Published on January 19, 2008
Creolization of Caribbean Identity:: Creolization of Caribbean Identity: Diversity and Displacement Outline: Outline Definitions & History of colonization Creolization: English language & of people Race Relations Conflicts and Displacement; Resistance and Formation of Distinct Culture Caribbean poetry; Derek Walcott & dub poetry Popular culture: Different ways; Calypso, Reggae & Hip-Hop Image of the Caribbean : Image of the Caribbean Jan van de Straet’s engraving “America”--the new world as a woman Definition (1): the Caribbean: Definition (1): the Caribbean names: West Indies (Anglophone) the Antilles (Francophone) the Caribbean as a term encompassing both Composed of immigrants only: the aboriginal communities [Amerindians-- Arawaks, Caribs, etc.] exterminated; Immigrants from Africa, Asia and Europe. The Caribbean area and the Caribbean diaspora: The Caribbean area and the Caribbean diaspora Canada The U.S. “Children of the Sea”; Fugees Annie John M. Cliff, B. Marley Wide Sargasso Sea Sugar Cane Alley Derek Walcott England France India History of Colonization in the Caribbean Area: History of Colonization in the Caribbean Area 1492-96 -- Columbus’s “discovery” of the West Indies 16th-18th centuries --Colonial period: also a period of wars among colonial nations and pirates, and conflicts between the white masters, black slaves and mulatto. Rebellion (1) –the Maroons e.g. Abeng – (from a West Africa); used primarily as a signalling device; served as a vital means of communication when the Maroons were at war with the British (e.g.) Ways of rebellion (2):: Ways of rebellion (2): petit marronage (小走私) in francophone islands pretend sickness, steal, or even poison their masters. with music, dance, religion (voodon), or simply their different ways of living; open rebellion History of Colonization in the Caribbean Area: History of Colonization in the Caribbean Area 1808 --1838 Britain and USA abolished slave trade; complete abolition of slavery in British colonies 1845 East Indian indentured laborers in Trinidad; Chinese indenture in French colonies (e.g. Wide Sargasso Sea) History of Colonization in the Caribbean Area: History of Colonization in the Caribbean Area 1919-1939 seen as Slums of the Empire. Negritude; Back to Africa movement (e.g. MARCUS GARVEY) riots & strikes in 1935-1938 and afterwards History of Colonization in the Caribbean Area: History of Colonization in the Caribbean Area Since the 50’s Colonization in reverse: West Indian migration to England restrictions imposed Independence movements: 1958-62 -- The Federation of the West Indies independence 1962 -- Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago;1966 Barbados and Guyana; American Imperialism in the Caribbean Area (Cf. Bob Marley site http://www.bobmarley.com/): American Imperialism in the Caribbean Area (Cf. Bob Marley site http://www.bobmarley.com/) Economic the area becomes the tourists’ heaven and a cheap labor factory (capital, technology and management shipped to the area to use the labor power without leaving the profits there.) Cultural domination – music styles – the emergence of raggae (e.g.) History of Colonization in the Caribbean Area: History of Colonization in the Caribbean Area Neo-Colonialism of the U.S.A. military intervention (e.g. "Caribbean Basin Initative"– bribing Jamaica and the rest of the Caribbean to support the armed confrontation in Grenada and the war in El Salvador. Definition (1): Creolization: Definition (1): Creolization 1). Orignal meaning: Native, local,”pure”; 2). Native-born whites; 3). Hybrid Definition (2): Creolization: Definition (2): Creolization People -- Europeans born in the Caribbean, mulatto Language – the mixture of English and African tribal languages into some special kinds of native languages (Patois, such as French Patois, Jamaican Patois). E e.g. Beijan: The English used in Barbados-- closest to standard English (e.g. 1); Jamaican creole, "postcreole continuum“-- parallels the social hierarchy to some degrees (--those speaking in creole are looked down upon). Postcolonial usage of creole dub poetry Color System in the Caribbean Society: Color System in the Caribbean Society “Dying to raise their color all of them” (199) (e.g. “Bright Thursday”) The color triangle: white brown dark Race Relations: multiple division: Race Relations: multiple division Post-emancipation period – conflicts between different races (e.g. the English vs. the French), between plantation owners and small farmers, between the newly rich and the declining aristocrats. Discriminated: mulatto and creole. In the contemporary Caribbean area and diaspora: the Bajan vs. the Jamaican, all against Haitian, etc. Consequences of creolization: Consequences of creolization racial conflicts; split sense of identity – in between Europe and Africa diverse and dynamic culture (Walcott) The people’s resistance to colonialism: some examples of Caribbean Poetry: The people’s resistance to colonialism: some examples of Caribbean Poetry Caribbean poetry (introd.) Derek Walcott (e.g.) “ I who am poisoned with the blood of both, Where shall I turn, divided to the vein?” "A Far Cry From Africa“ Derek Walcott, 1957 The people’s resistance to colonialism: some examples of Caribbean Poetry: The people’s resistance to colonialism: some examples of Caribbean Poetry Dub poetry: forerunner of hip-hop an extension of reggae culture a form of performance poetry having its roots in popular Jamaican culture, and more particularly in reggae and Rastafarianism. The movement has served to bring poetry back to the people Dub poetry : Dub poetry openness to pop culture and esp. to music (reggae and calypso); appeal of public performance; acceptance of social responsibility --poetry has a “function” (poetry vs fiction as a middle-class genre) amateur poetic practice in the WI (e.g. Jamaican creole ) e.g. Edward