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19th Century Europe, Part 2, 1850-71.3.Key

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Information about 19th Century Europe, Part 2, 1850-71.3.Key
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Published on December 9, 2008

Author: jbpowers

Source: slideshare.net

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The third quarter of the 19th century saw a new "toughness of mind" called Realpolitik and the unification of Italy and Germany. Three of the Great Powers fought the Crimean War.
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Nineteenth Century Europe PART 2 Italian Unification; 1850-1871

today’s major themes I. Realpolitik II. Crimean War; 1854-1856 III. France; From Republic to Empire, 1849-1870 IV. Nationalism V. Risorgimento; Italy, 1850-1870

I. Realpolitik usual translation, “realistic politics”

Realistic politics. The original idea was the contrast with the idealistic politics of 1848 which had been defeated by the forces of reaction. Just as military power seemed the victor over idealistic liberal reformers by 1850, so economic advances of the Industrial Revolution seemed to be the key to future. In Part Two of his text on Nineteenth Century Europe, Gordon Craig develops the theme of Materialism. This is also a central theme of Michael Burleigh’s Earthly Powers.

Bismarck “Not through speeches and majority decisions will the great questions of the day be decided - that was the great mistake of 1848 and 1849 - but by iron and blood.” Sept 29, 1862

the second industrial revolution the Bessemer Converter 1855

elements of the second industrial revolution • steel replaces iron with cheap mass production techniques such as the Bessemer converter and the Siemens-Martin Open Hearth (1865) 1860-80 -->200% increase • steam powered railroads and ships come to dominate the transportation of goods and people -- world freight total 1840-1870=250% increase • the industrial sewing machine revolutionizes the clothing industry 1850-60 = 25% increase • industrial chemistry creates new dyes and synthetic fertilizers • metalurgy adds new metals and refining processes • mining becomes mechanized and increases the output of coal and iron dramatically; 1850-1860 French production doubled, German tripled • new financial mechanisms increase capital and business formation

The Marquis of Salisbury opening the Liverpool Docks Overhead Electric Railway, 1893.

triumphs of material progress • French building of the Suez Canal, 1869 • Alpine carriage roads and tunnels • laying of the Transatlantic cable, 1857-1866 • penetration to every seaport in the world of European goods and peoples • establishment of European entrepôts in the Far East • annually 200,000-300,000 European emigrants carried European ideas and institutions to the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Latin America during this period, 1850-1870

Darwinism the war between science and religion

Charles Robert Darwin (1809-1882) naturalist with HMS Beagle, 1831-35 Origin of Species, 1859 --no mention of man Descent of Man, 1871--not inherently racist or anti-religious popularized versions set off a firestorm between the materialists and the defenders of religion Benjamin Disraeli’s “Apes versus Angels” quip (1864) What is the question now placed before society with the glib assurance which to me is most astonishing? That question is this: Is man an ape or an angel? I, my lord, I am on the side of the angels. I repudiate with indignation and abhorrence those new fangled theories.

Social Darwinism “Darwin’s Bulldog” Thomas Huxley in the Oxford debate of 1860: Charles Wilberforce inquired of Huxley if he were descended from apes on his Grandmother’s or grandfather’s side Huxley muttered, “The Lord has delivered him into my hands” and replied that he “ would rather be descended from an ape than from a cultivated man who used his gifts of culture and eloquence in the service of prejudice and falsehood” the terms “natural selection” and “survival of the fittest” seemed to many to give the blessings of science to a ruthless social policy and a belligerent foreign policy

additional factors contributing to the decline of established religion • the increasing drift of the working population toward the cities, where living and working conditions were hardly conducive to the retention or practice of faith • literate classes of society were affected by the rationalism that marked the works of contemporary philosophers, historians, and popularizers of science • the scientific writers in particular took delight in making frontal assaults on religious dogma, claiming that discoveries in astronomy, geology, physics and biology invalidated theological explanations of human existence • for their part churchmen often leapt in to scientific arguments which they lost, further eroding public confidence in religious truth

the Syllabus of Errors, 1864 the longest reigning pope in Church History, almost 32 years following the Roman Republic, Pio Nono moved farther and farther to the right all Protestants and many Catholics were taken aback by the range of this condemnation of modern trends eighty propositions were labelled as false: pantheism, naturalism, & rationalism, separation of church and state indifferentism, latitudinarianism, socialism, communism, secret societies, bible societies, modern liberalism Blessed Pope Pius IX

