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19th Century Europe,Part 3, Imperialism, 1815-1914

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Information about 19th Century Europe,Part 3, Imperialism, 1815-1914

Published on December 13, 2008

Author: jbpowers

Source: slideshare.net

Description

major themes: "Encountering 'The Other' on "the last frontier'"; Thoughts on Imperialism; From Colonialism to Imperialism, 1815-1870; and "The Scramble, 1870-1914
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Nineteenth Century Europe PART 3 Imperialism; 1815-1914

Major Themes of This Session Encountering the “Other” on “the Last Frontier” Thoughts About Imperialism From Colonialism to Imperialism, 1815-1870 The Scramble, 1870-1914

THE “OTHER” The “white race” & the “colored races”

a long standing prejudice Winthrop Jordan’s book tells how our language bears witness to deep seated beliefs: white = good black = evil

Sir Robert Clive’s Family with Their Indian Maid Painting by Sir Joshua Reynolds, 1765

Thomas Jones Barker, The Secret of England’s Greatness (1863)

Napoleon III and Empress Eugenie receive the obeisance of their colored subjects

German postcard from their Chinese “sphere of influence”

Even Albert Schweitzer has been criticized for racism! The African is indeed my brother, but my junior brother (1875-1965)

Frederick John Dealtry Lugard, 1st Baron Lugard GCMG,CB,DSO,PC

Frederick John Dealtry Lugard, 1st Baron Lugard GCMG,CB,DSO,PC Chaplain’s son, British soldier, African explorer and colonial administrator, Governor of Hong Kong (1907-1912) & Governor-General of Nigeria (1914-1919)

The essential point in dealing with Africans is to establish a respect for the European. Upon this---the prestige of the white man---depends his influence, often his very existence, in Africa. If he shows by his surroundings, by his assumption of superiority, that he is far above the native, he will be respected, and his influence will be proportionate to the superiority he assumes and bears out by his higher accomplishments and mode of life. Lugard, The Rise of Our East African Empire, 1893. vol. II, p.74

Beginning in January, 1879, things began to change Zulu Land, the battle of Isandlwana

At Adwa, Ethiopians beat Italians, 1896

At Tsushima, a Japanese beat a Russian Admiral, 1905

This wasn’t in the script

This wasn’t in the script everywhere “colored peoples” were noticing

This wasn’t in the script everywhere “colored peoples” were noticing WEB Dubois in America

This wasn’t in the script everywhere “colored peoples” were noticing WEB Dubois in America Ho Chi Minh in French Indo-China

This wasn’t in the script everywhere “colored peoples” were noticing WEB Dubois in America Ho Chi Minh in French Indo-China Mao Tse Tung in China

This wasn’t in the script everywhere “colored peoples” were noticing WEB Dubois in America Ho Chi Minh in French Indo-China Mao Tse Tung in China Mohandas K Gandhi in South Africa

This wasn’t in the script everywhere “colored peoples” were noticing WEB Dubois in America Ho Chi Minh in French Indo-China Mao Tse Tung in China Mohandas K Gandhi in South Africa the myth of white supremacy and invincibility began to crumble

This wasn’t in the script everywhere “colored peoples” were noticing WEB Dubois in America Ho Chi Minh in French Indo-China Mao Tse Tung in China Mohandas K Gandhi in South Africa the myth of white supremacy and invincibility began to crumble it moved from being conventional wisdom to the status of core belief to an increasingly small and bitter fringe group

Other Explanations for the European Century

Other Explanations for the European Century

Whatever happens we have got The Maxim gun, and they have not. Hilaire Belloc

“THE LAST FRONTIER” Victorian Gentlemen Adventurers

“THE LAST FRONTIER” Victorian Gentlemen Adventurers Sir Richard Burton in Arabic dress

Africa, the Dark Continent STANLEY DR. LIVINGSTONE I presume!

Still!

A Gallery of such

A Gallery of such

A Gallery of such

A Gallery of such

A Gallery of such

A Gallery of such

A Gallery of such

A Gallery of such

A Gallery of such

A Gallery of such

Mass Media, the Masses and Democracy

Mass Media, the Masses and Democracy first edition, 1842

the new Daily Telegraph offices

the industrial revolution and newspapers America pioneered the penny press sold by street vendors in 1833 prior to that newspapers cost six cents and were by subscription illustrations and humor broadened the market and increased profits technology made this all possible rotary steam press lithography later, linotype machines first edition, 1841

politics, humor and democracy Boss Tweed offered cartoonist Thomas Nast $500,000 to “take a trip and forget this “ring business” “I don’t care what they write about me. My people can’t read. but these goddam pictures are killing me!” the illustrated press began what newsreels and tv have advanced in the 20th century, for better or worse, the mobilization of mass democracy

mass media and imperialism a lithograph of Afghan warriors during the second Afghan war the illustrations in posters and the penny press created a broader emotional impact than the “cool” text medium of “The Times” William Russell’s “copy” from the Crimean war was “punched up” by engraved illustrations, 1854-56

jingoism and overseas adventures popular interest in faraway places was stoked by the press another source was missionary activity in an age when Sunday attendance was much higher than today when “exotic savages” killed “civilized emissaries” there was tremendous popular pressure on government to avenge them Gordon’s death, 1885

