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2003 bell 18 bulkley

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Published on June 19, 2007

Author: Gourmet

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Sustainable Water SystemsA Key Component for Sustainable Places :  Presentation 2003 BELL CONFERENCE Ecosystems and Environment: Perspectives on Education for Sustainable Business Jonathan W. Bulkley Peter M. Wege Chair of Sustainable Systems School of Natural Resources and Environment Co-Director, Center for Sustainable Systems Co-Director, Corporate Environmental Management Program* *(July 1, 2001-June 30, 2003) University of Michigan Ann Arbor , Michigan Sustainable Water Systems A Key Component for Sustainable Places Presentation Outline :  Presentation Outline Introduction: Water Essential for Life California and the Reduced allocation from the Colorado River Two Basic Legal Systems in the U.S.A. Riparian: Humid East Prior Appropriation: Semi-Arid and Arid West Characteristics: Sustainable Water Systems Combine Riparian and Prior Appropriation: Permits for Riparian Systems Examples: Water Follies: Tampa Bay’s Avarice HB 1069 FL House of Representatives 2003 Challenges: Sustainable Water Systems:  Challenges: Sustainable Water Systems HOW MUCH COST AND SACRIFICE IS TO BE UNDERTAKEN WHO IS TO TAKE ON THESE COSTS AND SACRIFICES HOW TO MEET THE DEMANDS OF CURRENT POPULATIONS WITHOUT REDUCING OPTIONS andamp; ABILITIES OF FUTURE POPULATIONS TO FURTHER DEVELOP TO SATISFY THEIR NEEDS SUSTAINABILITY: AN INTEGRATING PROCESS: TECHNOLOGY, ECOLOGY, SOCIAL AND POLITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE OF SOCIETY SUSTAINABILITY: FOCUSES ON LONG-TERM IMPROVEMENT OF SOCIETY'S WELFARE IMPROVEMENT IN WELFARE-REQUIRES SUSTAINABLE WATER RESOURCE SYSTEMS THREE (3) POTENTIAL BASIC MAL-DISTRIBUTION PROBLEMS FOR WATER RESOURCES: SPATIAL; TEMPORAL; QUALITY Characteristics: Sustainable Water Systems:  Characteristics: Sustainable Water Systems SUSTAINABILITY AND WATER RESOURCES FRAMEWORK FOR SUSTAINABILITY DESIGN, MANAGEMENT AND OPERATIONS OF PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE (11) ENVIRONMENT AND ECOSYSTEMS (16) ECONOMICS AND FINANCE (7) INSTITUTIONS AND SOCIETY (8) HEALTH AND HUMAN WELFARE (5) PLANNING AND TECHNOLOGY (12) Note: Number in ( ) shows the number of guidelines specified in the ASCE Reference Characteristics: Sustainable Water Systems:  Characteristics: Sustainable Water Systems DESIGN, MANAGEMENT AND OPERATIONS OF PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE DESIGN AND MANAGE SYSTEMS TO BE EFFECTIVE, EFFICIENT, AND ROBUST IN ALL RESPECTS-BALANCING CHANGES IN DEMANDS AND SUPPLIES OVER TIME AND SPACE. ENSURE THAT HUMAN ACTIONS AND ACTIVITIES DO NOT IMPAIR THE LONG-TERM HEALTH AND RESILIENCE OF FRESHWATER STOCKS AND FLOWS USE DEMAND MANAGEMENT IN CONJUNCTION WITH SUPPLY MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENT AND ECOSYSTEMS ENSURE THAT THERE ARE NO NEGATIVE LONG-TERM IRREVERSIBLE OR CUMULATIVE IMPACTS ON THE ENVIRONMENT OR ON ITS ECOSYSTEMS TAKE ANY ACTIONS REQUIRED TO RESTORE AND SUSTAIN THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT AND ITS ECOSYSTEMS AS NEEDED IN SPECIFIC SITUATIONS Characteristics: Sustainable Water Systems:  Characteristics: Sustainable Water Systems ECONOMICS AND FINANCE FULLY CONSIDER ALL DIRECT AND INDIRECT ENVIRONMENTAL COSTS OVER THE FULL LIFE CYCLES OF THE SYSTEMS' PROJECTS RECOVER ALL COSTS OF ALL RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT PROJECTS THROUGHOUT THEIR LIFE CYCLES IN AN EQUITABLE AND EFFICIENT WAY MAKE SURE THAT SOCIETY SUPPORTS AND IS WILLING TO PAY FOR THE SERVICES PROVIDED BY THE WATER SYSTEMS INSTITUTIONS AND SOCIETY ESTABLISH EFFECTIVE PROCEDURES TO MANAGE CONFLICTS OVER WATER MANAGEMENT AND USE CREATE THE POLITICAL WILL AND PROVIDE THE LEADERSHIP TO PLAN, CONSTRUCT AND OPERATE THE WATER SYSTEMS IN WHAT IS CONSIDERED A SUSTAINABLE WAY ENSURE THAT RESPONSIBLE INSTITUTIONS HAVE THE CAPACITY TO PLAN, MANAGE, MONITOR AND ADAPT TO CHANGING SITUATIONS Characteristics: Sustainable Water Systems:  Characteristics: Sustainable Water Systems HEALTH AND HUMAN WELFARE GUARANTEE A MINIMUM WATER SUPPLY TO ALL HUMANS TO MAINTAIN HUMAN HEALTH MINIMIZE ALL ADVERSE SOCIAL IMPACTS CAUSED BY DISLOCATIONS OF PEOPLE AND STRESS DURING A SYSTEM FAILURE (SUCH AS WATER SHORTAGE, OR A FLOOD, OR TOXIC CONTAMINATION) AND PRESERVE AND PROTECT SOCIETY'S CULTURAL HERITAGE EVALUATE AND CONSIDER THE CONSEQUENCES OF ALL PLANS, POLICIES AND ACTIONS-DIRECT OR INDIRECT, IMMEDIATE OR LONG-TERM-UPON SOCIAL SECURITY, HUMAN HEALTH AND EQUITY PLANNING AND TECHNOLOGY COLLECT AND MAKE AVAILABLE TO ALL INTERESTED INDIVIDUALS ALL DATA ON WATER RESOURCE AVAILABILITY, USE AND QUALITY Characteristics: Sustainable Water Systems:  Characteristics: Sustainable Water Systems PLANNING AND TECHNOLOGY (CONTINUED) CONSIDER IN THE PLANNING AND DESIGN STAGE THE POTENTIAL FUTURE CHANGES IN THE USE OF THE