2 3 Gen12 36

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Published on March 8, 2008

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2.3 Patriarchal Narratives: Genesis 11.27-36.43:  2.3 Patriarchal Narratives: Genesis 11.27-36.43 APTS-BOT620 Patriarchal Narratives:  Patriarchal Narratives Introduction to the Patriarchal Narratives & the God of the Fathers Similarities in the Careers of the Patriarchs:  Similarities in the Careers of the Patriarchs 1. All these heroes leave their homeland [12.; 28.2; 37.28] 2. All quarrel with their brothers [13.7; 27.41; 37.4] 3. Three go down to Egypt, one to Gerar, i.e., toward Egypt [12.10; 26.1; 37.28; 46.6] 4. Two patriarchal wives are seduced or nearly so; an Egyptian wife attempts to seduce Joseph [12.14-16; 20.1-14; 26.1; 39.6-18] Similarities in the Careers of the Patriarchs:  Similarities in the Careers of the Patriarchs 5. Their wives are barren and quarrel (in Abraham's and Jacob's cases) [16.1-6; 29.31-30.8] 6. The younger sons are divinely favored (also Joseph's sons) [17.18-19; 25.23; 48.14; 49.8-12, 22-26] 7. Brides met at well [24.15; 29.9] 8. Promises of children, land, divine blessing [e.g., 12.1-3; 26.28-29; 41.39-40] Similarities in the Careers of the Patriarchs:  Similarities in the Careers of the Patriarchs 9. Gentiles acknowledge God's blessing on the patriarchs [21.21-22; 26.28-29; 41.39-40] 10. Buried in cave of Machpelah [23.1-20; 25.9; 35.27-29; 49.29-32] Wenham, Gordan, Genesis 1-15: Word Biblical Commentary, 257. Dating the Patriarchs:  Dating the Patriarchs “The 480 years of 1 Kgs 6.1 has its lower end fixed at the fourth year of the reign of Solomon, for which a date of 967 B.C. seems probable. This figure, and the 430 years of Ex 12.40, together places the descent into Egypt at about 1877 B.C. This date should not be considered exact, since some small leeway must be allowed for the dating of Solomon’s reign, and the figures of 430 and 480 may themselves be round estimates.” [Bimson, J. J. “Archaelogical Data and the Dating of the Patriarchs,” Essays on the Patriarchal Narratives, eds. D. J. Wiseman & A.R.Millard, 85-86] Chronological Chart:  Chronological Chart Dating the Patriarchs:  Dating the Patriarchs “This dating scheme places Abraham's life almost entirely before 2000 B.C., and therefore in MB I: part of Isaac's life, before his move form Beer-lahai-roi to Gerear (cf. 25.11 and 26.1), is also allowed to fall within MB I, before the depopulation of the Negeb. It is tempting to speculate that the famine which drove Isaac from the southern Negeb to Gerar was part of the change in conditions which led to the depopulation of the Negeb as a whole at the end of MB I. Jacob's life after his return from the household of Laban falls satisfactorily within MB II.” [Bimson, J. J. “Archaelogical Data and the Dating of the Patriarchs,” Essays on the Patriarchal Narratives, eds. D. J. Wiseman & A.R.Millard, 85-86] Customs & the Patriarchal Age:  Customs & the Patriarchal Age 1. “The practice of granting a birthright, that is, additional privileges to an eldest son, is mentioned several times in the patriarchal narratives (Gen 25.5-6; 25.32-34; 43.33; 49.3-4; cf. 48.13-20) and was widespread in the ANE . . . . The double portion, well known in texts from the Old Babylonian to the Neo-Babylonian period, is clearly found in the OT only in Deut 21.15-17.” [Selman, M. J. "Comparative Customs and the Patriarchal Age," Essays on the Patriarchal Narratives, eds. Millard & Wiseman, 135] Customs & the Patriarchal Age:  Customs & the Patriarchal Age 2. “In Gen 25.23, the Hebrew term for the eldest son is not the usual reko=r but rab, which is used here only in this sense. The cognate Akkadian word, rabu=, is also used by itself of the eldest son, but so far has turned up only in tablets of the mid-second millennium, from Nuzi, Alalah, Ugarit, and Middle Assyria. Since the texts from Babylonia and those of the Neo-Assyrian period use different terminology, such as aplu(m) rabu(m) (‘eldest heir’) or maru(m) rabu(m) (‘eldest son’), it appears that this biblical datum has some chronological significance.” Customs & the Patriarchal Age:  Customs & the Patriarchal Age 3. “The alteration of a man’s inheritance prospects was never subject to a father's arbitrary decision, whether it involved the loss of the birthright privilege or total disinheritance, but was brought about in every case by serious offences against one’s own family. Thus Reuben’s sexual offences against his father’s concubine (Gen 35.22; 49.3-4) can be linked with behaviour of similar gravity elsewhere, such as taking legal action against one’s parents, the usurping of a father’s authority, or the despising of one’s parents.” [Selman, M. J. "Comparative Customs and the Patriarchal Age," Essays on the Patriarchal Narratives, eds. Millard & Wiseman, 135-136] Customs & the Patriarchal Age:  Customs & the Patriarchal Age 4. “A man’s ability to sell inherited property is documented at different periods in the ANE, though at the present time no clear case is known of an eldest son who, like Esau, sold either his inheritance or his rights to an inheritance.” [Selman, M. J. "Comparative Customs and the Patriarchal Age," Essays on the Patriarchal Narratives, eds. Millard & Wiseman, 136] Customs & the Patriarchal Age:  Customs & the Patriarchal Age 5. “While the inheritance relationship between Abraham and Eliezer may find its explanation in Prv 17.2, the examples of adoption of slaves, and the specific case of the OB letter from Larsa (where it is suggested that a man without sons could adopt his own slave), are also very apposite to this situation. it is precisely the custom of the adoption of one’s slave that is found only in the Larsa letter and in Gen 15.” [Selman, M. J. "Comparative Customs and the Patriarchal Age," Essays on the Patriarchal Narratives, eds. Millard & Wiseman, 136] Customs & the Patriarchal Age:  Customs & the Patriarchal Age 6. “The adoption of Ephraim and Manasseh by their grandfather (Gen 48.5) may be compared with a similar adoption of a grandson at Ugarit. Furthermore, the phrase, ‘they are mine’ (Gen 48.5) is almost identical to the usual ANE term adoption formulae, as found for instance in the Laws of Hammurapi para. 170.” [Selman, M. J. "Comparative Customs and the Patriarchal Age," Essays