THOUGHTS ABOUT IMPERIALISM

THOUGHTS ABOUT IMPERIALISM Comrade Lenin CLEANSES the world of the unworthy

THOUGHTS ABOUT IMPERIALISM Comrade Lenin CLEANSES the world of the unworthy

Lenin’s classic written in 1916 kept in print by the dwindling group of faithful Marxist professors

Imperialism--from glory to shame in 1916, Lenin, tsarist exile, “nobody” writes Imperialism, The Highest Stage of Capitalism he was influenced by British socialist J.A. Hobson’s Imperialism, A Study (1902) like Hobson, Lenin argued that capitalist greed rather than nationalist rivalry, or Kipling’s “White Man’s Burden” was at the heart of the imperialist scramble for colonies

The economic taproot of imperialism is excess capital in search of investment. Hobson’s thesis

Imperialism compared to Colonialism

Imperialism compared to Colonialism •The term arises in the 16th century to describe the overseas activities of Portugal, Spain, Britain and France

Imperialism compared to Colonialism •The term arises in the 16th century to describe the overseas activities of Portugal, Spain, Britain and France •The key concept is extending power and sovereignty, creating an empire

Imperialism compared to Colonialism •The term arises in the 16th century to describe the overseas activities of Portugal, Spain, Britain and France •The key concept is extending power and sovereignty, creating an empire •Empires may be contiguous like Russia’s or separated like Britain’s

Imperialism compared to Colonialism •The term arises in the 16th century to describe the overseas activities of Portugal, Spain, Britain and France •The key concept is extending power and sovereignty, creating an empire •Empires may be contiguous like Russia’s or separated like Britain’s •Usually the term is applied to our period, post 1870, when Africa was “opened”

Imperialism compared to Colonialism •The term arises in the 16th century •The term is as old as the practice of to describe the overseas activities of extending settlement and control beyond Portugal, Spain, Britain and France your borders •The key concept is extending power and sovereignty, creating an empire •Empires may be contiguous like Russia’s or separated like Britain’s •Usually the term is applied to our period, post 1870, when Africa was “opened”

Imperialism compared to Colonialism •The term arises in the 16th century •The term is as old as the practice of to describe the overseas activities of extending settlement and control beyond Portugal, Spain, Britain and France your borders •The key concept is extending •The key concept is planting settlements, power and sovereignty, creating an creating colonies empire •Empires may be contiguous like Russia’s or separated like Britain’s •Usually the term is applied to our period, post 1870, when Africa was “opened”

Imperialism compared to Colonialism •The term arises in the 16th century •The term is as old as the practice of to describe the overseas activities of extending settlement and control beyond Portugal, Spain, Britain and France your borders •The key concept is extending •The key concept is planting settlements, power and sovereignty, creating an creating colonies empire •Colonies, like Empires, have economic •Empires may be contiguous like and security costs as well as a potential Russia’s or separated like Britain’s for profits •Usually the term is applied to our period, post 1870, when Africa was “opened”

Imperialism compared to Colonialism •The term arises in the 16th century •The term is as old as the practice of to describe the overseas activities of extending settlement and control beyond Portugal, Spain, Britain and France your borders •The key concept is extending •The key concept is planting settlements, power and sovereignty, creating an creating colonies empire •Colonies, like Empires, have economic •Empires may be contiguous like and security costs as well as a potential Russia’s or separated like Britain’s for profits •Usually the term is applied to our •The term in modern usage is often a period, post 1870, when Africa was pejorative used to describe the evil “opened” effects on peoples who have thrown off their former colonial masters

“survival of the fittest” writing 2 years before Darwin’s Origin of Species, Spencer began the ethical argument later called Social Darwinism not only was it often the case that might triumphed, it was “according to nature,” thus right Europeans were “fitter,” their military successes proved it therefore it was right and just for them to rule over “backward” colonial subjects Herbert Spencer

