1A Quality of our Water

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Information about 1A Quality of our Water
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Published on January 2, 2008

Author: Arkwright26

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The Quality of Our Water:  The Quality of Our Water Fish Kill:  Fish Kill Chemistry Topics::  Chemistry Topics: SI system Measurement Unit Conversion Electrical Conductivity Tyndall Effect States of Matter The Quality of our Water:  The Quality of our Water Riverwood will be without water for three days What caused the fish kill? Does the fish kill mean that the water supply poses a threat to humans? The Quality of our Water:  The Quality of our Water Can we continue to obtain enough water to supply our needs? Can we get sufficiently pure water? To find the answer we need to study the properties of water Measurement and the Metric System:  Measurement and the Metric System some properties can be observed by the unaided senses others must be measured Scientist use the metric system or SI to report these measurements Measurement and the Metric System:  Measurement and the Metric System 1. When and where was the Metric System first introduced? France in the 1700’s 2. What is the modern version of the Metric System called? International System or SI in French Measurement and the Metric System:  Measurement and the Metric System 3. Why do scientists all over the world use the SI system? easy to use based on 10 people all over the world use it regardless of language Measurement and the Metric System:  Measurement and the Metric System 4. What are the seven basic SI units? gram degrees Celsius second meter mole pascal Joule Measurement and the Metric System:  Measurement and the Metric System 5. What about the other things that need to be measured like volume? we derive those units from the 7 Slide11:  6. What happens if what we need to measure is much smaller than our base units like the meter? we use prefixes to indicate fractions or multiples of all the SI units Measurement and the Metric System:  Measurement and the Metric System 7. What are the important SI prefixes and what do they mean? kilometer= 1000 meters decimeter = 1/10 meter centimeter = 1/100 meter millimeter = 1/1000 meter Measurement and the Metric System:  Measurement and the Metric System 8. What are some examples of SI lengths? Door = 2m width of audiocassette cartridge = 1 cm thickness of paper clip wire-1 mm Measurement and the Metric System:  Measurement and the Metric System 9. How is volume measured? What are the common units used? volume is defined as the length x width x height of an object common units used are m3 or dm3 or cm3 Measurement and the Metric System:  Measurement and the Metric System a 1 m3 box would hold a large dog comfortably-too large a unit to be used in chemistry Measurement and the Metric System:  Measurement and the Metric System 10. What are the most common units used for volume in chemistry and what are their equivalents in Metric? dm3 = L cm3 = mL 1 dm3 = 1 L = 1000 cm3 = 1000 mL Measurement and the Metric System:  Measurement and the Metric System 11. Converting from one unit to another is Down Right Easy. Describe how to use the “Down Right Easy” system. Down Right Easy System:  Down Right Easy System K Base D C M H Dk Try these problems::  Try these problems: Convert 2.3 km to m Convert 0.366 g to mg Convert 5.886 dm to m Convert .345 cL to mL Convert 567,987 cg to kg Slide21:  12. What unit is used for temperature? Celsius 13. Why is Celsius used? It is based on water, water freezes at 0 and boils at 100(better than 32F and 212 F) Slide22:  14. How do you convert from C to F and back again? F = 9/5C + 32 C= (F-32) 5/9 15. What do you do to estimate the conversion? F=(2C) + 32 C=(F-32) 1/2 Practice:  Practice Convert and Estimate 98 F to C 25 C to F 77 F to C 5 C to F Water and Health:  Water and Health 12. Why do organisms need a constant supply of water? because water is constantly being lost 13. About how much water must we drink in order to replenish the water lost? About 2 Liters Water and Health:  Water and Health 14. How do we lose water? through excretion and evaporation from skin and lungs Water and Health:  Water and Health 15. How long can you live without food? 50-60 days 16. How long can you live without water? 5 to 10 days Water and Health:  Water and Health 17. Historically, where have people obtained their drinking water? from the nearest river or lake Water and Health:  Water and Health 18. Why did this practice become increasingly more dangerous? as cities grew, wastes were dumped or washed by rain into the same streams that people used for drinking water 19. What is the first great outbreak of disease due to contaminated water? 