on the Patriarchal Narratives, eds. Millard & Wiseman, 136] Customs & the Patriarchal Age:  Customs & the Patriarchal Age 7. “The custom of bearing ‘upon the knees’ has frequently been interpreted as an adoption rite.... The practice is mentioned five times in the OT, of which three references occur in the patriarchal narratives [Gen 30.3; 48.12; 50.23; Job 3.11-12; Isa 66.12] A study of all these reveals no clear connection with adoption, however, an impression which is confirmed by similar references in two Hurrian myths and several Neo-Assyrian blessings. Rather, both the biblical and extrabiblical passages have associations with birth, name-giving, breast-feeding, and fondling of a child, and seem to indicate some kind of recognized welcome or acceptance of a newborn child into the family which could be carried out by parents, grandparents, or great-grandparents.” [Selman, M. J. "Comparative Customs and the Patriarchal Age," Essays on the Patriarchal Narratives, eds. Millard & Wiseman, 136-137] Customs & the Patriarchal Age:  Customs & the Patriarchal Age 8. “The gift of a female slave as part of a dowry, a practice mentioned three times in the patriarchal narratives, is well known in the ANE at various periods. If the marriage proved to be infertile, the husband normally took matters into his own hands, but on certain occasions, the wife was able to present one of her slavegirls, sometimes specially purchased, to her husband to produce children for their own marriage. The parallels to the biblical references (Gen 16.1-4; 30.1-13) for this rare custom are found so far in the Hammurapi Laws, and in single instances from Nuzi and Nimrud. In each case, the authority over the children resulting from this union belonged not to the slavegirl who bore them but to the chief wife.” [Selman, M. J. "Comparative Customs and the Patriarchal Age," Essays on the Patriarchal Narratives, eds. Millard & Wiseman, 137] Customs & the Patriarchal Age:  Customs & the Patriarchal Age 9. “A father’s prohibition forbidding his prospective son-in-law to take a second wife in place of his daughter is found regularly in marriage contracts, as well as in Laban’s covenant with his son-in-law Jacob (Gen 31.50).” [Selman, M. J. "Comparative Customs and the Patriarchal Age," Essays on the Patriarchal Narratives, eds. Millard & Wiseman, 138] Customs & the Patriarchal Age:  Customs & the Patriarchal Age 10. “Since the function of Bethuel in the arrangement of his daughter’s marriage is rather ambiguous (Gen 24), one should note the several instances in the Old and Neo-Babylonian periods where a marriage was arranged by the bride’s brother, either by himself or together with their mother.” [Selman, M. J. "Comparative Customs and the Patriarchal Age," Essays on the Patriarchal Narratives, eds. Millard & Wiseman, 138] Customs & the Patriarchal Age:  Customs & the Patriarchal Age 11. “The description of adultery as a ‘great sin’ by the Philistine king Abimelek (Gen 20.9; cf. 26.10) is known also at Ugarit and in Egyptian marriage contracts of the first millennium B.C.” [Selman, M. J. "Comparative Customs and the Patriarchal Age," Essays on the Patriarchal Narratives, eds. Millard & Wiseman, 138] Customs & the Patriarchal Age:  Customs & the Patriarchal Age 12. “Certain oral statements were accompanied by recognized rituals and ceremonials which functioned as legal safeguards. These included the grasping or correct placing of the right hand, and actions of this kind may be seen as the legal background of Jacob’s adoption and blessing of his grandson (Gen 48).” [Selman, M. J. "Comparative Customs and the Patriarchal Age," Essays on the Patriarchal Narratives, eds. Millard & Wiseman, 138] Customs & the Patriarchal Age:  Customs & the Patriarchal Age 13. “The use of the phrase (a4kal kesep in the complaint of Laban’s daughters may be compared with the Akkadian equivalent (kaspa aka4lu), which is used five times in marriage contracts at Nuzi for the withholding of a dowry which was normally taken from the husband's marriage payment.” [Selman, M. J. "Comparative Customs and the Patriarchal Age," Essays on the Patriarchal Narratives, eds. Millard & Wiseman, 138] Themes of the Patriarchal Narratives:  Themes of the Patriarchal Narratives “It is possible.... to read through the patriarchal narratives as a whole and perceive one clear theme linking them. The theme is explicit in the actual words of God which promise blessing, land, increase, and influence. These explicit words then form the key which explains the function in their context of the stories which make up the bulk of the narratives as a whole. These stories illustrate the theme, often by Themes of the Patriarchal Narratives:  Themes of the Patriarchal Narratives showing how God overcomes the obstacles to the fulfillment of his commitment of himself which arise from circumstances that surround those who receive God’s commitment or from the people that they had to deal with or from the recipients of God's promises themselves.” [Goldingay, J. “The Patriarchs in Scripture and History,” Essays on the Patriarchal Narratives, eds. Millard & Wiseman, 13] Themes of the Abrahamic Narratives:  Themes of the Abrahamic Narratives 1. “The theme of the Abraham narrative... is that Yahweh undertook to bless him with descendants and land and to make him a blessing for other peoples, that obstacles to the fulfillment of this commitment presented themselves from many quarters, but that Yahweh kept reaffirming his undertaking and saw it to its partial fulfillment in Abraham’s own lifetime.” [Goldingay, J. “The Patriarchs in Scripture and History,” Essays on the Patriarchal Narratives, eds. Millard & Wiseman, 6] Themes of the Abrahamic Narratives:  Themes of the Abrahamic Narratives 2. The Abraham narratives (chs. 12-25), have a strikingly elemental character in that they are often concerned with life and death. They begin with the motif of Sarah’s barrenness and Abraham’s childlessness, which would mean the end of the line and, in the understanding of that epoch, death. They continue through the narrative of Abraham in Egypt to the birth in ch. 21, and on to the mortal danger that Themes of the Abrahamic Narratives:  Themes of the Abrahamic Narratives threatens the child in ch. 22 (C. Westermann, ThB 24 [1964] 58f.). They