“White Man’s Burden; The U.S. and the Philippine Islands” McClures, 1899 Take up the White Man's burden-- Send forth the best ye breed-- Go bind your sons to exile To serve your captives' need… this famous poem captures the Late Victorian beliefs of noblesse oblige, Social Darwinism, racism, imperialism originally written for Victoria’s Diamond Jubilee (1897) but set aside for “Recessional” Kipling rewrote it as an appeal to America to join the other imperialist powers in la Mission Civilisatrice Kipling in his study, 1895

belief gives way to cynicism “… a potent force for brightening the dark corners of the earth as civilization advances…”

belief gives way to cynicism

belief gives way to cynicism

belief gives way to cynicism

The Thin Red Line God of our fathers, known of old-- Lord of our far-flung battle line-- Beneath whose awful hand we hold Dominion over palm and pine-- Lord God of Hosts, be with us yet, Lest we forget--lest we forget! Kipling, Recessional, 1897

“Suez, the lifeline to India” one colonial possession “requires” another to protect or supply it Britain “has to” gain control of the Suez Canal once it’s opened, 1869 Britain “has to” control Egypt to protect the Suez Canal, 1882 Britain “has to” pacify the Sudan (1884-1898) in order to control the headwaters of the Nile, vital to Egypt, to Suez, to India!

Bases and Coaling Stations here a satellite photo of US territory Wake Island, annexed in 1899

“Painting the Map Red” 1815-1914 10 million more square miles 400 million more people 1914 25% of the world’s people 20% of its land surface

“Painting the Map Red” 1815-1914 10 million more square miles 400 million more people 1914 25% of the world’s people 20% of its land surface

“Painting the Map Red” 1815-1914 10 million more square miles 400 million more people 1914 25% of the world’s people 20% of its land surface

From Colonialism to Imperialism 1815-1870

From Colonialism to Imperialism 1815-1870 Victoria as Empress of India

The Raj “brightest jewel in the imperial crown”

The Raj “brightest jewel in the imperial crown” Governors General flag, 1855-1947

Indirect Rule British India (pink) vs Princely States (yellow)

the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) 1600-1858

the long history of HEIC

the long history of HEIC chartered as a joint-stock company by Queen Elizabeth

the long history of HEIC chartered as a joint-stock company by Queen Elizabeth fought and schemed against France, Portugal and the Dutch East Indies Company during the next 250 years

the long history of HEIC chartered as a joint-stock company by Queen Elizabeth fought and schemed against France, Portugal and the Dutch East Indies Company during the next 250 years General Robert Clive & the Battle of Plassey, 1757

the long history of HEIC chartered as a joint-stock company by Queen Elizabeth fought and schemed against France, Portugal and the Dutch East Indies Company during the next 250 years General Robert Clive & the Battle of Plassey, 1757 the sepoy system

the long history of HEIC chartered as a joint-stock company by Queen Elizabeth fought and schemed against France, Portugal and the Dutch East Indies Company during the next 250 years General Robert Clive & the Battle of Plassey, 1757 the sepoy system Sir Warren Hastings, Governor General (1773-1785)

the long history of HEIC chartered as a joint-stock company by Queen Elizabeth fought and schemed against France, Portugal and the Dutch East Indies Company during the next 250 years General Robert Clive & the Battle of Plassey, 1757 the sepoy system Sir Warren Hastings, Governor General (1773-1785) impeachment trial, 1787-1795

the long history of HEIC chartered as a joint-stock company by Queen Elizabeth fought and schemed against France, Portugal and the Dutch East Indies Company during the next 250 years General Robert Clive & the Battle of Plassey, 1757 the sepoy system Sir Warren Hastings, Governor General (1773-1785) impeachment trial, 1787-1795 dual government, indirect rule, and famines

the long history of HEIC chartered as a joint-stock company by Queen Elizabeth fought and schemed against France, Portugal and the Dutch East Indies Company during the next 250 years General Robert Clive & the Battle of Plassey, 1757 the sepoy system Sir Warren Hastings, Governor General (1773-1785) impeachment trial, 1787-1795 dual government, indirect rule, and famines respect for Hinduism

the long history of HEIC chartered as a joint-stock company by Queen Elizabeth fought and schemed against France, Portugal and the Dutch East Indies Company during the next 250 years General Robert Clive & the Battle of Plassey, 1757 the sepoy system Sir Warren Hastings, Governor General (1773-1785) impeachment trial, 1787-1795 dual government, indirect rule, and famines respect for Hinduism Sir William Wilberforce and the CMS

Benevolence...misguided?

Benevolence...misguided?

“Cultural Imperialism” or crime prevention? Sir Wm Henry Sleeman suppresses Thugs and Dacoits, 1835

“Cultural Imperialism” or crime prevention? Sir Wm Henry Sleeman suppresses Thugs and Dacoits, 1835

Growth of the British East India Company (1765-1857)

Growth of the British East India Company (1765-1857)

Indian Nationalist or Accidental Martyr?