statements condemned as false • quot;human reason... is the sole arbiter of truth and falsehood, and of good and evilquot; (No. 3) quot;...hence reason is the ultimate standard by which man can and ought to arrive at the knowledge of all truths of every kind.quot; (No. 4) • quot;in the present day it is no longer expedient that the Catholic religion should be held as the only religion of the State, to the exclusion of all other forms of worship.quot; (No. 77) • quot;Protestantism is nothing more than another form of the same true Christian religion, in which form it is given to please God equally as in the Catholic Churchquot; (No. 18) • quot;the Church ought to be separated from the State, and the State from the Church.quot; (No. 55) • quot;every man is free to embrace and profess that religion which, guided by the light of reason, he shall consider true.quot; (No. 15) and that quot;it has been wisely decided by law, in some Catholic countries, that persons coming to reside therein shall enjoy the public exercise of their own peculiar worship.quot; • quot;the Roman Pontiff can, and ought to, reconcile himself, and come to terms with, progress, liberalism and modern civilization.quot; (the final false proposition, No. 80)

Prime Minister William Gladstone “. . . no one can now become (Rome's) convert without renouncing his moral and mental freedom, and placing his civil loyalty and duty at the mercy of another.” The Vatican Decrees in their bearing on Civil Allegiance: A Political Expostulation(1874)

II. Crimean War 1854-1856

II. Crimean War 1854-1856

For almost forty years the diplomats had kept the peace. Why did war between the Great Powers come now?

Causes of the Crimean War, 1853-1856

Causes of the Crimean War, 1853-1856 • collision between Russian and British “imperialist” goals Russia’s drive to expand:”That which ceases to grow begins to rot” --Arakteyev Russia’s search for a warm water port: as old as Ivan the Terrible, 16th century British interests in India, Central Asia, and the Mediterranean British determination to be the number one seapower:“the Tiger versus the Shark” (1805)

Causes of the Crimean War, 1853-1856 • collision between Russian and British “imperialist” goals Russia’s drive to expand:”That which ceases to grow begins to rot” --Arakteyev Russia’s search for a warm water port: as old as Ivan the Terrible, 16th century British interests in India, Central Asia, and the Mediterranean British determination to be the number one seapower:“the Tiger versus the Shark” (1805) • French aggressive foreign policy Bonapartism: the need to recoup La Gloire Louis Napoleon’s role as “Defender of the [Catholic] Faith”

Causes of the Crimean War, 1853-1856 • collision between Russian and British “imperialist” goals Russia’s drive to expand:”That which ceases to grow begins to rot” --Arakteyev Russia’s search for a warm water port: as old as Ivan the Terrible, 16th century British interests in India, Central Asia, and the Mediterranean British determination to be the number one seapower:“the Tiger versus the Shark” (1805) • French aggressive foreign policy Bonapartism: the need to recoup La Gloire Louis Napoleon’s role as “Defender of the [Catholic] Faith” • Turkish weakness loss of Serbia (1804), Greece (1830s) war with Egypt, 1830s and 1840s

Britain, Russia & “the Great Game”

Britain, Russia & “the Great Game” • Britain was pushing into Central Asia with the disastrous First Afghan War, 1840-1841

Britain, Russia & “the Great Game” • Britain was pushing into Central Asia with the disastrous First Afghan War, 1840-1841 • as was Russia, with Nicholas’ & Alexander II’s campaigns into Kazakstan, Uzbekistan &c

Britain, Russia & “the Great Game” • Britain was pushing into Central Asia with the disastrous First Afghan War, 1840-1841 • as was Russia, with Nicholas’ & Alexander II’s campaigns into Kazakstan, Uzbekistan &c • the British ambassador to St Petersburg quoted the tsar as calling Ottoman Turkey “a sick man” (1843)

Britain, Russia & “the Great Game” • Britain was pushing into Central Asia with the disastrous First Afghan War, 1840-1841 • as was Russia, with Nicholas’ & Alexander II’s campaigns into Kazakstan, Uzbekistan &c • the British ambassador to St Petersburg quoted the tsar as calling Ottoman Turkey “a sick man” (1843) • Nicholas pushed beyond Georgia into Christian Armenia in the 1840s

