Published on February 28, 2014
Henry IV Keeping the Crown
Richard and Lancastrian Inheritance • 1397 Scheme to overturn restoration of the inheritance which had been taken away by Edward II – Mowbray informs Henry/Henry complains to Richard – Their differences to be settled by dual – Richard changes this to exile • 1399 John of Gaunt dies – Exile of Henry made permanent
Lancaster The Duchy Today
Henry IV – Stated Aims • Restoration of Lancaster • Appointment as steward • Punishment of councilors who advocated removal of Lancaster Sources: 1403 and later
Justifications • Vacancy • Descent • Conquest and will of the people
Vacancy • Voluntary abdication • Deposition approved by Commons and Lords – Richard had stated “the laws of England were in his mouth or breast”
Crouchback Justification Henry III Edward I Edmund ‘Crouchback’ (1245-1296) Edward II Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster (1281-1345) Edward III Henry of Joan of Lancaster, Mary of Lancaster, Grosmont, Earl of (~ 1312-1345); (~1320-1362), Derby, 1st Duke of m. John de m. Henry de Percy, 3rd Baron Percy Lancaster, Mowbray, 3rd Baron (~ 1310-1361) Mowbray John of Blanche of John de Mowbray, Henry Percy, 1st Gaunt Lancaster 4th Baron Mowbray Earl of (1340–1368) Northumberland (1341-1408) Henry IV Thomas de ‘Hotspur’ (1367-1413) (1364-1403) Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk
Primogeniture Edward III (1312-1377) Edward Lionel of John of Edmund of Thomas of the Black Antwerp Gaunt Langley Woodstock Prince Duke of Duke of Duke of York Duke of (1330Clarence Lancaster (1341-1402) Gloucester 1376) (1338 –1368), (1330-1399) (1355-1397) Richard II Philippa Henry IV Edward of Anne Stafford (1355-78) Norwich m. Edmund Mortimer Roger Mortimer (1374-1398) Edmund Mortimer (1391-1425)
Rules of Succession • Salic law • 1290 Edward I – Primogeniture • 1337 Edward III claim to France through his mother • 1351 Statute 'the law of the crown of England, is, and always hath been such, that the children of the kings of England, in whatsover parts they be born, in England or elsewhere, be able and ought to bear the inheritance after the death of their ancestors' • 1376/7 Edward III – Entail male
Criticisms of Henry IV • Not hard enough on his opponents • Too generous with his adherents • Since his accession “there have not been seven days good and seasonable weather”
Richard II Lives • • • • Source of first opposition Murder (presumed) and burial Rumor persists Scotland supports a ‘Richard’ until 1419
The Marches - Scotland 1399 Henry Percy (Northumberland appointed Warden of West March; Constable of England Robert III addresses Henry IV as Duke of Lancaster 1400 Henry IV invades Scotland – 1,771 men-at-arms and 11,314 archers
Scotland • 1402 Battle of Homildon Hill (Douglas vs. Percies) – Henry IV refuses to allow ransom of prisoners • 1406 Capture of heir to throne, James – Pawn against Duke of Albany, regent of Scotland – Held to 1424
1405 Rebellion • Border shires given tax reductions because of damage caused by Glyn Dŵr’s rebellion • Increased tax on northern clerics
Preparing for Henry V • The Beaufort family had been legitimated by an Act of Parliament during King Richard II's reign. • 1406, Beaufort family debarred from succession to the Throne. • Succession given to Henry IV’s sons in order (assuming Henry IV is the rightful king) • Act of Settlement of 1404 was amended to allow claims to the Throne by descent through the female line???
Percy rebellion • Delay in payments for Percy defenses of the West Marches – Cash formed 32 per cent of the total of all revenues – ‘bad tallies’ were 37 per cent of the total of assignments. (standard story) • Welsh policy
1405 Scrope Rebellion Manifesto • Burdensome taxation on both the laity and Church • Replaced experienced officials with new men who performed poorly or corruptly • Subverted the process for selection of members of Parliament.
Henry IV’s Taxes 1400 none 1401 Tax for Wales campaign; debts from Scotland campaign 1402 Forced loans 1404 New tax on income
1404 Unlearned Parliament; the Lawless Parliament; Parliament of Dunces "No Sheriff to be returned, nor any apprentice or other person at law” Supplement on very wealthy Tax on lands given by both Richard and Henry Suggested ways for Henry’s household to cut expenses
Appointments 71% of sheriffs were either retainers of the king or retainers or tenants of the duchy of Lancaster. 86% of the sheriffs had no prior experience Drop in revenues attributed to inefficiency in collection
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