Indian Nationalist or Accidental Martyr? February, 1857, the 19th Bengal Native Infantry gets a new weapon

Indian Nationalist or Accidental Martyr? February, 1857, the 19th Bengal Native Infantry gets a new weapon “the demon of communalism”

Indian Nationalist or Accidental Martyr? February, 1857, the 19th Bengal Native Infantry gets a new weapon “the demon of communalism” Hindu vs Muslim

Indian Nationalist or Accidental Martyr? February, 1857, the 19th Bengal Native Infantry gets a new weapon “the demon of communalism” Hindu vs Muslim beef tallow or hog grease?

Indian Nationalist or Accidental Martyr? February, 1857, the 19th Bengal Native Infantry gets a new weapon “the demon of communalism” Hindu vs Muslim beef tallow or hog grease? the sepoy system

Indian Nationalist or Accidental Martyr? February, 1857, the 19th Bengal Native Infantry gets a new weapon “the demon of communalism” Hindu vs Muslim beef tallow or hog grease? the sepoy system Enfield Rifle, Model 1853

Indian Nationalist or Accidental Martyr? February, 1857, the 19th Bengal Native Infantry gets a new weapon “the demon of communalism” Hindu vs Muslim beef tallow or hog grease? the sepoy system Enfield Rifle, Model 1853 Pandey’s defiance

Indian Nationalist or Accidental Martyr? February, 1857, the 19th Bengal Native Infantry gets a new weapon “the demon of communalism” Hindu vs Muslim beef tallow or hog grease? the sepoy system Enfield Rifle, Model 1853 Pandey’s defiance 8 April, Pandey hanged

Retribution--”The Devil’s Wind”

Sepoy Mutiny or India’s First War for Independence?

Sepoy Mutiny or India’s First War for Independence? July, 1857--Disraeli, ‘national revolt’ vs Palmerston, ‘mere military mutiny’ today historians are divided, public opinion in India is not arguments AGAINST the Independence War thesis:

Sepoy Mutiny or India’s First War for Independence? July, 1857--Disraeli, ‘national revolt’ vs Palmerston, ‘mere military mutiny’ today historians are divided, public opinion in India is not arguments AGAINST the Independence War thesis: 80% of the British forces which put down the rebellion were Indian

Sepoy Mutiny or India’s First War for Independence? July, 1857--Disraeli, ‘national revolt’ vs Palmerston, ‘mere military mutiny’ today historians are divided, public opinion in India is not arguments AGAINST the Independence War thesis: 80% of the British forces which put down the rebellion were Indian many of the local rulers fought amongst themselves rather than uniting against the British

Sepoy Mutiny or India’s First War for Independence? July, 1857--Disraeli, ‘national revolt’ vs Palmerston, ‘mere military mutiny’ today historians are divided, public opinion in India is not arguments AGAINST the Independence War thesis: 80% of the British forces which put down the rebellion were Indian many of the local rulers fought amongst themselves rather than uniting against the British many rebel sepoy regiments disbanded and went home rather than fight against the British

Sepoy Mutiny or India’s First War for Independence? July, 1857--Disraeli, ‘national revolt’ vs Palmerston, ‘mere military mutiny’ today historians are divided, public opinion in India is not arguments AGAINST the Independence War thesis: 80% of the British forces which put down the rebellion were Indian many of the local rulers fought amongst themselves rather than uniting against the British many rebel sepoy regiments disbanded and went home rather than fight against the British the revolt was largely limited to north and central India

Sepoy Mutiny or India’s First War for Independence? July, 1857--Disraeli, ‘national revolt’ vs Palmerston, ‘mere military mutiny’ today historians are divided, public opinion in India is not arguments AGAINST the Independence War thesis: 80% of the British forces which put down the rebellion were Indian many of the local rulers fought amongst themselves rather than uniting against the British many rebel sepoy regiments disbanded and went home rather than fight against the British the revolt was largely limited to north and central India the revolt was fractured along religious, ethnic and regional lines

An Act for the Better Government of India (1858) PM Palmerston decided to liquidate the British East India Company “The Company’s territories in India shall vest in Her Majesty….India will be governed in the name of the Queen.” a council of 15 members was created to assist the Secretary of State for India the Crown was empowered to appoint the Governor General for India the act also provided for the creation of the Indian Civil Service all the treaties between the HEIC and the Princely States would be binding upon the Crown

Proclamation to the People of India, 1858 announcing their new status

“...no hatred to a brown skin, none…”

“...no hatred to a brown skin, none…” In a letter to the governor-general, Lord Canning , she urged him to ensure that the Indian peoples know “that there is no hatred to a brown skin, none; but the greatest wish on their queen's part to see them happy, contented, and flourishing.” Later, in November 1858 , she and Prince Albert revised a proclamation that brought India directly under the rule of the queen and her government, ensuring that it stipulated religious tolerance as a crucial part of the resolution of the crisis. For the queen, the consolations of her own religious faith kept her from interfering with “the native religions.”

