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Participle-Adjective Formation in Modern Greek:  Participle-Adjective Formation in Modern Greek Valia Kordoni Dept. of Computational Linguistics Universität des Saarlandes (UdS) Email: kordoni@coli.uni-sb.de WWW: http://www.coli.uni-sb.de/~kordoni/ Slide2:  Modern Greek words in -menos What are they: adjectives or participles? If they are adjectives, then the expression ime... –menos (be... –menos) are phrase structures consisting of the auxiliary ime (be) and a complement (cf., Mozer (1994)) If they are participles, then the structures ime... –menos (be... –menos) are periphrastic expressions of the Passive Present Perfect (Present Perfect B´; cf., Veloudis (1990)) Researchers who adopt the former view claim that the semantics of words ending in –menos is the same as the semantics of Modern Greek deverbal adjectives ending in –tos  ine anigmenos/klismenos and ine anihtos/klistos (be open/closed) convey the same meaning (cf., Mozer (1994)) Slide3:  MG words in –menos: Participles rather than Adjectives Markantonatou et al. (1996) have shown that words ending in –menos bear more verbal characteristics than Modern Greek deverbal adjectives in –tos  words ending in –menos are participles rather than adjectives In example (1) the expression itan rameno supports two complements, one denoting the "agent" (ton rafti) and the other denoting the "instrument" (me hrisi klosti) Both of these complements correspond to verbal complements, i.e., the subject and the instrument supported by the verbal head in example (3) In contrast, deverbal adjectives ending in –tos do not allow the co-appearance in the same sentence of such complements (see example (2)), showing thereby that their nature is "less verbal" Slide4:  To nifiko itan ra-meno apo ton rafti the wedding-dress.NEUT.N was sew.PRTC.NEUT.N by the tailor me hrisi klosti. with golden thread "The wedding dress was sewn by the tailor with golden thread". To nifiko itan raf-to (*apo ton the wedding-dress.NEUT.N was sewn.ADJ.NEUT.N (*by the rafti) (*me hrisi klosti). tailor) (*with golden thread) "The wedding dress was sewn (*by the tailor) (*with golden thread)". O raftis erapse to nifiko me hrisi klosti the tailor.N sew.PAST.3S the wedding-dress.A with golden thread "The tailor sewed the wedding dress with golden thread". Modern Greek Participles in –menos: examples Slide5:  Vrikan tin porta anig-meni me losto. they-found the door.FEM.A open.PRTC.FEM.A with metal-bar "They found the door opened with a metal bar". To kotopulo itan pio psi-meno apo to the chicken.NEUT.N was more roast.PTRC.NEUT.N than the arni pu itan shedon apsi-to. lamb.NEUT.N which was almost uncooked.ADJ.NEUT.N "The chicken was cooked more than the lamb which was almost uncooked". Markantonatou et al. (1996) have shown that Modern Greek participles in –menos can appear in the typical position of adjectives (the examples are from Markantonatou et al. (1996)): Modern Greek Participles in –menos as Adjectives Slide6:  Participle-Adjective Formation in Modern Greek Why can Modern Greek Participles in –menos appear in the typical position of adjectives? The conversion of Modern Greek Participles in –menos to adjectives, and their appearance in the typical position of adjectives follows from the fact that they refer to the result state of the action denoted by the verb they are derived from Both anig-meni (open.PRTC) in example (4) and psi-meno (roast.PRTC) in example (5) refer to the result state of the action denoted by the verbs they are derived from (anigo (open) in example (3) and psino (roast), respectively) This conclusion is in agreement with Bresnan´s (1996) proposal for participle- adjective formation Slide7:  I giagia magirepse to fagito. the grandmother.N cook.PAST.3S the food.A "The grandmother cooked the food". magirevo <AGENT THEME> IC -o -r Mapping Principles SUBJ OBJ To fagito ine magire-meno/*magiref-to apo tin giagia. the food.N is cook.PRTC.N/cook.ADJ.N by the grandmother "The food is cooked by the grandmother". Participle-Adjective Formation in Modern Greek may also obey Ackerman´s (1992) and Markantonatou´s (1995) predictions that adjectival participles are related to predicates which have a [-r] argument: Participle-Adjective Formation in Modern Greek (cont.) Slide8:  O Gianis ipie poli krasi htes vradi sto parti the Gianis.N drank much wine.A yesterday night at-the party "John drank too much wine at the party last night". pino <AGENT THEME> IC -o -r Mapping Principles SUBJ OBJ O Gianis itan pio-menos htes vradi sto parti the Gianis.N was drunk yesterday night at-the party "John was blind drunk at the party last night". But: Participle-Adjective Formation in Modern Greek (cont.) Thus: Bresnan´s (1996) proposal is more reliable when it comes to Participle- Adjective Formation in Modern Greek Slide9:  Conclusions Modern Greek words ending in –menos bear one semantic argument more than the deverbal adjectives in –tos: the agent or the cause that brings about the action denoted by the verb (see examples (1)-(3) and (6)-(7))  Modern Greek words in –menos are participles rather than adjectives Modern Greek participles in –menos, though, may also function as adjectives with a more enriched semantics than their corresponding adjectives in –tos Participle-Adjectives Formation in Modern Greek is better accounted for in the spirit of Bresnan´s (1996) proposal for Participle-Adjective Formation in English Slide10:  References Ackerman, F. (1992). Complex Predicates and Morphological Relatedness: Locative Alternation in Hungarian. In I. A. Sag and A. Szabolcsi (Eds.), Lexical Matters. CSLI Lecture Notes no. 24, pp. 55-84. Stanford, Calif.: CSLI Publications Bresnan, J. (1996). Lexicality and Argument Structure. Invited paper given at the Paris Syntax and Semantics Conference, October 12-14, 1995. Corrected version: April 15, 1996. 27 pages. Available at http://www-lfg.stanford.edu/lfg/bresnan/download.html Markantonatou, S. (1995). Modern Greek deverbel nominals: an LMT approach. Journal of Linguistics 31, 267-299 Markantonatou, S., V. Kordoni, V. Bouboureka, A. Kalliakostas, and V. Stavrakaki (1996). Modern Greek deverbal adjectives in –tos: a lexical semantic approach. Studies in Greek Linguistics, Proceedings of the 17th Annual Meeting of the Department of Linguistics of the University of Thessaloniki. Mozer, A. (1994). The interaction of Lexical and Grammatical Aspect in Modern Greek. In Themes in Modern Greek Linguistics. Benjamins. Veloudis, G. (1990). The meta-linguistic character of the Perfect: Perfect B´. Studies in Greek Linguistics 11.

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