20025McGloughlin

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Published on November 22, 2007

Author: Berenger

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Slide1:  Prof. Martina Newell-McGloughlin Director, UC Systemwide Biotech Research and Education Program www.biotech.ucdavis.edu/ http://ucsystembiotech.ucdavis.edu Slide2:  Of the 90 million pop added each year, more than 95% are born in the developing countries. Asia's growth of 58 million pa largest; Africa's of 2.9%, is the steepest. Losing about 3,000 square meters of forest and 1,000 tons of topsoil every second; arable land shrinks by 20,000 hectares yearly. Erosion made billion hectares of soil unusable for agriculture. More than 25% of the grain needed in Africa is imported, while up to 40% of the harvest may be lost due to post-harvest damage Slide3:  2,000 BC 19thC Early 20th C Mid 20th C 1930s 1940s 1950s 1970s 1980 1980s 1990s 2000 2000 21st C Cultivation Selective Cross breeding Cell culture Somaclonal variation Embryo rescue Polyembryogenesis Mutagensis and selection Anther culture Recombinant DNA Marker assisted selection Genomics Bioinformatics ---omics Systems Biology The Crop Agriculture Technology Timeline graph Slide4:  Institute of Radiation Breeding Ibaraki-ken, JAPAN http://www.irb.affrc.go.jp/ 100m radius 89 TBq Co-60 source at the center Shielding dike 8m high Gamma Field for radiation breeding Slide5:  CA http://www.irb Pear radiation bred Slide6:  Radish Cabbage A Russian scientist named Karpechenko promised Stalin that he could double productivity by crossing a cabbage with a radish Slide7:  Radish Cabbage Raphanobrassica Instead Karpechenko introduced a brand new species to science and went to Siberia for his efforts!! (Traditional crossbreeding selection, mutation breeding, somaclonal selection and wide crosses allow no control at the genome level and it may take years of backcrossing to remove unwanted effects) Slide10:  Lycopersicon esculentum Lycopersicon chmielewskii Back- cross series Tomato Cultivar Crop Biotechnology :  Agronomic Traits Biotic Stress Insect Resistance – Bt, cystatin Disease Resistance Viral- coat protein protection (Papaya ringspot virus) Bacterial, Fungal, Nematode (Rice blight, rice blast) Weed- herbicide tolerance (Striga, orobanchia) ABiotic Stress Drought, Cold, Heat Poor soil Salinity – tomatoes with transport protein Aluminum -Citric acid Yield Nitrogen Assimilation – nodulation by rhizobia, GDH metab eng Starch Biosynthesis, O2 Assimilation, photosynthesis/Rubisco Quality Traits Processing Post harvest loss reduction Reproduction: sex barriers, male sterility, seedless fruit Nutrients (Nutraceuticals) Macro: Protein (Cassava-ASP), Carbohydrates, Fats, Fiber Micro: vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals Anti-nutrients: Phytase, Toxin removal Novel Crop Products Proteins: nutraceuticals, therapeutics, vaccines Renewable resources: Biomass conversion, feedstocks, biofuels, phytoremediation Crop Biotechnology Slide13:  Important Crops Cereals: Rice the staple food for 2.4 billion people, sorghum, millet, maize Root veg: Cassava the staple food for 500 million people, Sweet potato/yam Legumes: Cowpea, beans Agriculture in developing countries is confronted with three major challenges in decades to come: To increase the availability of nutritious food to an increasing population, To use natural ecosystems (including marginal lands) more efficiently and environmentally sustainable in food production, and To make a contribution to economic development. Slide14:  50 million hectares/ 125 million acres, world wide 2001. This is more than a 10 % year-on-year growth compared with 2000. Slide16:  Avg. Bt cotton farmer in China reduced sprayings for Asian bollworm - Down from 20 to 6 times per year produces a kg. of cotton for 28% less cost than farmers using non-Bt varieties. Same Mexican and South African Bt cotton farmers increased yields at the same time that they reduced their costs. The reduction in pesticide use saves farmers cost of insecticides also reduced the incidence of insecticide poisonings Slide17:  Roundup Ready™ Soybeans Benefits for the Farmer and the Environment:  Benefits for the Farmer and the Environment Improves Weed Control Fewer apps, less risk, weather Reduces Crop Injury crop rotation Encourages Adoption of No-till Improves