The Scramble 1870-1914

The Scramble 1870-1914 Rhodes Colossus Punch

error

Zulu!

Zulu!

the best study Donald Morris, c. 1958

Anglo-Zulu War (January-August,1879)

Anglo-Zulu War (January-August,1879) complex relations between two subject peoples, the Zulus and the Boers (white Africans) led Britain to invade Zululand

Anglo-Zulu War (January-August,1879) complex relations between two subject peoples, the Zulus and the Boers (white Africans) led Britain to invade Zululand Lord Chelmsford unwisely divided his force (5,000 Europeans and 8,200 Africans) and the Zulu chief Cetshwayo (40,000) annihilated his central column at Isandlwana

Anglo-Zulu War (January-August,1879) complex relations between two subject peoples, the Zulus and the Boers (white Africans) led Britain to invade Zululand Lord Chelmsford unwisely divided his force (5,000 Europeans and 8,200 Africans) and the Zulu chief Cetshwayo (40,000) annihilated his central column at Isandlwana 22 January, 1,600 Europeans and 2,500 Africans were overrun and massacred by 20,000 Zulus

Anglo-Zulu War (January-August,1879) complex relations between two subject peoples, the Zulus and the Boers (white Africans) led Britain to invade Zululand Lord Chelmsford unwisely divided his force (5,000 Europeans and 8,200 Africans) and the Zulu chief Cetshwayo (40,000) annihilated his central column at Isandlwana 22 January, 1,600 Europeans and 2,500 Africans were overrun and massacred by 20,000 Zulus Only 50 European enlisted men and five officers escaped, in addition to several hundred Africans who fled the battlefield before the camp was surrounded

Anglo-Zulu War (January-August,1879) complex relations between two subject peoples, the Zulus and the Boers (white Africans) led Britain to invade Zululand Lord Chelmsford unwisely divided his force (5,000 Europeans and 8,200 Africans) and the Zulu chief Cetshwayo (40,000) annihilated his central column at Isandlwana 22 January, 1,600 Europeans and 2,500 Africans were overrun and massacred by 20,000 Zulus Only 50 European enlisted men and five officers escaped, in addition to several hundred Africans who fled the battlefield before the camp was surrounded honor was restored to British arms by the incredible defense of Roarke’s Drift that afternoon, night, and the next day

Anglo-Zulu War (January-August,1879) complex relations between two subject peoples, the Zulus and the Boers (white Africans) led Britain to invade Zululand Lord Chelmsford unwisely divided his force (5,000 Europeans and 8,200 Africans) and the Zulu chief Cetshwayo (40,000) annihilated his central column at Isandlwana 22 January, 1,600 Europeans and 2,500 Africans were overrun and massacred by 20,000 Zulus Only 50 European enlisted men and five officers escaped, in addition to several hundred Africans who fled the battlefield before the camp was surrounded honor was restored to British arms by the incredible defense of Roarke’s Drift that afternoon, night, and the next day shaken, Chelmsford withdrew from Zululand, reinvaded with reinforcements, and conquered Cetshwayo

Zulu Land and Its Neighbors

CHELMSFORD’S PLAN

Boer Homelands CHELMSFORD’S PLAN

Boer Homelands Native Reserves CHELMSFORD’S PLAN

Boer Homelands Native Reserves Cetshwayo’s Kraal CHELMSFORD’S PLAN

Boer Homelands Native Reserves Cetshwayo’s Kraal Chelmsford’s Base CHELMSFORD’S PLAN

Isandlwana

Isandlwana

Isandlwana

Isandlwana

Isandlwana

Isandlwana

Rorke’s Drift 4,000 to 5,000 Zulus 139 British soldiers 11 VCs

Rorke’s Drift 4,000 to 5,000 Zulus 139 British soldiers 11 VCs

Rorke’s Drift 4,000 to 5,000 Zulus 139 British soldiers 11 VCs

Rorke’s Drift 4,000 to 5,000 Zulus 139 British soldiers 11 VCs

Rorke’s Drift 4,000 to 5,000 Zulus 139 British soldiers 11 VCs

Rorke’s Drift 4,000 to 5,000 Zulus 139 British soldiers 11 VCs

Rorke’s Drift 4,000 to 5,000 Zulus 139 British soldiers 11 VCs

Rorke’s Drift 4,000 to 5,000 Zulus 139 British soldiers 11 VCs

Khartoum War in the Sudan

Khartoum War in the Sudan

Towards the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (1899-1956)

Towards the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (1899-1956) as early as 1820 Egypt’s Ottoman governors behaved as independent rulers, Kehdives

Towards the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (1899-1956) as early as 1820 Egypt’s Ottoman governors behaved as independent rulers, Kehdives Ismail, Kehdive (1863-1879) was a modernizer:

Towards the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (1899-1956) as early as 1820 Egypt’s Ottoman governors behaved as independent rulers, Kehdives Ismail, Kehdive (1863-1879) was a modernizer: contracted with France to build the Suez Canal (1869)

Towards the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (1899-1956) as early as 1820 Egypt’s Ottoman governors behaved as independent rulers, Kehdives Ismail, Kehdive (1863-1879) was a modernizer: contracted with France to build the Suez Canal (1869) conquered most of Sudan & fought Ethiopia to get a Red Sea port

Towards the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (1899-1956) as early as 1820 Egypt’s Ottoman governors behaved as independent rulers, Kehdives Ismail, Kehdive (1863-1879) was a modernizer: contracted with France to build the Suez Canal (1869) conquered most of Sudan & fought Ethiopia to get a Red Sea port spent extravagantly on “Western” building projects

Towards the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (1899-1956) as early as 1820 Egypt’s Ottoman governors behaved as independent rulers, Kehdives Ismail, Kehdive (1863-1879) was a modernizer: contracted with France to build the Suez Canal (1869) conquered most of Sudan & fought Ethiopia to get a Red Sea port spent extravagantly on “Western” building projects 1875--Disraeli & Rothchild’s Bank bought Suez Canal shares because Ismail couldn’t service his debts

Towards the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (1899-1956) as early as 1820 Egypt’s Ottoman governors behaved as independent rulers, Kehdives Ismail, Kehdive (1863-1879) was a modernizer: contracted with France to build the Suez Canal (1869) conquered most of Sudan & fought Ethiopia to get a Red Sea port spent extravagantly on “Western” building projects 1875--Disraeli & Rothchild’s Bank bought Suez Canal shares because Ismail couldn’t service his debts a series of British reports led to further supervision and involvement in Egyptian affairs

Towards the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (1899-1956) as early as 1820 Egypt’s Ottoman governors behaved as independent rulers, Kehdives Ismail, Kehdive (1863-1879) was a modernizer: contracted with France to build the Suez Canal (1869) conquered most of Sudan & fought Ethiopia to get a Red Sea port spent extravagantly on “Western” building projects 1875--Disraeli & Rothchild’s Bank bought Suez Canal shares because Ismail couldn’t service his debts a series of British reports led to further supervision and involvement in Egyptian affairs 1879--Ismail becomes a “constitutional monarch” and accepts Lord Cromer as his “prime minister”

Lord Cromer & Egypt Evelyn Baring, 1st Earl of Cromer, GCB, OM, GCMG, KCSI, CIE, PC, FRS (1841-1917) statesman, diplomat, and colonial administrator 1879, controller-general in Egypt later agent & consul-general, 1883-1907 unpopular with Egyptian nationalists, forced to resign “[the Egyptians] prefer self- government to good government” Lord Cromer, ca 1895

Muhammad Ahmad ibn as Sayyid Abd Allah (otherwise known as The Mahdi or Muhammad Ahmed Al Mahdi) (1844-1885) “Mahdi” is an Arabic term meaning “the guided one” we are currently dealing with one in Iraq 1881, jihad against the “godless modernizers” in Egypt and began to restore the Cailiphate March, 1884 began the siege of Khartoum Muhammad Ahmad al-Mahdi

Major-General Charles George Gordon, CB (1833-1885) a general’s son, trained at Woolwich as an engineer 1854-56, Crimean War, siege of Sevastopol 1860-62, styled “Chinese Gordon” for his exploits in the Taiping Rebellion 1874-1885 his fate brought him to Egypt and the effort to pacify the Sudan Gordon Pasha as Governor of the Sudan

the Death of Gordon, January 26, 1885

the Death of Gordon, January 26, 1885

the Death of Gordon, January 26, 1885

the Death of Gordon, January 26, 1885

the Death of Gordon, January 26, 1885

the Death of Gordon, January 26, 1885

The Mahdist State 1881-1898

Omdurman 2 September 1898 WLS Churchill, 1895 4th Hussars delighted to come under fire, age 21

Horatio Lord Kitchener 1st Earl of Khartoum commanded the British force in the River War

Churchill’s account published in 1899

How dreadful are the curses which Mohammedanism lays on its votaries! Besides the fanatical frenzy, which is as dangerous in a man as hydrophobia in a dog, there is this fearful fatalistic apathy. The effects are apparent in many countries. Improvident habits, slovenly systems of agriculture, sluggish methods of commerce, and insecurity of property exist wherever the followers of the Prophet rule or live. A degraded sensualism deprives this life of its grace and refinement; the next of its dignity and sanctity. The fact that in Mohammedan law every woman must belong to some man as his absolute property, either as a child, a wife, or a concubine, must delay the final extinction of slavery until the faith of Islam has ceased to be a great power among men. Thousands become the brave and loyal soldiers of the Queen: all know how to die but the influence of the religion paralyses the social development of those who follow it. No stronger retrograde force exists in the world. Far from being moribund, Mohammedanism is a militant and proselytizing faith. It has already spread throughout Central Africa, raising fearless warriors at every step; and were it not that Christianity is sheltered in the strong arms of science, the science against which it had vainly struggled, the civilisation of modern Europe might fall, as fell the civilisation of ancient Rome.