SYSTEM THAT MIGHT BE NEEDED TO MEET POSSIBLE CHANGING SOCIETAL DEMANDS INCLUDE THE QUALITY OF LIFE OBJECTIVES, BOTH FOR CURRENT AND FUTURE GENERATIONS IN ALL PLANNING AND DECISION MAKING PROCESSES.... Characteristics: Riparian Water Regulations:  Characteristics: Riparian Water Regulations Riparian Water Regulation: Overall Goals Riparian water regulation should serve as a water allocation instrument in times of drought. Riparian water regulation should provide a mechanism for the users to reallocate water among themselves in ways that are mutually beneficial to them. Riparian water regulation should meet the needs of society to maintain minimum streamflows (i.e. aquatic habitats) and lake and aquifer levels in times of normal run-off as well as during low-flow periods. Characteristics: Riparian Water Regulations:  Characteristics: Riparian Water Regulations Objectives: Used to evaluate a Riparian Water Withdrawal Regulatory Program Ease and Effectiveness of Implementation, Administration, and Enforcement Equity Effectiveness and Sustainability in Protecting Water Resources Economic Efficiency Robustness (Insensitivity to Errors) Political and Legal Feasibility Characteristics: Riparian Water Regulations:  Characteristics: Riparian Water Regulations Guidelines: Developing A Water Withdrawal Regulatory Program Within any area where it intends to control water withdrawals, the Agency should require withdrawal permits by all users above a critical size regardless of their type of use.The Agency may exempt small users from the permitting requirement. It may be helpful to put a cap on the amount of the exempted withdrawal. Permits should be defined in terms of both withdrawal and consumption. Any modification of a permit should be subject to Agency review and approval. The Agency should establish a procedure for estimating return flows and should use this procedure in its planning. Revenues should be generated through administrative fees assessed uniformly of each applicant. Non-payment of administrative fees for a specified period of time should result in a forfeiture of permits. The Agency should require measuring devices to be installed on all facilities for withdrawing water from natural watercourses. It should either monitor those withdrawals itself or require a self-reporting system by the users. In the latter case, the Agency should establish an audit system, a citizen reporting system, and unannounced inspections to ensure a high degree of compliance. Characteristics: Riparian Water Regulations:  Characteristics: Riparian Water Regulations Guidelines: Bases for Defining Permits The allowable withdrawal or consumption by a given user should be based on a system of sharing and should be expressed as a continuous function of local streamflow measured at a nearby stream gauge. The continuous function may take into account of the priority of the user with respect to other users or types of use. Under water shortage, an appropriate quantity of water should be allocated first for the essential needs of users. Once these needs have been satisfied, further flow should be allocated according to the chosen basis of permit definition with all sectors having equal priority. The highest priority allocations should not be as large as the total normal allocation same user, but should be only sufficient to serve critical needs. For domestic use, the highest priority allocation should be no more than 400 liters per capita per day. (105 gallons per capita per day) Characteristics: Riparian Water Regulations:  Characteristics: Riparian Water Regulations Guidelines: Bases for Defining Permits (continued) The purpose of a permitting system is to solve problems of human use and impacts on water resources, not to perpetuate them. While existing users may be given priority over new ones, they should receive permits according to one of the following bases: Riparian size Operational size Historical use Ad Hoc methods Additional Issues: Duration of Permits and How to Accommodate Newcomers The Agency should allow transfers of permits among users to the extent that such transfers are determined by the Agency not to damage the aquatic environment or third parties. To the extent possible, within the limitations of data accuracy, total withdrawals from aquifers should be set to maintain aquifer levels i.e. prevent ground water mining. Characteristics: Riparian Water Regulations:  Characteristics: Riparian Water Regulations Resource Assessment and Maintenance: Guidelines The Agency should set minimum streamflow standards that must be maintained at particular stream gauges with a specification of how those minimum flows may vary throughout the year or by temperature. The Agency should set target minimum aquifer levels that must be maintained at particular observation wells with a specification of how those levels may vary throughout the year. The Agency should set minimum lake levels that must be maintained at particular