Farm Efficiency Less labor, time, use of machinery Sources: National Center for Food and Agricultural Policy, 2000, Kalaitzandanakes, 2001, Herbicide-tolerant crops Losing about 3,000 square meters of forest and 1,000 tons of topsoil every second; arable land shrinks by 20,000 hectares yearly. Erosion made billion hectares of soil unusable for agriculture. Slide19:  13 12 8 5 1996 1997 1998 1999 Million Kg active ingredient Source: Doane Market Research Groundwater advisory herbicides registered for use on soybeans: acifluorfen, alachlor, bentazon, dimethenamid, metolachlor, s-metolachlor, metribuzin, flumetsulam, and fomesafen. Decrease in application to soybean of herbicides with groundwater advisory labeling Slide20:  0 2 4 6 8 10 12 2-4PPB >4PPB Percentage of Illinois water monitoring samples containing major corn herbicides, 1999 Glyphosate-tolerant corn Conventional corn Data of Acetochlor Registration Partnership (ARP) of Monsanto and Zeneca; corn herbicides = alachlor, metolachlor, atrazine, EPTC, butylate, 2,4-D, and acetochlor (provided by David Gustafson) [NOTE: named herbicides cause no detected contamination in most watersheds in which they are used] Percentage of water samples contaminated Watershed planted to: Slide21:  Field trial of transgenic 'UH Rainbow' and 'UH SunUp' was established in Puna in October 1995. Slides show the progress of the disease caused by PRSV in rows of nontransgenic papaya (left in picure) as compared to the resistance in rows of 'UH Rainbow' (right in picture). Aerial view of transgenic field trial in Puna that was started in October 1995. The solid block of green papaya trees are 'UH-Rainbow' while the surrounding papaya trees that are nearly dead are nontransgenic papaya trees severely infected by PRSV. Papaya ringspot virus in Hawaii Slide22:  "Man cannot live by bread alone"... we need beans and lentils too! While cereal production worldwide has largely kept pace with population growth, figures from FAO suggest that the production of legumes has scarcely increased over the past three decades. Legumes are important because they provide essential protein and vitamins, complementing starchy staple foods. They are especially important for low-income consumers in developing countries who do not normally have access to animal proteins. Dr M. Tamo, IITA SP-IPM Task Force led by ICRISAT COWPEA AND BEAN Slide23:  Objectives Major constraints to be addressed in this project Cowpea Beans Insects: Maruca podborer, cowpea aphids Insect: Ophiomyia bean fly or stem maggot Parasitic weed: Striga Diseases: Common bacterial blight, Angular leafspot, Anthracnose Viruses: potyviruses Viruses: potyviruses Nematodes: root-knot nematodes Nematodes: root-knot nematodes Breeding system Slide24:  Striga (Scrophulariaceae) is a genus of obligate root-parasitic flowering plants. All of the cultivated food-crop cereals in Africa are parasitized by one or more Striga spp. Striga spp. in the savanna regions alone account for $7 billion and are detrimental to the lives of over 100 million African people. STRIGA Host plants release factors required by parasitic plants Striga causes massive losses to crops in Africa:control strategy to inactivate host recognition factors - John Yoder, UC Davis, Slide25:  Crop production is limited by salinity on 40 % world's irrigated land and on 25 % USA about 1/5 California. Blumwald and Zhang genetically engineered tomato plants that produce higher levels of a "transport protein.“ Plants grow and produce fruit even in irrigation water that is > 50X saltier than normal. > 1/3 salty as seawater. Nature Biotech, July 31, 2001 Slide26:  . Cassava the staple food for 500 million people African Mosaic Virus causes immense damages in cassava; Anti-sense RNA – Hyper-sensitive Response Rice the staple food for 2.4 billion people Fungal diseases destroy 50 million metric tons of rice per year; varieties resistant to fungi could be developed through the genetic transfer of proteins with antifungal properties. Insects cause a 26 million tons loss of rice per year; the genetic transfer of proteins with insecticidal properties would mean an environmentally friendly insect control. Viral diseases devastate 10 million tons of rice per year; transgenes derived from the Tungro virus genome allow the plant to develop defense systems. Bacterial diseases