Maxim guns and Dum-dums

the charge of the 21st Lancers

Fashoda 18 September1898

Fashoda 18 September1898 Britain

Fashoda 18 September1898 vs France

Fashoda 18 September1898

conflicting master plans

conflicting master plans Rhodes’ Cape-to- Cairo railroad

conflicting master plans Rhodes’ Cape-to- Cairo railroad French Niger-to- Nile trade route

in the crosshairs, Fashoda Omdurman Kodok is the post- colonial name for Fashoda

The Laggards

The Laggards Italy Germany Belgium Russia

FIRST ITALO-ETHIOPIAN WAR 1895-1896

FIRST ITALO-ETHIOPIAN WAR 1895-1896

FIRST ITALO-ETHIOPIAN WAR 1895-1896

Black over White Italy began her imperial quest in Ethiopia (Abyssinia) in the 1880s in return for Eritrea on the Red Sea coast, Italy recognized Menelik as emperor over his conquests in the highlands he believed they were encroaching on his lands and repudiated the treaty war ensued and by the battle of Adwa, 1896, Ethiopia had the distinction of being the only African state to resist European conquest by military force Emperor Menelik II

KAISER, KAISER, SHINING BRIGHT!

KAISER, KAISER, SHINING BRIGHT! You have given us a fright! With your belts and straps and sashes, And your skyward-turned mustaches, And that frown so deadly fierce, And those awful eyes that pierce Through the very hearts of those Whom ill fate has made your foes …………. Kaiser, Kaiser, Man of War, What a funny joke you are.

Germany’s “place in the sun”

In spite of the fact that we have no such fleet as we should have, we have conquered for ourselves a place in the sun. It will now be my task to see to it that this place in the sun shall remain our undisputed possession, in order that the sun's rays may fall promptly upon our activity and trade in foreign parts, that our industry and agriculture may develop within the state and our sailing sports upon the water, for our future lies upon the water. -- 18 June 1901 Kaiser Wilhelm II

the support of German financial and commercial interests for overseas ventures is one of the best arguments for Hobson’s thesis

Cameroon (Kamerun)classroom note the kaiser’s picture on the wall

German colonial troops in SW Afrika

Togo native police and their white commander

new trends in art

Belgium Imperialist Horror Story

Belgium Imperialist Horror Story

Leopold II (1835-1865-1909) brother of Empress Carlotta of Mexico, first cousin to Queen Victoria chiefly remembered as the founder and sole owner of the Congo Free State, a private project! ran the Congo as his personal fiefdom; for him it was a business venture used his friend Henry Morton Stanley to help him lay claim to the Congo

Among other measures, the Congress of Berlin confirmed Leopold’s possession in 1885

failure to meet quotas by child laborers agents were required to bring back smoked hands to prove their diligence

Sir Roger Casement (1864-1916)

Sir Roger Casement (1864-1916) 1903, British consul in Leopoldville, he was ordered to investigate

Sir Roger Casement (1864-1916) 1903, British consul in Leopoldville, he was ordered to investigate 1904, delivered a long, detailed, eyewitness report

Sir Roger Casement (1864-1916) 1903, British consul in Leopoldville, he was ordered to investigate 1904, delivered a long, detailed, eyewitness report supported creation of the Congo Reform Association

Sir Roger Casement (1864-1916) 1903, British consul in Leopoldville, he was ordered to investigate 1904, delivered a long, detailed, eyewitness report supported creation of the Congo Reform Association Britain, joined by the U.S., demanded the 14 signatory powers review the Berlin agreement of 1885

Sir Roger Casement (1864-1916) 1903, British consul in Leopoldville, he was ordered to investigate 1904, delivered a long, detailed, eyewitness report supported creation of the Congo Reform Association Britain, joined by the U.S., demanded the 14 signatory powers review the Berlin agreement of 1885 Belgian Parliament investigated, confirmed, and demanded (1908) Leopold surrender his “property” to the Belgian government

Sir Roger Casement (1864-1916) 1903, British consul in Leopoldville, he was ordered to investigate 1904, delivered a long, detailed, eyewitness report supported creation of the Congo Reform Association Britain, joined by the U.S., demanded the 14 signatory powers review the Berlin agreement of 1885 Belgian Parliament investigated, confirmed, and demanded (1908) Leopold surrender his “property” to the Belgian government Casement, radicalized, became a critic of British Irish policy. He was executed as a traitor in 1916