are the proper setting of the motif of the promise. The promise of a son, to which the other promises are attached, is the guarantee to Abraham of the life of his family." [Westermann, Claus, Genesis 12-25: A Commentary, 29] Themes of the Isaac Narratives:  Themes of the Isaac Narratives 1. “The Isaac narrative. . . is by no means identical with the Abraham narrative. It is more tightly structured and less episodic, there is more irony, and it introduces fewer heroes and more villains. Yet the major themes we perceived in the Abraham narrative appear here too. It relates that Yahweh reaffirmed to Abraham’s son and grandson his undertaking to bless Abraham with descendants and land and to Themes of the Isaac Narratives:  Themes of the Isaac Narratives make him a means of blessing to others, and that he kept this undertaking despite and frequently through the vagaries of those he committed himself to. This theme holds the narrative together by constitution both a thread running through it and the key motif to which the individual scenes relate.” [Goldingay, J. “The Patriarchs in Scripture and History,” Essays on the Patriarchal Narratives, eds. Millard & Wiseman, 10] Themes of the Isaac Narratives:  Themes of the Isaac Narratives 2. “Here the main theme is what happens between brother and brother. Institutions that extended far beyond the mere family circle begin to play a major role. It is a matter of regulating ownership, making covenants, legal practices, privileges, and, in the realm of religion, of sacred places and events. All this is at most of marginal interest in the Abraham narratives." [Westermann, Claus, Genesis 12-25: A Commentary, 29] Themes of the Jacob Narratives:  Themes of the Jacob Narratives “As a redactional framework, Gen 37-50 provides necessary unity for including diverse traditions about the last days of Jacob in the overall narration about the patriarchs. The collection thus intends to close the large segment of Jacob traditions. In addition, it opens the door for the exodus traditions by accounting for the shift from Jacob in Canaan to Israel in Egypt. The unit thus functions as a bridge between the patriarchal traditions (Gen 12-50) and the exodus traditions (Ex 1-12 [13.1-16]).” [Coats, Genesis: FOTL, 261] Themes of the Jacob Narratives:  Themes of the Jacob Narratives 2. "In Gen. 37-50 there enters an additional element which is completely absent from Gen. 12-36, namely, the encounter with the institution of kingship and state. This element is seen not only in the role played by Pharaoh and his court and officials, but also in the confrontation between brothers and the one brother in which the basic phenomenon of kingship, “dominion over brothers,” is determinative. The family too is different in Gen. 37-50; it is the family that has grown outwards into the surrounding world and become enmeshed with it." [Westermann, Claus, Genesis 12-25: A Commentary, 29] CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PROMISES TO THE PATRIARCHS:  CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PROMISES TO THE PATRIARCHS 1. “The promises to the patriarchs are the most frequent motif in Gen 12-50. References to them are frequent in other books, especially Deut, and are found as late as Neh.” [Westermann, “Promises to the Patriarchs,” IDBSup, 690] CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PROMISES TO THE PATRIARCHS:  CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PROMISES TO THE PATRIARCHS 2. “These promises are a part of the total complex of OT oracles of blessing, but are different from the others in not having been delivered by a cultic or other type of mediator; they are depicted as having been given directly by God to the patriarchs.” [Westermann, “Promises to the Patriarchs,” IDBSup, 690] CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PROMISES TO THE PATRIARCHS:  CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PROMISES TO THE PATRIARCHS 3. “A further hallmark of the promises to the patriarchs is that they are unconditional. What God proclaims does not depend upon on the fulfillment of any conditions. (Gen. 22.16-18 therefore apparently contains a late interpretations.)” [Westermann, “Promises to the Patriarchs,” IDBSup, 690] ANALYSIS OF THE PROMISES TO THE PATRIARCHS:  ANALYSIS OF THE PROMISES TO THE PATRIARCHS 1. “The following occur alone: a son, 18.1-16; the land, 12.7; 15.7-21; 24.7; God’s presence, 31.3.” [Westermann, “Promises to the Patriarchs,” IDBSup, 691] ANALYSIS OF THE PROMISES TO THE PATRIARCHS:  ANALYSIS OF THE PROMISES TO THE PATRIARCHS 2. “The promise of numerous posterity and of blessing are found only in combination with other promises: (1) son and posterity: 15.1-6; 16.7-12; 21.12-13, 17-18; (2) land and posterity: 13.14-17; 35.11-13; 48.3-4; (3) land, posterity, and blessing: 26.4-5; 28.3-4; 28.13-14; (4) posterity and blessing: 12.1-3; 18.18-19; 22.15-18; (5) posterity, blessing, and God’s presence: 26.24-25 (6) posterity and God’s presence: 46.3-4; (7) God’s presence, blessing, and land: 26.2-3; (8) posterity, God’s presence, blessing, and land: 26.2-6; 28.13-15.” [Westermann, "Promises to the Patriarchs,” IDBSup, 691] ANALYSIS OF THE PROMISES TO THE PATRIARCHS:  ANALYSIS OF THE PROMISES TO THE PATRIARCHS 3. “This survey shows that the most frequent promise in Gen 12-50 is that of posterity, with that of the land a distant second. The promise of a son is found only in the Abraham stories, and that of God’s presence only in the Jacob-Esau stories. The promises usually occur in groups of two, three, or more, with the greatest concentration occurring in P.” [Westermann, “Promises to the Patriarchs,” IDBSup, 691] PROMISE OF A SON:  PROMISE OF A SON 1. Texts: 15.2-4; 16.11; 17.15, 16, 19, 21; 18.10, 14; [21.1-3] 2. Promise of a son elsewhere in the OT: Judg 13.2-5; 1 Sam 1; 2 Kgs 4.8-17. 