Britain, Russia & “the Great Game” • Britain was pushing into Central Asia with the disastrous First Afghan War, 1840-1841 • as was Russia, with Nicholas’ & Alexander II’s campaigns into Kazakstan, Uzbekistan &c • the British ambassador to St Petersburg quoted the tsar as calling Ottoman Turkey “a sick man” (1843) • Nicholas pushed beyond Georgia into Christian Armenia in the 1840s • Britain feared that the total collapse of Turkey would turn the Black Sea into “a Russian lake”

Britain, Russia & “the Great Game” • Britain was pushing into Central Asia with the disastrous First Afghan War, 1840-1841 • as was Russia, with Nicholas’ & Alexander II’s campaigns into Kazakstan, Uzbekistan &c • the British ambassador to St Petersburg quoted the tsar as calling Ottoman Turkey “a sick man” (1843) • Nicholas pushed beyond Georgia into Christian Armenia in the 1840s • Britain feared that the total collapse of Turkey would turn the Black Sea into “a Russian lake” • previously, 1841, during an Egyptian-Turkish war, the London Straits Convention had closed the Dardanelles to all warships but Turkey’s during wartime

Britain, Russia & “the Great Game” • Britain was pushing into Central Asia with the disastrous First Afghan War, 1840-1841 • as was Russia, with Nicholas’ & Alexander II’s campaigns into Kazakstan, Uzbekistan &c • the British ambassador to St Petersburg quoted the tsar as calling Ottoman Turkey “a sick man” (1843) • Nicholas pushed beyond Georgia into Christian Armenia in the 1840s • Britain feared that the total collapse of Turkey would turn the Black Sea into “a Russian lake” • previously, 1841, during an Egyptian-Turkish war, the London Straits Convention had closed the Dardanelles to all warships but Turkey’s during wartime • this was aimed at keeping the Russian Black Seas fleet “bottled up”

the Russian Bear vs the British Lion

the Russian Bear vs the British Lion

the Russian Bear vs the British Lion

the Russian Bear vs the British Lion

Persia(Iran) and Afghanistan in 1848

Russian Caucasus, 1882

Turkey in 1801

the Holy Land

the Church of the Nativity, Bethlehem

Felix, Prince zu Schwartzenberg “The world will be astonished by our ingratitude” Austrian Prime Minister, 1848-1852

the naval phase

the naval phase

the naval phase

the naval phase

the naval phase

the naval phase

the naval phase

Battle of the Alma, 20 September 1854 “Next to a battle lost, there’s nothing so dreadful as a battle won.” Lord George Paget, quoting the Iron Duke

Battle of the Alma, 20 September 1854 “Next to a battle lost, there’s nothing so dreadful as a battle won.” Lord George Paget, quoting the Iron Duke

Battle of the Alma, 20 September 1854 “Next to a battle lost, there’s nothing so dreadful as a battle won.” Lord George Paget, quoting the Iron Duke

Battle of the Alma, 20 September 1854 “Next to a battle lost, there’s nothing so dreadful as a battle won.” Lord George Paget, quoting the Iron Duke

Battle of the Alma, 20 September 1854 “Next to a battle lost, there’s nothing so dreadful as a battle won.” Lord George Paget, quoting the Iron Duke

Battle of the Alma, 20 September 1854 “Next to a battle lost, there’s nothing so dreadful as a battle won.” Lord George Paget, quoting the Iron Duke

Battle of the Alma, 20 September 1854 “Next to a battle lost, there’s nothing so dreadful as a battle won.” Lord George Paget, quoting the Iron Duke

Battle of the Alma, 20 September 1854 “Next to a battle lost, there’s nothing so dreadful as a battle won.” Lord George Paget, quoting the Iron Duke

Battle of the Alma, 20 September 1854 “Next to a battle lost, there’s nothing so dreadful as a battle won.” Lord George Paget, quoting the Iron Duke