cause comparable losses - transgenes with antibacterial properties are the basis for inbuilt resistance. Slide27:  A Moral Dilemma The cassava mottle virus is causing losses of over 40% of the crop in Africa. Resistant varieties are being developed using biotechnology. Is it moral to have a solution to this disease and withhold it from those who need it? Slide28:  Over 120 million children worldwide are deficient in vitamin A. Rice has been engineered to accumulate b-carotene, Incorporation of this trait into rice cultivars and widespread distribution could prevent 1 to 2 million deaths each year. Increased b-Carotene in Rice Grains (bacteria) (daffodil) Normal rice Ye et al. (2000) Science 287: 303-305. Ferritin, an iron-rich bean storage protein, Phytase, an enzyme that breaks down phytate making Fe available, reabsorption of iron, a gene for a cystein-rich metallothionein-like protein has been engineered into rice Slide29:  United Nations -- Developing countries should consider adopting agricultural biotechnology, which can improve crop yields and safely provide more nutritious food at a lower cost. Sponsored by the Partnership to Cut Hunger and Poverty in Africa, the U.N. Development Program, and the U.S. Mission to the United Nations, September 19, 2002 panel featured leading biologists, scientists and economists. The great potential of biotechnology to increase agriculture in Africa lies in its “packaged technology in the seed”, which ensures technology benefits without changing local cultural practices Florence Wambugu director of the International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-Biotech Applications (ISAAA) in Kenya Wambugu, 1999 Slide30:  What top international Scientists have to say The National Academy of Sciences, joined by six other academies from around the world (Royal Society of London, Third World Academy of Sciences and national academies of Brazil, China, India and Mexico) issued a report in 2000 declaring that biotechnology should be used to increase the production of main food staples, improve the efficiency of production, reduce the environmental impact of agriculture and provide access to food for small-scale farmers. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization also issued a joint report approving the method we use to assess the safety of biotech crops. Declaration signed by over 3,500 scientists including 13 Nobel Laureates states that biotech methods are not only safe but have tremendous potential to improve the quality and quantity of sustainable food production word wide Slide31:  American Medical Association, December 2000 The AMA recognizes the many potential benefits offered by genetically modified crops and foods, does not support a moratorium on planting genetically modified crops, and encourages ongoing research in food biotechnology." EU Commission Report – Results from 400 teams over 15 years Research on GM plants and derived products so far developed and marketed, following usual risk assessment procedures, has not shown any new risks to human health or the environment, beyond the usual uncertainties of conventional plant breeding. Indeed, the use of more precise technology and the greater regulatory scrutiny probably make them even safer than conventional plants and foods. If there are unforeseen environmental effects - none have appeared as yet - these should be rapidly detected by existing monitoring systems. What Other Have to Say Slide32:  We cannot turn back the clock on agriculture and only use methods that were developed to feed a much smaller population. ….. This cannot be done unless farmers across the world have access to current high-yielding crop-production methods as well as new biotechnological breakthroughs that can increase the yields, dependability, and nutritional quality of our basic food crops. We need to bring common sense into the debate on agricultural science and technology, and the sooner the better! - Norman E. Borlaug, Plant Physiology, October 2000, Vol. 124, pp. 487–490 Slide33:  "Responsible biotechnology is not the enemy; starvation is." President Jimmy Carter Slide34:  “Although humans make sounds with their mouths and occasionally look at each other, there is no solid evidence that they actually communicate among themselves”

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