3. Parallels in Ugaritic texts: Kirta & Aqhat 4. “In Gen 12-50 the promise of a son is confined to the Abraham stories, where it dominates accounts.” [Westermann, “Promises to the Patriarchs,” IDBSup, 691] PROMISE OF GOD’S PRESENCE:  PROMISE OF GOD’S PRESENCE 1. Texts: Gen 26.3, 24; 28.15 [20]; 31.3; 46.3; [48.15, 21; 50.24] 2. “This promise is found only in chs 26-50. In 26.3, 24 it is made to Isaac, and elsewhere to Jacob. Just as the promise of a son is the dominant motif in chs 12-25, this promise is dominant in chs 26-50.” [Westermann, “Promises to the Patriarchs,” IDBSup, 691] PROMISE OF GOD’S PRESENCE:  PROMISE OF GOD’S PRESENCE 3. “Maag was the first to draw attention to this promise, seeing it as loosely connected with the wanderings of the patriarchs. In each instance, God promises to be with them on a journey. It is given as part of the command to move (46.1-3), or to remain (26.1-3), or to return (31.3).” [Westermann, “Promises to the Patriarchs,” IDBSup, 691] PROMISE OF THE LAND:  PROMISE OF THE LAND 1. Promise of a New Home and New Pasture [12.1-3] 2. Promise of a Land Under Cultivation (12.7; 13.14-15; 13.17; 15.7-21; 17.8; 24.7; 26.3, 4; 28.4, 13; 35.12; 48.4; 50.24; outside of Gen 12-50: Ex 13.5, 11; 32.13; 33.1; Num 11.12; 14.16, 23; 32.11; Deut 1.8, 35; 4.31; 6.10, 18, 23, and thirteen other passages). PROMISE OF THE LAND:  PROMISE OF THE LAND 3. “As can be seen from Gen 15.7-21 and 13.14-17, the emphasis lies on the promise made to Abraham. The promise that Jacob would gain possession of the land is seen as a renewal of the promise to Abraham (Gen 26.3, 4; 28.4; 35.12; 50.24). The story in Gen 15.7-21 concerns only the promise of the land; in fact, the story developed out of the promise.” [Westermann, “Promises to the Patriarchs,” IDBSup, 692] PROMISE OF THE LAND:  PROMISE OF THE LAND 4. “The language varies so little that we can assume a fixed form, utilizing the verb !tn. The promise is probably the basis for an accepted formula for the legal transfer to land (cf. Gen 48.22). Such an adaptation is suggested by 13.14-17.” [Westermann, “Promises to the Patriarchs,” IDBSup, 692] PROMISE OF THE LAND:  PROMISE OF THE LAND 5. “This promise probably was formulated when possession of the land was a life-and-death matter for the tribes that had settled in Canaan. At the end of the patriarchal stories (50.24) it is stated that the promise to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob refers to the gift of the land of Canaan to the Israelites who leave Egypt.” [Westermann, "Promises to the Patriarchs," IDBSup, 692] PROMISE OF THE LAND:  PROMISE OF THE LAND 6. “In twenty-one passages in Deuteronomy the promise of the land is formulated as an oath and has the function of legitimizing the occupation of the land by the tribes.” [Westermann, “Promises to the Patriarchs,” IDBSup, 692] PROMISE OF POSTERITY:  PROMISE OF POSTERITY 1. Texts: 12.1-3; 13.16; 15.5; 16.10; 17.2, 5, 6, 16, 20; 18.18; 22.17, 18; 26.2-5, 24-25; 28.3, 14; 32.12[MT 13]; 35.11; 46.3; [47.27]; 48.4, 16, 19; outside of Gen 12-50: [Ex 1]; Ex 32.10; Num 14.12; Deut 1.10, 11; 6.3; 13.17 [MT 18]; 15.6; Isa 51.2; Neh 9.23 PROMISE OF POSTERITY:  PROMISE OF POSTERITY 2. “Promise of a son and posterity. The combination of these two promises is found, lie the promise of a son, only in the Abraham cycle. That they were originally separate can be seen in 16.10-12 (cf. 21.12-13, 17-18). Their interrelationship is made completely clear in 15.4-5, where the opening of a new scene in v5 shows that the writer was aware of the independence of the two promises.” [Westermann, “Promises to the Patriarchs,” IDBSup, 692] PROMISE OF POSTERITY:  PROMISE OF POSTERITY 3. “The language and form of the promise. Of all the promises this one most often had a fixed form and is found exactly or almost word-for-word the same in many passages. Characteristic also is the poetic comparison with the stars of the sky (Gen 15.5; 22.17; 26.4; Ex 32.13; Deut 1.10; 10.22; 28.62; Neh 9.23), the sand by the sea (Gen 22.17; 32.12 [MT 13]; Isa 10.22; 48.19), and the dust of the earth (Gen 13.16; 28.14). A variant forms of the promise indicates the transition of the family to the nations, ‘I will make of you a great nation’ (12.2; 17.20; 18.18; 21.13, 18; 46.3; Ex 32.10; Num 14.12).” [Westermann, “Promises to the Patriarchs,” IDBSup, 692] PROMISE OF POSTERITY:  PROMISE OF POSTERITY 4. The origin of the promise of posterity. Westermann argues that many passages where the promise of posterity is promised along with a blessing indicates that they were originally connected and therefore late. (12.2; 17.16, 20; 22.17; 26.4; 26.24; 28.3; 32.12 [MT 13]; 35.9-11; 48.3-4 [16]; Isa 51.2) PROMISE OF BLESSING:  PROMISE OF BLESSING 1. “The distinctive nature of the promise. An independent pronouncement of blessing has been preserved only in Gen 12.1-3. Here all the other promises are subordinated to that of blessing, while in all other passages the promise of blessing is made specific in, or is more fully developed by, the promise of prosperity.” [Westermann, “Promises to the Patriarchs,” IDBSup, 692] PROMISE OF BLESSING:  PROMISE OF BLESSING 2. Expansion of the promise. Concerning (1) Cursed . . . . and (2) All the families . . . . THE COVENANT PROMISE:  THE COVENANT PROMISE “In the patriarchal histories it is found only in P (Gen 17.7-8), and is characterized as a covenant (tyrb). Elsewhere in P it occurs in Lev 11.45; 22.33; 25.38; 26.45; Num 15.41; see also Ex 29.45; and Ezek 34.24. In all these passages Israel is the recipient of the promise. In Deut 29.10-13 it occurs as promise to the patriarchs and is characterized again as tyrb. It also occurs as a part of the covenant formula, which also says ‘and you will be my people.’ By citing this promise in the middle of ch 17, P builds a connection between patriarchal history and that of the nation.” [Westermann, “Promises to the Patriarchs,” IDBSup, 693] THEOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROMISES:  THEOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROMISES 1. “They witness to the earliest connection between what God says (the promise) and what he does (the fulfillment). When the people later were rescued or protected they saw this as the fulfillment of what God had said, and thus we can understand why the patriarchal traditions become a basic part of Israel’s traditions.” [Westermann, “Promises to the Patriarchs,” IDBSup, 693] THEOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROMISES:  THEOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROMISES 2. “The promises thus have the function of connecting God’s ancient word with what he had more recently done [Exodus] for his people. They give the assurance that God stands by his word, and that he trusted for the future.” [Westermann, “Promises