Battle of the Alma, 20 September 1854 “Next to a battle lost, there’s nothing so dreadful as a battle won.” Lord George Paget, quoting the Iron Duke

the cost of poor leadership

the cost of poor leadership That week between the 21st and the 28th of September decided the fate of the British army. When the Allies invaded the Crimea, the plan had been to march on Sebastopol and take it by a sudden assault, a coup de main. The victory of the Alma had in fact opened Sebastopol to the Allies; had they followed up their victory, Sebastopol must have fallen and the war then and there come to an end. But the Allies did not advance--they lingered on the heights burying their dead, carrying their wounded and the daily toll of the cholera victims down to the fleet, and fatally disputing about what they should do next. Woodham Smith, Cecil. The Reason Why. p. 191

the evils of the purchase system following the English Civil War (1643-51) the army, under Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell, established a military dictatorship by his death (1657) almost all Englishmen were so sick of the “Rule of Saints” that they welcomed back the son of the king who had been executed, the Restoration (1660) to make sure that the army would hereafter be ruled by the aristocrats, the purchase system was instituted (1683-1870) so wealth, not merit, determined who would rise to the highest levels of command the folly of this policy only came to light in the infamous “charge of the Light Brigade”

the evils of the purchase system following the English Civil War (1643-51) the army, under Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell, established a military dictatorship by his death (1657) almost all Englishmen were so sick of the “Rule of Saints” that they welcomed back the son of the king who had been executed, the Restoration (1660) to make sure that the army would hereafter be ruled by the aristocrats, the purchase system was instituted (1683-1870) so wealth, not merit, determined who would rise to the highest levels of command the folly of this policy only came to light in the infamous “charge of the Light Brigade”

the charge of the Light Brigade 25 October 1854

the charge of the Light Brigade 25 October 1854

the charge of the Light Brigade 25 October 1854

the charge of the Light Brigade 25 October 1854

the charge of the Light Brigade 25 October 1854

the charge of the Light Brigade 25 October 1854

the charge of the Light Brigade 25 October 1854

Timeline of the charge

Timeline of the charge C’est magnifique mais ce n’est pas la guerre, c’est de la folie--Gen’l Bosquet

William Howard Russell, 1821-1907

William Howard Russell, 1821-1907 Irish reporter with the Times began his war reporting with the German- Danish War, 1850 became famous as the first modern war correspondent whose impact on public and government was heightened by the telegraph his near contemporary reporting of “the good, the bad and the ugly” excited and stunned the British public it was he who inspired Tennyson to write his famous poem Russell also brought fame to Florence Nightingale

Tennyson’s “The Charge of the Light Brigade” 9 December 1854 Flash'd all their sabres bare, Half a league, half a league, Flash'd as they turned in air   Half a league onward, Sabring the gunners there, All in the valley of Death Charging an army while   Rode the six hundred.   All the world wonder'd: 'Forward, the Light Brigade! Plunged in the battery-smoke Charge for the guns' he said: Right thro' the line they broke; Into the valley of Death Cossack and Russian   Rode the six hundred. Reel'd from the sabre-stroke Shatter'd and sunder'd. 'Forward, the Light Brigade!' Then they rode back, but not Was there a man dismay'd? Not the six hundred. Not tho' the soldiers knew   Some one had blunder'd: Cannon to right of them, Their's not to make reply, Cannon to left of them, Their's not to reason why, Cannon behind them Their's but to do and die:   Volley'd and thunder'd; Into the valley of Death Storm'd at with shot and shell,   Rode the six hundred. While horse and hero fell, They that had fought so well Cannon to right of them, Came thro' the jaws of Death, Cannon to left of them, Back from the mouth of Hell, Cannon in front of them All that was left of them,   Volley'd and thunder'd;   Left of six hundred. Storm'd at with shot and shell, Boldly they rode and well, When can their glory fade? Into the jaws of Death, O the wild charge they made! Into the mouth of Hell   All the world wonder'd.   Rode the six hundred. Honour the charge they made! Honour the Light Brigade,   Noble six hundred!