Braithwaite, Michael Smith; Mutabaruka: Mutabaruka “dis poem” http://www.mutabaruka.com/lyrics.htm “Colonization in Reverse”: “Colonization in Reverse” What a joyful news, Miss Mattie; Ah feel like me heart gwine burs-- Jamaica people colonizin Englan in reverse By de hundred, by de tousan From country an from town, By de ship-load, by the plane-load, Jamaica is Englan boun. Slide23: Dem a pout out a Jamaica; Everybody future plan Is fi get a big-time job An settle in de motherlan What a islan! What a people! Man an woman, ole and young Jussa pack dem bag an baggage An tun history upside dung! --Louis Bennett (e.g.) The people’s resistance to colonialism: some examples of Popular Culture (1) Trickster Tradition: The people’s resistance to colonialism: some examples of Popular Culture (1) Trickster Tradition Anancy stories (spider)—from West Africa—the experience of the Middle Passage in animal forms (42) The “Monkey Business”—the monkey as a gentleman-like animal—a symbol of the (pseudo-)colonizer—undressing unmasking the (pseudo-)colonizer Functions of a trickster—for survival and revenge The people’s resistance to colonialism: some examples of Popular Culture: The people’s resistance to colonialism: some examples of Popular Culture Calypso: originated in the songs of African slaves who worked in the plantation fields of Trinidad. Forbidden to talk to each other, they used calypso to communicate feelings and information. e.g. Work songs in Sugar Cane Alley. e.g. "Dan is the Man". Bob Marley(1944-1981) & Jamaica: his efforts in promoting peace: Bob Marley(1944-1981) & Jamaica: his efforts in promoting peace A ghetto kid; his father, a white plantation owner. (e.g.) Formed the Wailing Wailers in 1963. Attempted assassination: before the PNP-sponsored "Smile Jamaica" concert in 1976. the One Love Peace Concert in 1978. Received the Third World Peace Medal by all the African delegations at the United Nations. Rastafarianism: Rastafarianism Origin in Africa: the Nile Valley (including both Egypt and Ethiopia) ; Ethiopian Orthodox Church, a pure form of Christianity that kept its connection with its Judaic and Egyptian pasts, all elements within Rastafarianism. Major Belief: the blending of the purest forms of both Judaism and Christianity; rejects the Babylonian hypocrisy of the modern church. (Babylon can also refer to the Western colonial culture in general.) Rastafarianism (2): Rastafarianism (2) practice: the herb "ganja" (marijuana) was regarded as "wisdomweed for a religious rite; a life of asceticism and artistry; the difference between rastas and hippies. Jah: Haile Selassie, Emperor of Ethiopia, arrived in Jamaica in 1966 the 1930s in Jamaica: were years of social upheaval and labor strikes --perfect timing for the rise of Rastafarianism, a religion of the dispossessed. (Different from hippie culture) (e.g.) Bob Marley’s major messages: : Bob Marley’s major messages: Peace, love & Anti-colonialism & self-liberation e.g. Redemption Song (first part, about slavery) “ Old pirates yes they rob I Sold I to the merchant ships Minutes after they took I From the bottomless pit But my hand was made strong By the hand of the almighty We forward in this generation Triumphantly All I ever had, is songs of freedom Won't you help to sing, these songs of freedom Cause all I ever had, redemption songs Redemption songs Emancipate yourselves from mental slavery None but ourselves can free our minds ... Bob Marley’s song: another example: Bob Marley’s song: another example “Buffalo Soldier” from Legend-A gritty ballad that tells the cruelly ironic story of black men being conscripted into the ranks of the Union Army to kill indians. Fugees: The Score “No Woman, No Cry”: Fugees: The Score “No Woman, No Cry” I remember when we used to sit in the government yard in Brooklyn. Observing the crookedness as it mingled with the good people we meet. Good friends we had, Good friends we've lost along the way. In this great future you can't forget your past, So dry your tears I say And to my peers who passed away, No woman, no cry, no woman no cry, say say say. Fugees: a “Hopeful” Image about the refugee: Fugees: a “Hopeful” Image about the refugee A Hip-Hop band from Haiti Hip-Hop style: re-assemble a lot of music and styles by the Black singers in the past; the themes: refugees; colonialism/sexism; their escape and tendencies to commit crimes in the host city these themes are treated with sympathy for the refugees and/or uplifting messages. Killing Me Softly: Killing Me Softly Strumming dub plates with our fingers, Eliminate sounds with our song, Killing a sound boy with this sound, Killing a sound boy with this sound, Taking sound boys' lives with this dub, Killing him softly with this sound. Strumming my pain with his fingers, Singing my life with his words, Killing me softly with his song, killing me softly with his song, Telling my whole life with his words, Killing me softly with his song. Carnival by Wyclef Jean: Carnival by Wyclef Jean Carnival: the setting is a court trial, in which Wyclef tries hard to excuse himself. e.g. Guantanamera: disclose the beauty myth about the Caribbean woman, who is actually a prostitute. Carnival by Wyclef Jean: Carnival by Wyclef Jean Closing Arguments In closing, ladies and gentlemen of the jury I'm not gonna sit here and bore you with a long, drawn out story or excuse, of why I think Wyclef is guilty I'm gonna stand by the exhibits as well as the tapes And songs such as Jeopardy, Til Novemeber, All the Girls, and Bubblegoose, which stand side by side with my allegations I rest my case Carnival by Wyclef Jean: Carnival by Wyclef Jean . . . Your honor see, this, this is exactly what I'm talkin about I mean I've been meaning to ask this the whole time Who the hell is Bishop? Eh? And and why the hell hasn't he been brought on the stand? Bishop, bishop, not true, false, bishop Ohh, bullshit!