1850’s London, the River Thames became infected with bacteria Water and Health:  Water and Health 20. How do we deal with this problem in cities in modern times? water is purified before we use them First Lab: Sewer Water:  First Lab: Sewer Water Onward to our first lab Challenge: To clean sewage water through various means Which “Means”? Slide31:  You are going to start with 100 mL of Sewage Water Oil-Water Separation:  Oil-Water Separation How can oil and water be separated? Easy…oil and water don’t mix, oil is hydrophobic(hates water) Oil is also less dense than water, what will this mean to us? When allowed to settle, any oily stuff from the sewage water should form a layer on top of the water Sand Filtration:  Sand Filtration What part of the sewage will we be able to snag with the sand? Why? Any solids, there is very little space between grains of sand, water is small enough to get through but not solids Charcoal Adsorption and Filtration:  Charcoal Adsorption and Filtration 4. How can charcoal clean dirty water? Charcoal has a bunch of little pores insides, pores that many particles will get stuck in Charcoal will get rid of many of the particles that make the water cloudy and smelly Charcoal Adsorption and Filtration:  Charcoal Adsorption and Filtration What does filtration do? Paper filters are a lot like coffee filters but more effective, it will do a great job of getting out the charcoal and letting almost pure water go through Slide39:  This is how we will fold a piece of filter paper in order for it to fit on the filter Purity testing:  Purity testing 6. Once we have our “pure water”, how can we test its purity? Two tests: Tyndall Effect and Electrical Conductivity 7. What is the Tyndall Effect? If the particles that are suspended in water are large enough they will scatter the light from a light beam Slide43:  How is this an example of the Tyndall Effect? Purity testing:  Purity testing 8. What is Electrical Conductivity? Many of the stuff that makes water impure are dissolved ions, particles of matter that are charged negative or positive Because they are charged, they will be able to conduct electricity, if water conducts electricity, it is not pure Slide45:  Dissolved Ions Water Uses:  Water Uses 21. Do we use so much water that we are in danger of running out? Yes and no. the total amount of water available on the earth is more than enough but the amount available for drinking is decreasing 22. How much precipitation falls on the US each day? 15 trillion Liters Water Uses:  Water Uses 23. How much is used by humans? only 10% 24. What happens to the rest? the rest flows back into large bodies of water to continue the water cycle Slide48:  Use the following diagram to answer the questions in Building Skills 1: Water use in the US on Page 15 Water Uses:  Water Uses 25. About how much water will the typical family(living in the US) of four use daily? 1300 liters of direct use Water Uses:  Water Uses 26. What is the difference between direct and indirect uses of water? direct is obvious, indirect is the amount of water used to produce something you eat or use average indirect use is 20 x greater than the direct use amount Slide53:  27. When you open the faucet in your bathroom, where does the water come from a. your home water pipes are linked to underground water pipes b. these pipes carry water from a reservoir or water tower located at the highest point in town c. before water is pumped into the water tower, it is cleaned and purified at a water treatment plant Back through the Water Pipes:  Back through the Water Pipes 28. Where does the water treatment plant get its water? reservoirs, lakes, rivers, streams, or wells 29. What is surface water? water which flows on top of the ground-rivers and streams Back through the Water Pipes:  Back through the Water Pipes 30. What kind of water is well water? groundwater-must be pumped to the surface Back through the Water Pipes:  Back through the Water Pipes 31. How is water stored in the ground? in aquifers-porous rock structures that act like sponges 32. Why is neither groundwater or surface water considered pure? as the water moves it, dissolves small amount of soil and rock Back through the Water Pipes:  Back through the Water Pipes 33. Are most of these dissolved substances removed at the water treatment plant? Why or why not? No, they are harmless in the amounts normally found in food Water Cycle:  Water Cycle Where is the Earth’s Water?:  Where is the Earth’s Water? 34. What are the three phases of water as well all matter? solid-ice, snow, frost, hail liquid-oceans, lakes, rivers, clouds, rain gas-water vapor Where is the Earth’s Water?:  Where is the Earth’s Water? 35. What are the characteristics of gases like water vapor? no fixed volume or shape, it assumes the shape of the container Where is the Earth’s Water?:  Where is the Earth’s Water? 36. What are the characteristics of liquids like water? definite volume but no shape of its own, it assumes the shape of the container Slide66:  Liquids Slide67:  Evaporation Slide68:  37. What are the characteristics of solids like ice? fixed volume and fixed shape You Decide: Water Use Analysis:  You Decide: Water Use Analysis Answer Question 1-6 on Pages 17-18 You Decide: Riverwood Water Use:  You Decide: Riverwood Water Use Riverwood authorities have severely rationed your home water supply for three days, while the fish kill is investigated County Sanitation has recommended that you clean your tub and fill it with water for all uses except drinking and cooking during the 3 day period You Decide: Riverwood Water Use:  You Decide: Riverwood Water Use Assume this all the water your family has(150 L-40 gallons) Slide75:  List of Water Uses: Washing car, floor, windows, pets bathing, showering, washing hair, washing hands washing clothes, dishes watering indoor plants, outdoor plants, lawn flushing toilet You Decide: Riverwood Water Use

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