2 Japanese Theater

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Information about 2 Japanese Theater
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Published on November 22, 2007

Author: Nevada

Source: authorstream.com

Japanese Theater Noh Kabuki Bunraku:  Japanese Theater Noh Kabuki Bunraku Noh:能:  Noh:能 It is performed since the 14th century It later influenced other drama forms such as Kabuki According to Zeami who brought Noh, all Noh should create an aesthetic ideals called “Yugen”(subtle) and performed spirit and “Hana”(novelty). Noh is chanted drama and for that reason some people have dubbed it Japanese opera. However, the singing in Noh involves a limited tonal range with lengthy, repetitive passages in a narrow dynamic range Melody isn’t at the center of Noh singing. Still texts are poetic, relying heavily on the Japanese seven-five rhythm :  Noh is chanted drama and for that reason some people have dubbed it Japanese opera. However, the singing in Noh involves a limited tonal range with lengthy, repetitive passages in a narrow dynamic range Melody isn’t at the center of Noh singing. Still texts are poetic, relying heavily on the Japanese seven-five rhythm Performers:  Performers There are four major categories of Noh performers Shite Waki Kyogen Hayashi 1.Shite: the most common form of actor . They play various functions including -Shite: primary actor -Tsure: Shite’s companion -Jiutai: chorus, usually 6-8 actors -Koken: stage assistant usually 2-3 actors:  1.Shite: the most common form of actor . They play various functions including -Shite: primary actor -Tsure: Shite’s companion -Jiutai: chorus, usually 6-8 actors -Koken: stage assistant usually 2-3 actors Slide7:  2. Waki: perform the role that is the counterpart of Shite 3.Kyogen: perform the Aikyogen interludes during plays. They also perform in separate plays between individual Noh 4.Hayashi: instrumentalists who play the four instruments, flute, hip-drum, shoulder-drum and stick-drum Mask:  Mask Noh is unique its slow and its use of distinctive masks All masks have names Usually only Shite, the main player, takes the mask. However in some cases the Tsure may also take mask particularly for female roles. The Noh masks are used to portray a female or nonhuman character (divine, demon, animal) Slide10:  There are also Noh masks to present youngsters or old men. On the other hand, the Noh actor who takes no mask plays a role of an adult man in his twenties, thirties or forties. When used by a skilled actor, Noh masks have the ability to depict different emotional expression according to head pose and lighting. An inanimate mask can have the appearance of being happy, sad or variety of subtle expression Stage:  Stage Noh play takes place on a stage made of Hinoki wood (cypress) Stage is bare with the exception of the “kagamiita”, a painting of pine tree at the back of the stage. Slide15:  Another unique features of the stage is the “Higashigakari”, the narrow bridge to the left of the stage that the principal actors use to enter the stage Costumes:  Costumes In contrast to the unadorned stage, costumes are lavish. Especially those in the Shite role wear rich silk brocades. Story:  Story A typical Noh play involve all categories of actors and usually takes 30-12minitues There are about 250 plays that are performed in the current repertories. There are five categories of Noh plays organized roughly by subject. God play 2.Warrior play 3.Woman play 4. Miscellaneous play 5. Demon play Kabuki:歌舞伎:  Kabuki:歌舞伎 歌: sing 舞: dance 伎: skill Therefore sometimes it translated as “the art of singing and dancing” History:  History The history of Kabuki began in 1603 when Okuni who called herself a priestess began performing a new style of dance drama in Kyoto. Female performers played both men and women. It was bout ordinary life. The style was instantly popular. Rival troupes quickly formed and Kabuki was born as ensemble dance drama performed by women. Much of its appeal in this era was due to the ribald, suggestive performances put on by many of the imitators; these actresses were often available for prostitution. Slide21:  In 1629 woman were banned from the stage for the stated purpose of protecting public morals. From 1653 only mature men could perform Kabuki, which developed into a sophisticated, highly stylized form. This metamorphosis in style was heavily influenced by Bunraku which was extremely popular. Make-up:  Make-up One well-known trademark of Kabuki is the extravagant make-up style called kumadori that is used in historical plays. There are about a hundred of these masklike styles in which the colors and designs used symbolize aspects of the character. Slide24:  Red tends to be "good" and is used to express virtue, passion or superhuman power, while blue is "bad", expressing negative traits such as jealousy or fear. Make-up provides an element of style easily recognizable even by those unfamiliar with the art form One of Kumadori make-up of red and blue:  One of Kumadori make-up of red and blue Stage:  Stage Kabuki stage and theaters have steadily become more technologically sophisticated and innovations including revolving stages and trap doors. The kabuki stage features a projection called “Hanamichi” (花道:literally flower path) which is a walkway extends into the audience and via which dramatic entranced exits are made. Since it runs through the audience, it allows for a closer experience for the spectator than might normally be allowed by other forms of traditional theater. :  Since it runs through the audience, it allows for a closer experience for the spectator than might normally be allowed by other forms of traditional theater. Music:  Music   By far the most important instrument used in Kabuki is the three-stringed shamisen (三味線, literally "three taste strings") which is a three-stringed musical instrument played with a plectrum.      In addition to the onstage music, singers and musicians playing the shamisen, flute and a variety of percussion instruments are also located offstage. They provide various types of background music and sound effects. A special type of sound effect found in Kabuki is the dramatic crack of two wooden blocks (拍子木: hyoshigi) struck together or against a wooden board. :  In addition to the onstage music, singers and musicians playing the shamisen, flute and a variety of percussion instruments are also located offstage. They provide various types of background music and sound effects. A special type of sound effect found in Kabuki is the dramatic crack of two wooden blocks (拍子木: hyoshigi) struck together or against a wooden board. Story:  Story It is said that 10,000 plays have been written since its start and although many have disappeared, over 200 classics are still performed. Kabuki plays are divided into three overall categories. 1. Jidaimono: historical, Samurai story 2.Sewamono: domestic concerned a scandal, murder or suicide 3. Shosagoto: dance pieces Bunraku:文楽:  Bunraku:文楽 Bunraku is also called Ningyou jyoururi(人形浄瑠璃: literally means puppet narration) Puppet plays in Japan are believed to have their origin in 10th or 11th century Bunraku developed before 1600 in Osaka and spread throughout Japan Performers:  Performers Three kinds of performers take part in a Bunraku. 1. puppeteers 2.chanters 3.sha misen 1. puppeteers The puppeteers manipulates the puppet by means of order of seniority. There are one for the head and right arm, another for the left arm and the last for the legs. Slide37:  In its early days, the puppeteers were hidden a curtain. Now they are in many cases in full view of the audience but wear black outfits and black hoods over their hands. Usually the head puppeteer remains his hood during a performance The puppets are large. Usually about one half life size Slide40:  Chanter and shamisen the chanter and shamisen player were also behind the curtain at its beginning but now they are given their own small stage to the right of the main puppet stage Story:  Story Many Bunraku plays are historical and deal with the common Japanese theme of Giri and Ninjo which is about the conflict between social obligations and human emothions.

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