observation points with a specification of how those levels may vary throughout the year. Examples:  Examples Secretary of Interior reduces the allocation of Colorado River water to California by 260 billion gallons/year (NY Times 2003) Cypress Groves, Wetlands, Springs, and Lakes in Florida (Glennon 2002) Water Follies-Tampa Bay’s Avarice Legislative Bill: State of Florida (HB 1069, Florida House of Representatives (Representative David Russell, Brooksville, FL) Response of the Natural Resources Committee of the House of Representatives in the State of Florida Secretary of Interior reduces the allocation of Colorado River water to California by 260 billion gallons/year (NY Times 2003):  Secretary of Interior reduces the allocation of Colorado River water to California by 260 billion gallons/year (NY Times 2003) Agreement among the seven western states entitled to withdraw water from the Colorado River requires California to reduce its use of water above its specified allocation Imperial Irrigation District fails to reach agreement with City of San Diego to sell 200,000 acre-feet of water/yr. This volume of water is 7% of the total the 400 farmers in the irrigation district receive from the Colorado River each year Had the agreement gone forward, preliminary calculations indicate that the Imperial Irrigation District would have netted $47 million/year. Secretary Norton orders California’s withdrawals from the Colorado River to be reduced by 650,000 acre-feet/yr effective January 1, 2003 Cypress Groves, Wetlands, Springs, and Lakes in Florida (Glennon 2002) Water Follies-Tampa Bay’s Avarice:  Cypress Groves, Wetlands, Springs, and Lakes in Florida (Glennon 2002) Water Follies-Tampa Bay’s Avarice Florida receives 54 inches of rain/yr: yet has significant water problems Excessive population growth in Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWIFTMUD): Tampa Bay/St. Petersburg (TB/SP) Metro Region Tampa Bay Water (TBW) supplies TB/SP: Groundwater primary source 225 mgd 1996-projected water need for year 2020 is 425 mgd Groundwater withdrawal rates by TBW have caused significant adverse impacts on both groundwater and surface water in three counties TBW has a 25 mgd desalinization plant online: requires 30 megawatts of energy to produce 100 gallons/capita/day for 250,000 people TBW has identified additional groundwater sources in a fourth county further away from TB/SP. Political opposition to this possibility has been swift, intense, and blunt Groundwater mining has taken place: not sustainable Legislative Bill: State of Florida (HB 1069, Florida House of Representatives :  Legislative Bill: State of Florida (HB 1069, Florida House of Representatives Selected Provisions Requiring local governments to include projected water use in comprehensive plans Providing for a water conservation guidance manual Providing for a public workshop on the development of regional water supply plans that include consideration of population projections Providing for a list of water source options in regional water supply plans including conservation measures in regional water supply plan Allow for the limited transfer of water from one use to another under specified conditions Providing for the development of groundwater by regional water supply authorities and providing for the approval thereof Providing for a Peace River Comprehensive Study Requiring water management districts to develop landscape irrigation and xeriscape design standards Providing for the use of reclaimed waters Observations: Lessons for the Future :  Observations: Lessons for the Future  The distribution, abundance, quality and biodiversity of freshwater resources are essential and vital for the sustenance of life on earth The technology to provide for potable freshwater at any location and at any time is limited Human use of freshwater resources needs to be undertaken with care and utilizing conservation measures to ensure the most effective and efficient use of the freshwater resource Permit procedures for the withdrawal of both surface water and groundwater as well as for the consumptive use of these waters need to be implemented The development of sustainable water resource systems requires a comprehensive interdisciplinary systems analysis. Sustainable water resource systems guidelines exist that are multi-disciplinary and enable responsible parties to carryout the needed planning, implementation, and maintenance of such systems In Florida, the Committee on Natural Resources of the House of Representatives has a strong commitment to creating an institutional framework for the State to confront and appropriately address the provision of sustainable water resources Sustainable water resources are essential for our life on earth; sound business practice requires taking a longer-term perspective on the sustainable use and protection of water sources at present and into the future.

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