to the Patriarchs,” IDBSup, 693] PATRIARCHIAL RELIGION:  PATRIARCHIAL RELIGION “The God of the Fathers” Occurrences in Genesis and Exodus:  Occurrences in Genesis and Exodus 1. “The God of my father”: Gen 31.5, 42; Ex 15.2; 18.4 2. “The God of your(2ms) father”: Gen 46.3; 49.25; 50.17; Ex 3.6 3. “The God of your(2mp) father": Gen 31.29; 43.23 4. “The God of their father”: Gen 31.53 5. “The God of your fathers”: Ex 3.13, 15, 16 6. “The God of their fathers”: Ex 4.5 Occurrences in Genesis and Exodus:  Occurrences in Genesis and Exodus 7. “The God of Abraham”: Gen 24.12, 27, 42, 48; 26.24; 28.13; 31.53 8. “The God of Isaac”: Gen 46.1 9. “The God of Abraham, your father, and the God of Isaac”: Gen 28.13 10. “The God of my father Abraham and the God of my father Isaac”: Gen 32.9[10] 11. “The God of your father(s), and God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob”: Ex 3.6, 15, 16; 4.5 Albrecht Alt: “The God of the Fathers”:  Albrecht Alt: “The God of the Fathers” 1. Nameless: a. “the God of X” b. Emphasis is on a personal relationship with the deity 2. Siteless: The God who went with God’s own Characteristic Features of the God of the Patriarchs:  Characteristic Features of the God of the Patriarchs 1. Preliminary Observations: a. The non-cultic character is predominant. Therefore sacred places are not too important. b. Focus is on the “peaceful” presence of God in contrast to the Divine Warrior image of the Exodus, Conquest and Monarchical period. c. The divine promises that given to the patriarchs are unconditional in nature. d. There is a general lack of interest on the subject of sin. The connection between sin and guilt/punishment is almost wholly absent. Characteristic Features of the God of the Patriarchs:  Characteristic Features of the God of the Patriarchs 2. The Personal God a. Problem of “local” Connection i. “The gods of the ancient Near East were, to a large extent, associated with particular places and temples. Marduk was worshiped in Babylon; and Sin, in Haran.” [Mettinger, In Search of God, 56] ii. Early Israelite fears reflected in Ex 17.7 may indicate that they carried this same baggage. Even Moses needs to be assured in this light (Ex 33.14-15). Characteristic Features of the God of the Patriarchs:  Characteristic Features of the God of the Patriarchs b. Personal Names with “theophoric elements” )a4b, “father” )a4h9, “brother” (am, “uncle” Abi-melech > Eli-melech Abi-ezer > Eli-ezer c. Special Designations of the God of the fathers i. “The Mighty One of Jacob” ryba bq[y: Gen 49.24; Isa 49.26; 60.16; Ps 132.2, 5; and in Isa 1.24 “the ryba of Israel” Characteristic Features of the God of the Patriarchs:  Characteristic Features of the God of the Patriarchs c. Special Designations of the God of the fathers i. “The Mighty One of Jacob” ryba bq[y: Gen 49.24; Isa 49.26; 60.16; Ps 132.2, 5; and in Isa 1.24 “the ryba of Israel” ii. “The Fear of Isaac” dxp bq[y: Gen 31.42, 53 THE GOD OF THE FATHERS AND )EL:  THE GOD OF THE FATHERS AND )EL “These El names were originally pre-Israelite in their meaning. With the exception of El Shaddai, they generally appear in connection with particular Canaanite shrines and reflect ancient Semitic religion. When the Israelites came into Canaan, they took over these shrines, together with the religious traditions associated with them to the worship of Yahweh.” [Anderson, "God, Names of," IDB, I, 413a] THE GOD OF THE FATHERS AND )EL:  THE GOD OF THE FATHERS AND )EL EL SHADDAI: How old is this Divine Name?:  EL SHADDAI: How old is this Divine Name? “Of the forty-eight occurrences of the name, quite a number appear in late literature, such as Ezekiel (twice) and Job (thirty-one times). Nevertheless, there is practically no contemporary scholar who claims that the name El Shaddai was a late invention of the exilic period. This is because there is broad agreement about the antiquity of some of the other biblical passages in which the name occurs; for example, Jacob’s patriarchal blessing (Gen 49.25), the Baalam text (Num 24.4, 16), and an ancient list of names (Num 1.5-16) in which Shaddai is the theophoric element in several EL SHADDAI: How old is this Divine Name?:  EL SHADDAI: How old is this Divine Name? personal names: Shede-ur, Zuri-shaddai, and Ammi-shaddai (vv. 5, 6, 12). There is also a single extra-biblical attestation. An Egyptian figurine bears the legend ‘Shaddai-ammi.’ Thus it contains the same elements as the previously mentioned biblical ‘Ammi-shaddai.’ The figurine in question is datable to ca. 1300 BCE.” [Mettinger, In Search of God, 69] EL SHADDAI: O.T. References:  EL SHADDAI: O.T. References The Pentateuch: 9 times. Three occurrences are in ancient tribal blessings, like the blessing of Jacob (Gen 49.25) and Balaam’s blessing (Numb 24.4, 16); the other six occurrence are usually assigned to the so-called ‘Priestly tradition’ in the Pentateuch: Gen 17.1; 28.3; 35.11; 43.14ff., 48.3; Exo 6.3. The book of Ruth: 2 times (Ruth 1.20-21) EL SHADDAI: O.T. References:  EL SHADDAI: O.T. References The Prophets: 4 times (Isa 13.6; Joel 1.15; Ezk 1.24; 10.5) The Psalter: 2 times (Ps 68.14 [15]; 91.1) Job: 31 times EL SHADDAI: Theories on Derivation:  EL SHADDAI: Theories on Derivation 1. “A common Greek rendering of ‘El Shaddai’ is pantokrato4r, ‘the ruler of all’ (16 times in LXX Job). It is clear, however, that this does not represent an actual attempt to translate the divine name. Rather, it is a conventional rendering and not an effort at a linguistic interpretation of ‘El Shaddai.’ What we usually find in modern biblical translations of the name ‘El Shaddai’ are reflections of this convention. As a result, the expression ‘the Almighty’ in the biblical translations provides no key to the understanding of ‘El Shaddai.’” [Mettinger, In Search of God, 70] EL SHADDAI: Theories on Derivation:  EL SHADDAI: Theories on Derivation 2. “Early Judaism understood the contents of the name as ‘he who is sufficient’ (derived from Heb. s]e + day). This interpretation underlies the translation hikanos (‘he who is sufficient’), which we find in certain Greek translations. Today, however, this is not held to be a convincing alternative.” [Mettinger, In Search of God, 70] EL SHADDAI: Theories on Derivation:  EL SHADDAI: Theories on Derivation 3. “An early interpretation associated ‘El Shaddai’ with a Hebrew root signifying violence and destruction - s]dd. This view is expressed already in the expression ‘as destruction of a s]o4d, ‘violence, destruction,’ which comes from Shaddai (cf. Isa 13.6; Joel 1.15). But this is probably a pun, not a linguistic-historical derivation.” [Mettinger, In Search of God, 70] EL SHADDAI: Theories on Derivation:  EL SHADDAI: Theories on Derivation 4. “The derivation that has won broadest acceptance does not associate the name with any Hebrew word, but with an Akkadian one found in Babylonian texts - s]adu= - the usual Akkadian word for ‘mountain.’ On this theory the name ‘El Shaddai’ would then signify something like ‘El, the One of the mountain.’” [Mettinger, In Search of God, 71] EL SHADDAI: Theories on Derivation:  EL SHADDAI: Theories on Derivation 5. “The Amorites dwelt in northern Mesopotamia, at the upper course of the Euphrates; they were a nomadic people whom scholars have designated ‘proto-Arameans,’ and they have been held to have been related to the tribal groups that eventually made up the people of Israel. These Amorites worshipped a god called ‘Amurru.’ In some texts, it develops that this deity was characterized as be4l s]ade=, ‘the lord of the mountain.’” [Mettinger, In Search of God, 71] EL SHADDAI: It’s Associations:  EL SHADDAI: It’s Associations 1. “A number of scholars have felt that it was a notion of God as protector and refuge. Similar thoughts are presumably expressed when the god of Israel is characterized as the ‘rock’ of his people (cf., e.g., Deut 32.4, 15, 18, 30, 31; 2 Sam 23.3; Ps 18.46). Another possibility is the notion that the name El Shaddai designates God as the One of the mount of the divine council (cf. Isa 14.13). In this event El Shaddai EL SHADDAI: It’s Associations:  EL SHADDAI: It’s Associations would be a name that characterized the God of the fathers as the chief of the heavenly council. The use of the name (El) Shaddai in close association with (El) Elyon, ‘God the Most High’ (Num 24.16 and Ps 91.1), provides a degree of support of this conjecture, as does the occurrence of the name in the Deir Alla inscriptions.” [Mettinger, In Search of God, 71] EL SHADDAI: It’s Associations:  EL SHADDAI: It’s Associations 2. “. . . El Shaddai frequently appears in contexts which deal with a divine blessing; one has only to think of the blessings of Jacob and Baalam (Gen 49.25; Num 24.4, 16 respectively). Most occurrences in the patriarchal narratives appear in similar contexts. Thus El Shaddai reveals himself to Abraham and promises him innumerable offspring (Gen 17.1); in the name El Shaddai, Isaac blesses Jacob and communicates to him the assurance of numerous progeny and the blessing of Abraham (Gen 28.3-4). The same motif recurs in Gen 35.11 in the words, ‘I am El Shaddai. Be fruitful and multiply.’” [Mettinger, In Search of God, 72] ABRAHAMIC NARRATIVES:  ABRAHAMIC NARRATIVES Genesis 12-25 Form Critical Outline:  Form Critical Outline I. NARRATIVE INCLUSION [11.10-22.19] A. Exposition [11.10-12.9] B. Threat to the Ancestress [12.10-20] C. Family Novella: Abram-Lot [13.1-14.24] D. Covenant [15.1-21] E. Tale of Family Strife [16.1-16] (Annunciation/Birth of Ishmael) Form Critical Outline:  Form Critical Outline F. Covenant [17.1-27] G. Tale of Family Strife [18.1-15] (Annunciation of Isaac) H. Family Novella: Abraham-Lot [18.16-19.38] 1. Intercession [18.16-33] 2. Lot's Salvation [19.1-29] 3. Incest [19.30-38] Form Critical Outline:  Form Critical Outline I. Threat to the Ancestress [20.1-18] J. Tale of Family Strife [21.1-21] K. Beer-Sheba Etiology [21.22-34] L. Abraham Legend [22.1-19] Form Critical Outline:  Form Critical Outline II. DEATH REPORT [22.20-25.26] A. Nahor Genealogy [22.20-24] B. Sarah's Burial [23.1-20] C. Abraham's Deathbed [24.1-67] D. Abraham's Second Marriage [25.1-6] E. Abraham's Death [25.7-11] F. The Following Generations [25.12-26] [Coats, George, Genesis: FOTL] Thematic Outline:  Thematic Outline 11.27-32 Transition to the Story of Abraham 12.1-9 Promise to Abraham and Migration 12.10-20 The Ancestral Mother in Danger 13.1-18 Abraham and Lot on the Way 14.1-24 Abraham and the Kings 15.1-21 The Promise to Abraham 16.1-16 Sarah & Hagar: Fight & Promise of a Son Thematic Outline:  Thematic Outline 17.1-27 The Covenant with Abraham 18.1-16a Abraham and the three Guests 18.16b-33 Abraham Queries the Destruction of Sodom 19.1-29 Destruction of Sodom and the Rescue of Lot 19.30-38 Lot’s Daughters Thematic Outline:  Thematic Outline 20.1-18 Abraham and Abimelech 21.1-7 Birth of Isaac 21.8-21 The Expulsion and Rescue of Hagar and her child 21.22-24 Dispute over well and treaty with Abimelech 22.1-19 Abraham’s Sacrifice Thematic Outline:  Thematic Outline 22.20-24 The Descendents of Nahor 23.1-20 Sarah’s Death and the Purchase of Burial Cave 24.1-67 The Wooing of Rebekah 25.1-8 The Conclusion of the Abraham Story [Modified from: Westermann, Claus, Genesis 12-36: A Commentary, 10-14] Genesis 25.19-36.43:  Genesis 25.19-36.43 The Jacob Narratives The Paradox of the Jacob Narratives:  The Paradox of the Jacob Narratives 1. “First, God has chosen and destined this man Jacob in a special way...(25.23).” [Brueggemann, Genesis: Interpretation, 204] 2. “But it is also this designation by God that begins the trouble (25.29-34; 27.1-45) that is to mark Jacob’s entire life. This is the second reality which holds the narrative in tension.... He has conflicts with all those around him. It is the juxtaposition of special designation and a life of conflict that is the mainspring of the narrative.” [Brueggemann, Genesis: Interpretation, 205] The Paradox of the Jacob Narratives:  The Paradox of the Jacob Narratives 3. “It has been called ‘the Jacob story,’ but one must ask if the title is correct, for Isaac would the be almost ignored in the series of narratives. Actually the number of real Isaac stories is very small. But since our block of Jacob narratives is titled ‘these are the descendants of Isaac,’ and since this narrative complex ends with the report of Isaac’s death (35.29), it is much better to think of the whole as an Isaac story intended by the collector.” [von Rad, Genesis: Old Testament Library, 263] Contrast with the Abrahamic Narratives:  Contrast with the Abrahamic Narratives 1. The Abraham narratives deals with