisable,recommended,advised等.第一种我们一般可译为“…的是,…”第二种可译为无主句,如“建议…”等.例如: 1. It is exciting that I would have the opportunity to travel abroad.令人激动的是,我将有机会去国外旅行. 2. It is recommended that you (should) start right now.建议你马上开始. 在此结构中,that从句中的情态动词should常省略. 27.The Internet and Daily Life:  27.The Internet and Daily Life Main functions: Extend your vocabulary about computers and the internet; Review the use of present and past participles; Learn how to use polite questions. 现在分词与过去分词作定语:  现在分词与过去分词作定语 现在分词与过去分词作后置定语时,其作用相当一个定语从句.两者的区别是:现在分词表示主动意义,过去分词表示被动意义.例如: 1. There are often advertisements leading to other websites on the Internet.互联网上常常有可连接其他网站的广告. 2. Just over 70% of people questioned for the survey said the net had become essential.在接受调查的人中,超过70%的人说互联网已经成为生活中不可缺少的一部分. 上述两个句子可变为: 1. There are often advertisements which lead to other websites on the Internet. 2. Just over 70% people who were questioned for the survey said the net had become essential. 委婉提问/礼貌提问:  委婉提问/礼貌提问 在语言交流中,学会委婉或礼貌地提问是十分重要的.与直接提问相比,委婉提问会使对方更乐于回答提出的问题,同时也反映出提问者的修养.在英语中,常见的委婉或礼貌的提问方式有: Could you tell me…(how,when,where,if,etc.)?你能告诉我…吗? Could I ask you…(how,when,where,etc.)?我能问您…吗? Would you mind telling me…(how,when,where,if,etc.)?您介意告诉我…吗? Do you mind if I ask you…(how,when,where,if,etc.)?如果我问您…,您介意吗?例如: Would you mind telling us what attracted you to Janet?您是否介意告诉我们,是什么使您对Janet产生了好感? Do you mind if I ask you when you fell in love with her?您介意我问您是什么时候和她坠入爱河的吗? Translation Practice:  Translation Practice 情态动词could的翻译要根据其在语境(上下文)中的具体含义而定,不一定总是表示“能够,可能”。例如: 1. Only men could go to the club in those days.那时,只有男人可以去俱乐部。(表示“允许”) 2. Could I borrow your thermos?我可以借用你的暖水瓶吗?(表示委婉的请求,得到允许) 3. I wrote down the number so that I could remember it.我把号码写下来了,那样我就能记住它了。(表示能力) 28.Science in Nature:  28.Science in Nature Main functions: Learn vocabulary to describe technological development; Revise the passive form; Revise the use of modal verbs in the passive; Revise the use of a range of conjunctions. 被动语态:  被动语态 被动语态的构成 被动语态由助动词be的各种时态形式加及物动词的过去分词构成。例如: Bread, ham and cheese have been altered. ( 现在完成时 ) Genetically engineered foods are produced. ( 一般现在时) A soya bean had been genetically engineered. ( 过去完成时) 含有情态动词的被动语态 含有情态动词的被动语态机构是:“情态动词+ be +过去分词”。例如: These new processes should be controlled. The fat content can be reduced to make it healthier. The project had to be abandoned. Translation Practice:  Translation Practice 被动语态的翻译(一) 被动语态的翻译是一个比较大的课虽然手段很多,但基本的原则就是要充分发挥汉语的优势,同时照顾到两种语言的差异。下面我们来看一种手段,即将英语被动式译为如下三种句式。 “为… …所……” “是……的……” 用“加以”表示隐含的施动者的主动性。 例如: All buildings were destroyed in a big fire.所有的建筑均为大火所毁。 The picture was painted by Zhang Daqian. 这幅画是张大千画的。 29.Technology and the Future:  29.Technology and the Future Main functions: Study language of technology and science; Study to allow, to let and to make; Study the structure of a discursive text; Practise the use of conjunctions. to allow, to let 和 to make 的用法 :  to allow, to let 和 to make 的用法 to allow 和 to let 都表示“允许”,to make 表示“促使,迫使”。 例如: …a book that allows you to store and display it digitally. …it lets you buy books in segments and… …a human gene has been introduced into pigs to make them grow more quickly. Translation Practice:  Translation Practice 被动语态的翻译(二) 有时,在翻译被动语态的句子时,我们可以在译文中用一个表示主动概念的动词,代替英语中表示被动概念的动词,这样我们就可以在意义上达到对应,而勿求形式上的对应。例如: My eyes were filled with tears. 我热泪盈眶。 My hometown is populated by about 900 farmers. 我的家乡住着大约九百名农民。 She was told that it seemed unlibely she would pass the examination. 她得知自己可能考试不及格。 Slide52:  2.A report can send the news to a network like and within seconds it can be al over the world. 记者能将新闻发送到象哥伦比亚广播公司这样的新闻网,在几秒内新闻就会被发送到全世界。 3. They both have agreed to serve, either in the Students’ Union or in the volunteers’ Association. 他们两人已同意出力,或在学生会中担任职务,或为志愿者协会工作。

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