Royal Monster in addition to tolerating the savage conduct of his overseers, Leopold’s private life was disgraceful he fathered two sons out of wedlock with a Rumanian prostitute whom he then ennobled he was reported to be a client of Marie Jeffries’s “Rose Cottage” flagellation house and brothel in Hampstead, a suburb of London

РОССИЯ

РОССИЯ

Siberia, internal empire Иркутск, переправа 1886

Trans-Siberian Railway Russia’s internal empire turned east with renewed energy after acquiring Vladivostok (1860) a Siberian railroad was “on the table” since 1851 1889-work began in earnest under Count Witte the about-to-be tsar, Nicholas and his bride Alexandra blessed its eastern terminus in 1891 soldiers and convicts labored to complete it Sergei Witte by Ilya Repin

the finished lines Lake Baikal Moscow Vladivostok

the finished lines Lake Baikal Moscow Vladivostok The Bottleneck

Manchuria(red) & Tsarist Far East (pink) Khabarovsk Port Arthur

Racism, Russian style

Racism, Russian style At the [Khabarovsk] railway station, foreign visitors were reminded of British India: Instead, however, of British officers walking up and down with the confident stride of superiority while the Hindus...gave way...there were Russian officers clean and smart promenading the platform while the… cowering Chinese and the cringing…Koreans made room for them...The Russian is the white civilized Westerner, whose stride is that of the conqueror. Niall Ferguson, The War of the World; Twentieth Century Conflict and the Descent of the West. 2006, p. 50

The Newcomers

The Newcomers Japan United States

The New Imperialists

The New Imperialists

The Meiji Reforms (1868-1912)

The Meiji Reforms (1868-1912)

The Meiji Reforms (1868-1912)

First Sino-Japanese War (Aug, 1894-Apr,1895) Punch (29 September 1894)

Japan The Boxer Rebellion, 1899-1900 “the relief of the legations”

“Corée (Korea) the fish they all want to catch” 1887 cartoon RUSSIA JAPAN CHINA Chosen 1910-1945

Port Arthur (8-9 February 1904) Wasn’t it bully, the way the Japs began the war! TR in a letter to a friend

a Russian painting (1908) of the next day’s action

Russo-Japanese War Theater Vladivostok

Russo-Japanese War Theater since Vladivostok was iced over 6 months of the year, Port Vladivostok Arthur had become the Russian “Gibraltar” the new Japanese Navy was determined to remove this threat because shore batteries protected the Russian fleet from naval attacks, the Japanese Army was landed and Port Arthur besieged

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2 1

2 3 1

2 3 1 4

battle of Nanshan (25 May 1904) two views

battle of Nanshan (25 May 1904) two views

a grim war

a grim war

a grim war

the war at sea 1905

Zinovi Petrovich Rozhdestvensky Ill fated Russian Admiral

Fleet Admiral Marquis Koshaku Togo Heihachiro (1848-1934) termed by Western journalists the “Nelson of the East” born to a samurai family, he fought in the Satsuma rebellion, age 15 1871-78, studied in London with 11 other youths to become naval officers his English midshipmen peers called him “Johnny Chinaman” distinguished commander in the Sino-Japanese War

Togo crosses the “T” From Max Boot, War Made New

battle and aftermath

battle and aftermath

battle and aftermath

battle and aftermath

battle and aftermath

Losses RUSSIAN JAPANESE

Losses RUSSIAN JAPANESE •4,380 KIA •5,917 POWs (including 2 Admirals) •battleships: sunk or scuttled, 9 taken as prizes of war, 4 •cruisers :sunk, scuttled or run aground, 4 interned at Manila, •destroyers: sunk, scuttled or surrendered, 6 interned at Shanghai, 1 •auxilliaries: sunk or aground, 4 interned at Shanghai, 2 hospital ships captured & released, 2

Losses RUSSIAN JAPANESE •4,380 KIA •117 KIA 500 WIA •5,917 POWs (including 2 Admirals) •torpedo boats sunk, 3 •battleships: sunk or scuttled, 9 taken as prizes of war, 4 •cruisers :sunk, scuttled or run aground, 4 interned at Manila, •destroyers: sunk, scuttled or surrendered, 6 interned at Shanghai, 1 •auxilliaries: sunk or aground, 4 interned at Shanghai, 2 hospital ships captured & released, 2

Uncle Sam

Uncle Sam

U.S.S. Maine

U.S.S. Maine

new far-flung responsibilities

Philippine Insurrection, 1899-1902

Spain Philippines Enough for now?

“Perdicaris alive or Raisuli dead!” --TR (1904) But maybe not!

“Perdicaris alive or Raisuli dead!” --TR (1904) But maybe not!

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