a “vertical” = father-to-son movement while the Jacob narratives is a struggle within his own generation; a “horizontal” = brother-to-brother movement. Therefore is the realistic depiction of power and family position. Contrast with the Abrahamic Narratives:  Contrast with the Abrahamic Narratives 2. Abraham narrative deals with the issue of promise and fulfillment, while it is the blessing that is the main point of the Jacob narratives. Westermann points out that promise is dealt with in the Jacob narratives only in: 28.3-4; 28.23-25; 35.11-12. Westermann on Jacob Narratives:  Westermann on Jacob Narratives The blessing is central in the rivalry between the brothers both at the beginning in ch. 27 and again at the end when the brothers meet on Jacob’s return (hkrb = gift). It is central too, though in a different way, in the two insets, the blessing of the cattle, chs 29-31, and of the womb, 29.31-30.24. A blessing is wrested in the struggle in one of the encounters with God (32.24-32). It plays an essential role in the conflict between Jacob and Westermann on Jacob Narratives:  Westermann on Jacob Narratives Laban in that God has blessed Laban for Jacob’s sake (30.27, 30). When Jacob and Esau meet, Jacob points to his children whom God has bestowed on him (35.5, 11). The promise of aid is close to the blessing, particularly with its formula, ‘I will do you good’ (32.9, 12). [Westermann, Genesis 12-36, A Commentary, 409] God’s Presence & Promise:  God’s Presence & Promise 1. “H. Gunkel takes four main blocks as his point of departure: Jacob and Esau, Jacob and Laban, divine manifestations, Jacob’s children.” [Westermann, Genesis 12-36, 406] (25.19-34; 27.1-45; 27.46-28.9;32.3-21;33.1-17);(28.10-22;32.1-2, 22-32); (29.1-30; 20.25-31.55); (29.31-31.55). God’s Presence & Promise:  God’s Presence & Promise 2. “A de Pury regards the Jacob story in its entirety as a coherent unified narrative which has its center in the divine manifestation of Gen 28 with its promise and vow....” [Westermann, Genesis 12-36, A Commentary, 406] God’s Presence & Promise:  God’s Presence & Promise 3. Brueggemann follows closely Gunkel, but sees the center in the “Births” (29.31-30.24). He writes, “...at the center, is the narrative of the births which moves from barrenness (29.31) to the birth of Joseph (30.24). It is the birth of Joseph which marks a turn in the entire narrative (30.34). After that event, Jacob, looks toward the land and toward his brother Esau.” [Brueggemann, Genesis: Interpretation, 211] Jacob: The Moral Issue:  Jacob: The Moral Issue "Jacob as a young man is not portrayed in a favorable light. First he acquires the birthright through his heartless exploitation of his own brother's misery; then he purloins the patriarchal blessing by means of crafty deception practiced upon his blind and aged father. In both instances, the outcome is legally valid and irrevocable, notwithstanding the unsavory aspects of Jacob's actions. it is Jacob: The Moral Issue:  Jacob: The Moral Issue evident that the successful application of shrewd opportunism was well respected in the ancient Near East as it is in contemporary society. The two incidents also appear to betray a thoroughly formalistic conception of law in which the strict outward adherence to certain practices or principles is decisive, irrespective of the true spirit of the law and in disregard of moral considerations. It is remarkable, Jacob: The Moral Issue:  Jacob: The Moral Issue therefore, that the biblical narrative has succeeded in weaving the stories into the larger biography of Jacob in such a way as to add up to an unqualified condemnation of Jacob's actions. Jacob: The Moral Issue:  Jacob: The Moral Issue . . . the function of the divine oracle that Rebekah received during her difficult pregnancy is to disengage the fact of Jacob's election by God from the improper means that he employed in his impatience to formalize his predestined, independent right to be Isaac's heir. His claim rests wholly and solely on God's revealed predetermination, and the presence of the oracle constitutes a moral judgment on Jacob's behavior. Jacob: The Moral Issue:  Jacob: The Moral Issue This clear, if implicit, censure is brought out all the more forcefully in the cycle of biographic tales. Scripture says of Abraham that he died at "a good ripe age, old and contented" (25.8). Isaac is similarly described as dying "in ripe old age" (35.29). But such notice is singularly and revealingly lacking in the case of Jacob. This patriarch can only report that the years of his life have been "few and hard (47.9). The reference, of course, is to the unrelieved series of trials and tribulations that dogged his footsteps form the day he deceived his father until the last years of his life. Jacob: The Moral Issue:  Jacob: The Moral Issue The quite, mild, home-loving Jacob, favorite of his mother, was forced into precipitous flight, to be exiled for twenty years. Indeed, the catalogue of misfortunes that befell him reads like the retributive counterpart, measure for measure, of his own offenses, Just as he exploited his brother's plight, so Laban exploits his, He took advantage of his father's permanent darkness to misrepresent himself as Jacob: The Moral Issue:  Jacob: The Moral Issue his elder brother, so Laban makes use of the darkness to substitute the elder sister for the younger. When Jacob admonishes Laban with the accusatory "Why did you deceive me?" (29.25), he echoes the very Hebrew stem rmh used about himself by Isaac to Esau (27.35). The perpetrator of deception is now the victim, hoist with his own petard. Jacob: The Moral Issue:  Jacob: The Moral Issue When Jacob finally makes his escape from Haran and sets out for home after two decades in the service of his scoundrelly uncle, he finds his erstwhile employer in hot and hostile pursuit of him (chap. 31). No sooner has this trouble passed than he feels his life to be in mortal danger once again from Esau (32.4-33.16). Arriving at last at the threshold of Canaan, he experiences the mysterious night encounter that leaves him with a strained hip (32.25-33). Jacob: The Moral Issue:  Jacob: The Moral Issue His worst troubles await him in the land of Canaan. His only daughter, Dinah, is violated (chap. 34); his beloved wife, Rachel, dies in childbirth (35.16-20); and