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2 - Gareth Morgan

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Published on January 2, 2009

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Critical Thinking Skills: Practical Techniques for Innovation and Change : Skills for Leadership and Governance Critical Thinking Skills: Practical Techniques for Innovation and Change Dr Gareth Morgan Learning Objectives : Skills for Leadership and Governance Learning Objectives The aim of this class is to: Give you a variety of practical techniques for finding leverage points that can help you make a leadership difference Create momentum on your sustainability group action learning project Motivate you to really think about the relevance of what you’re learning for your own leadership practice Where we are in the Course Overall : Skills for Leadership and Governance Where we are in the Course Overall Continuing to develop skills in re-framing Giving you practical leadership tools and techniques for making a positive difference Showing you how to find high leverage action opportunities Creating a platform to help you maximize your learning in the rest of the course and on your team project Slide 4: Skills for Leadership and Governance Small changes can lead to large effects The source of incremental change The source of disruptive, transformational change – the “flowerpots” You can use reframing techniques to target the 15% that will make a major difference NewMindsets: http://gnome.schulich.yorku.ca/worldknowledge/approach/approach1.asp THE 15% PRINCIPLE THE 15% APPROACH TO CHANGE : Skills for Leadership and Governance THE 15% APPROACH TO CHANGE 1. Recognize that you have 15% influence ... it may sound small, but you can use it to make a major difference. 2. Learn how to use it: Look for high leverage “flowerpots” that can make a major difference Focus on tackling the paradoxes and contradictions that lead to stalemate Learn how to use success to build “critical mass” Successful 15% initiatives change the context ! They must be DOABLE WITHIN THE VISION MAKE A GENUINE DIFFERENCE A common question……Is the “15%”……… : Skills for Leadership and Governance A common question……Is the “15%”……… A reframing technique? An implementation technique? The answer: BOTH Use it to find the high leverage breakthroughs that will make a leadership difference SOME TECHNIQUES FOR MAKING A DIFFERENCE : Double loop learning : Skills for Leadership and Governance SOME TECHNIQUES FOR MAKING A DIFFERENCE : Double loop learning Brainstorming Challenge assumptions Asking questions The “5 Why?” process Adopt stakeholder perspectives “The Pig” Figure - ground (Learn to notice; lever a significant detail) SOME TECHNIQUES FOR MAKING A DIFFERENCE (Continued) : Skills for Leadership and Governance SOME TECHNIQUES FOR MAKING A DIFFERENCE (Continued) Benchmarking – for stretch Reinvent the rules Use “Min Specs” Anticipate the “earthquakes” Paradox – overcome the “Catch 22” Metaphor Change vicious loops BRAINSTORMING : Skills for Leadership and Governance BRAINSTORMING Generate as many ideas as you can Be sure to separate creativity and evaluation You can also use creative techniques for generating random thoughts and ideas; e.g. Use of random words and associations; pictures from magazines etc.. SURFACE ASSUMPTIONS : Skills for Leadership and Governance SURFACE ASSUMPTIONS Your taken for granted assumptions may lie at the root of your problems Learn to challenge them For example - get in the habit of asking ... “Why could we be wrong?” NewMindsets: http://gnome.schulich.yorku.ca/worldknowledge/surface/surface1.asp Slide 11: Skills for Leadership and Governance ASK PROBING QUESTIONS : Skills for Leadership and Governance ASK PROBING QUESTIONS The ‘Five Why?’ process helps you to get to the root cause of problems or to probe difficult issues WHY? Why? Why? Why? Why? ADOPT DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES : Skills for Leadership and Governance ADOPT DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES Understand the views of key stakeholders Understand how professional frames shape people’s thinking Creative problem solving requires us to see many points of view - simultaneously NewMindsets: http://gnome.schulich.yorku.ca/worldknowledge/perspective/perspective1.asp http://gnome.schulich.yorku.ca/worldknowledge/mindstretchers/mindstretchers8.asp Slide 14: Skills for Leadership and Governance Slide 15: Skills for Leadership and Governance LEARN TO NOTICE : Skills for Leadership and Governance LEARN TO NOTICE Spot patterns Learn the art of seeing figure and ground Look for significant details – and lever their potential for creating significant change BENCHMARKING - FOR “STRETCH” : Skills for Leadership and Governance BENCHMARKING - FOR “STRETCH” Look for exceptional role models Put yourself in unusual situations Learn to innovate from a perspective that always challenges the status quo NewMindsets: http://gnome.schulich.yorku.ca/worldknowledge/benchmark/benchmark1.asp Slide 18: Skills for Leadership and Governance Re-invent the rules : Skills for Leadership and Governance Re-invent the rules Challenge fundamentals. For example, ask: What is the most critical resource? How can it be reduced or removed? NewMindsets: http://gnome.schulich.yorku.ca/worldknowledge/userules/userules1.asp Slide 20: Skills for Leadership and Governance Slide 21: Skills for Leadership and Governance “MIN SPECS” MINIMUM RULES OR POINTS OF REFERENCE THAT ACT AS KEY “ATTRACTORS” How can you shift from “Max Specs” to “Min Specs”? Where are the potential earthquakes? : Skills for Leadership and Governance Where are the potential earthquakes? Organizational environments are constantly changing Can you spot the “fracture lines that signal the major transformations that lie ahead? Can you transform potential problems into opportunities? NewMindsets: http://gnome.schulich.yorku.ca/worldknowledge/earthquakes/earthquakes1.asp http://gnome.schulich.yorku.ca/worldknowledge/problems/problems1.asp Slide 23: Skills for Leadership and Governance Slide 24: Skills for Leadership and Governance Slide 25: Skills for Leadership and Governance HOW CAN THEY BE TRANSFORMED? Select a focus for thinking about this problem: e.g. Your job A project or a program Your work unit or department Key Paradoxes - Contradictions: _______________ ______ vs _______________________ ______________________ vs _______________________ ______________________ vs _______________________ ______________________ vs _______________________ ______________________ vs _______________________ WHERE ARE THE CONTRADICTIONS? Slide 26: Skills for Leadership and Governance TACKLING CONTRADICTIONS 1. Select a problem or issue 2. Identify key contradictions 3. Select one 4. Reframe: “Do the pig” 5. Look for the positives and negatives 6. Find the 15% - Understandings or actions that will create major leverage and provide a new context for future development Slide 27: Skills for Leadership and Governance EXERCISE: WE WANT MORE TEAMWORK!! SELECT ONE: REFRAME: CONTRADICTIONS Slide 28: Skills for Leadership and Governance TEAMWORK Need for compromise Conflicting perceptions of roles Only as good as weakest link Personal conflicts + + - - + - Personal & professional growth Time consuming Need for communication Developing new skills + + Shared vision - Slide 29: Skills for Leadership and Governance INDIVIDUALISM Lack of personal time Territory & “turf” Innovative flair Personal energy Personal style Personal skills & specializations Potential for error + - + + - + - - Slide 30: Skills for Leadership and Governance Paradoxes (contradictions) contain positive and negative qualities Look at the relationships between positive and negative Find ways of making the paradox - contradiction “livable” Slide 31: Skills for Leadership and Governance But… But… But... USE CONTRADICTIONS AS LEVERAGE POINTS Slide 32: Skills for Leadership and Governance Find the 15% new understandings and new actions that: MAKE CONTRADICTIONS “LIVABLE” create new context USE CREATIVE METAPHOR TO GENERATE BREAKTHROUGHS : Skills for Leadership and Governance USE CREATIVE METAPHOR TO GENERATE BREAKTHROUGHS New Metaphors can create new frames for guiding thought and action Are you aware of your current metaphors? Do you need to be guided by new ones? NewMindsets: http://gnome.schulich.yorku.ca/worldknowledge/metaphor/metaphor1.asp Slide 34: Skills for Leadership and Governance METAPHOR A B is Slide 35: Skills for Leadership and Governance A B Insight Distortion Distortion METAPHOR Slide 36: Skills for Leadership and Governance Slide 37: Skills for Leadership and Governance Slide 38: Skills for Leadership and Governance Slide 39: Skills for Leadership and Governance Many metaphors can contribute insight: See Images of Organization by Gareth Morgan for an example THERE IS NO RIGHT OR WRONG METAPHOR : Skills for Leadership and Governance THERE IS NO RIGHT OR WRONG METAPHOR JUDGE IN TERMS OF INSIGHT LEVERAGE WHAT IT ALLOWS YOU TO DO WHERE ARE THE VICIOUS LOOPS? : Skills for Leadership and Governance WHERE ARE THE VICIOUS LOOPS? If you seem to be caught in feedback loops that are tying you down, or locking you into negative patterns of negative look at the overall system pattern Try to change behavior by introducing stabilizing factors e.g. by changing the direction and intensity of the undesirable feedback loops NewMindsets: http://gnome.schulich.yorku.ca/worldknowledge/vicious/vicious1.asp http://gnome.schulich.yorku.ca/worldknowledge/singleloop/singleloop1.asp Slide 42: Skills for Leadership and Governance “SUSTAINABILITY PROJECT” : Skills for Leadership and Governance “SUSTAINABILITY PROJECT” Apply the techniques to create breakthroughs on your sustainability team project Start with an important issue or problem – not a solution The techniques will help you find a solution Implications for Action and Skills Development : Skills for Leadership and Governance Implications for Action and Skills Development Practice, practice, practice... How can you take these ideas further …e.g. through the NewMindsets resources and your course assignments? The challenge now rests with you !

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