the first son she bore him is kidnapped and sold into slavery by his own brothers. In perpetrating this inhuman act, the brothers use an article of his clothing in order to deceive their father (37.25-33), just as Jacob years before had used Esau's clothes to mislead Isaac. Jacob: The Moral Issue:  Jacob: The Moral Issue All the foregoing makes quite clear Scripture's condemnation of Jacob's early moral lapses. An explicit denunciation could hardly be more effective or more scathing than Jacob's unhappy biography. Nevertheless, expressions of outright censure of Jacob's behavior are found in prophetic literature. Hosea tells us (12.3) that the Lord once "punished Jacob for his conduct, / Requited him for his deeds." And Jeremiah warns (9.3): "beware, every man of Jacob: The Moral Issue:  Jacob: The Moral Issue his friend! / Trust not a brother! / For every brother takes advantage, / Every friend is base in his dealings." it can hardly be doubted that in coupling the term "brother" with an unusual phrase life (akov ya(akov, "take advantage," the prophet intends to signal to the bearer an association with Jacob's treatment of Esau, a notorious example of such base behavior. Jacob: The Moral Issue:  Jacob: The Moral Issue All of the above provide ample evidence that Jacob's duplicitous behavior with regard to the birthright was totally unacceptable to the biblical Narrator." [Sarna, Nahum, Genesis: The JPS Torah Commentary, 397-398] Thematic Outline:  Thematic Outline 25.19-28 THE BIRTH OF ESAU AND JACOB 25.29-34 THE POT OF LENTIL SOUP AND THE BIRTHRIGHT 26.1-35 ISAAC AND ABIMELECH 27.1-45 THE FIRSTBORN CHEATED OF HIS BLESSING Thematic Outline:  Thematic Outline 26.34-35; 27.46; 28.1-9 JACOB’S DEPARTURE AND ESAU’S WIVES 28.10-22 JACOB’S DREAM AND VOW AT BETHEL 29.1-30 JACOB AND LABAN: MARRIAGE WITH LEAH AND RACHEL Thematic Outline:  Thematic Outline 29-31-30.24 THE BIRTH AND NAMING OF JACOB’S SONS 30.25-43 JACOB OUTWITS LABAN 31.1-54 JACOB’S SEPARATION FROM LABAN 32.1-22 PREPARATION FOR THE MEETING WITH ESAU Thematic Outline:  Thematic Outline 32.23-33 THE ATTACH ON JACOB AT THE JABBOK 33.1-20 THE MEETING OF THE BROTHERS 34.1-31 DINAH AND THE SHECHEMITES Thematic Outline:  Thematic Outline 35.1-29 JACOB IN BETHEL AND HEBRON, JACOB’S SONS, ISAAC’S DEATH 36.1-43 ESAU’S DESCENDANTS Palistrophy & the Jacob Narratives:  Palistrophy & the Jacob Narratives 25:19–34 First encounters of Jacob and Esau A 26:1–33 Isaac and the Philistines B 26:34–28:9 Jacob cheats Esau of his blessing C 28:10–22 Jacob meets God at Bethel D 29:1–14 Jacob arrives at Laban’s house E 29:15–30 Jacob marries Leah and Rachel F 29:31–30:24 Birth of Jacob’s sons G Palistrophy & the Jacob Narratives:  Palistrophy & the Jacob Narratives 30:25–31:1 Jacob outwits Laban F1 31:2–32:1 Jacob leaves Laban E1 32:2–3 Jacob meets angels of God at Mahanaim D1 32:4–33:20 Jacob returns Esau’s blessing C1 34:1–31 Dinah and the Hivites B1 35:1–29 Journey’s end for Jacob and Isaac A1 [Wenham, Gordon, Word Biblical Commentary, Volume 2: Genesis 16-50, (Dallas, Texas: Word Books, Publisher) 1998] Marriage of Isaac & Rebekah: Gen 24:  Marriage of Isaac & Rebekah: Gen 24 24.1-9 Abraham Commissions his Servant 24.10-14 The Servant’s Prayer 24.12-14: first person to in the scriptures to pray for personal guidance. 24.15-27 The Encounter with Rebekah 24.28-61 The Betrothal 24.34-39 Servant’s speech 24.62-67 Rebekah and Isaac BIRTH OF ESAU & JACOB: Gen 25.19-28 :  BIRTH OF ESAU & JACOB: Gen 25.19-28 Purpose: “. . . the introduction to chs. 25-36 that the redactor has inserted shows clearly what this part of the patriarchal story is meant to be about: rivalry, opposition, is part of the coexistence of brothers in a family. The reason for it is that there are privileges which are at the same time vulnerable.” [Westermann, Claus, Genesis 12-36: A Commentary, 418] POT OF LENTIL SOUP & BIRTHRIGHT: Gen 25.29-34:  POT OF LENTIL SOUP & BIRTHRIGHT: Gen 25.29-34 "hkrb “firstborn’s rights.” The first son in the family was held in especial esteem in Israel; he was regarded as the first fruits of his father’s strength (49:3) and dedicated to God (Exod 22:28 [29]). He was in turn specially privileged during his lifetime (Gen 43:33) and when the inheritance was divided up. Deut 21:17 POT OF LENTIL SOUP & BIRTHRIGHT: Gen 25.29-34:  POT OF LENTIL SOUP & BIRTHRIGHT: Gen 25.29-34 provides that the firstborn shall receive a double share, that is, twice as much as any other brother, of his father’s property. Similar customs are known in other parts of the ancient Near East, but since it was not universal practice, we cannot be sure that it is presupposed here.” [Wenham, Gordon, Word Biblical Commentary, Volume 2: Genesis 16-50, (Dallas, Texas: Word Books, Publisher) 1998] Firstborn Cheated of his Blessing: Gen 26.34-28.9:  Firstborn Cheated of his Blessing: Gen 26.34-28.9 Structure: 26.34-35 Esau’s Marriages 27.1-4 Isaac and Esau 27.5-17 Rebekah and Jacob 27.18-29 Isaac and Jacob 27.30-41 Isaac and Esau 27.42-45 Rebekah and Jacob Firstborn Cheated of his Blessing: Gen 26.34-28.9:  Firstborn Cheated of his Blessing: Gen 26.34-28.9 27.46 Rebekah and Isaac 28.1-5 Isaac and Jacob 28.6-9 Esau’ New wife "The relevant texts about Isaac's age are 25.20, 26; 26.34; 31.38." [Sarna, Nahum, Genesis: The JPS Torah Commentary, 364] Note also 35.29! Firstborn Cheated of his Blessing: Gen 26.34-28.9:  Firstborn Cheated of his Blessing: Gen 26.34-28.9 Form: "27:1–40 constitutes a type scene, the death-bed blessing scene. Other examples in the OT include Gen 48–49; 50:24–25; Deut 31–34; Josh 23–24; 1 Kgs 2:1–9; . . . . Usually when the great man knows he is about to die, he summons his nearest male relatives and blesses them. But here, as Keukens (BN 19 [1982] 43–56) points out, Isaac professes to be Firstborn Cheated of his Blessing: Gen 26.34-28.9:  Firstborn Cheated of his Blessing: Gen 26.34-28.9 ignorant of when he is going to die and then summons only one of his sons for blessing. The whole procedure is thus flawed from the outset." [Wenham, Gordon, Word Biblical Commentary, Volume 2: Genesis 16-50, (Dallas, Texas: Word Books, Publisher) 1998] Jacob at Bethel: Gen 28.10-22:  Jacob at Bethel: Gen 28.10-22 28.10-15 Dream Revelation 28.16-19 Bethel 28.20-22 The Vow

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