the valley today

Inkerman, 5 November 1854 As things went at Inkermann, the result, as far as the English were concerned, appears to have been due to that steady and magnificent courage of their races, which has so often palliated or overbalanced the follies and unskillfulness of their commanders, whether in victory or defeat. General George B McClellan, U.S. Army, Armies of Europe (1861)

the siege of Sevastopol, September, 1854-September, 1855

the siege of Sevastopol, September, 1854-September, 1855

the siege of Sevastopol, September, 1854-September, 1855

the siege of Sevastopol, September, 1854-September, 1855

the siege of Sevastopol, September, 1854-September, 1855

the siege of Sevastopol, September, 1854-September, 1855

the siege of Sevastopol, September, 1854-September, 1855

the siege of Sevastopol, September, 1854-September, 1855

the siege of Sevastopol, September, 1854-September, 1855

the siege of Sevastopol, September, 1854-September, 1855

the siege of Sevastopol, September, 1854-September, 1855

the siege of Sevastopol, September, 1854-September, 1855

the siege of Sevastopol, September, 1854-September, 1855

the siege of Sevastopol, September, 1854-September, 1855

the siege of Sevastopol, September, 1854-September, 1855

the siege of Sevastopol, September, 1854-September, 1855

the siege of Sevastopol, September, 1854-September, 1855

the siege of Sevastopol, September, 1854-September, 1855

the siege of Sevastopol, September, 1854-September, 1855

the siege of Sevastopol, September, 1854-September, 1855

the siege of Sevastopol, September, 1854-September, 1855

the first awarding of the VC

troops from Sardinia Piedmont

troops from Sardinia Piedmont President Louis Napoleon III of France crushed the Roman Republic, 1849

troops from Sardinia Piedmont President Louis Napoleon III of France crushed the Roman Republic, 1849 this convinced Count Cavour, Foreign Minister of Sardinia, that Italy could never unite without the help of one of the great powers

troops from Sardinia Piedmont President Louis Napoleon III of France crushed the Roman Republic, 1849 this convinced Count Cavour, Foreign Minister of Sardinia, that Italy could never unite without the help of one of the great powers curiously, he chose to win over France!

troops from Sardinia Piedmont President Louis Napoleon III of France crushed the Roman Republic, 1849 this convinced Count Cavour, Foreign Minister of Sardinia, that Italy could never unite without the help of one of the great powers curiously, he chose to win over France! so as the war dragged on into 1855, Cavour offered France and Britain a token force

troops from Sardinia Piedmont President Louis Napoleon III of France crushed the Roman Republic, 1849 this convinced Count Cavour, Foreign Minister of Sardinia, that Italy could never unite without the help of one of the great powers curiously, he chose to win over France! so as the war dragged on into 1855, Cavour offered France and Britain a token force ultimately, this force grew to 18,000

troops from Sardinia Piedmont President Louis Napoleon III of France crushed the Roman Republic, 1849 this convinced Count Cavour, Foreign Minister of Sardinia, that Italy could never unite without the help of one of the great powers curiously, he chose to win over France! so as the war dragged on into 1855, Cavour offered France and Britain a token force ultimately, this force grew to 18,000 Sardinia thus won a seat among the Great Powers at the peace congress in Paris

Crimean War Memorial, London

Treaty of Paris, 1856 • parties: the belligerents (including Sardinia) plus Prussia and Austria • terms: all signatories guarantee the independence and territorial integrity of Turkey Russia surrenders the claim to be protector of Christians in the Ottoman Empire Moldavia, Wallachia (which become Romania, 1858) and Serbia recognized as “quasi- independent self-governing principalities” under the protection of the other European Powers Russia and Turkey resume pre-war boundaries the Black Sea was neutralized (no warships, no naval bases) and opened to the shipping of all nations, as was the Danube privateering (“the issuing of letters of marque and reprisal”) was outlawed

The Congress of Paris, 1856

the “butcher’s bill” country pop (mill) forces (k) losses (k) % Britain 29 250 30 12 France 37 400 27 7 Russia 74 1,200 144 12 Sardinia 1 18 2 11 Turkey 25 400 45 11

III. France; From Republic to Empire 1849-1870

III. France; From Republic to Empire 1849-1870

O deuil! par un bandit féroce L’avenir est mort poignardé O sorrow! By a ferocious bandit The future has been stabbed to death Victor Hugo (1802-1885) Hugo in exile on the island of Jersey, 1853-1855

Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (1808-1873) “a political adventurer” but “no lover of violence” or “power for power’s sake” “his egotism was offset by genuinely humanitarian aspirations” but “deviousness characterized his methods” and “made even his most enlightened ideas suspect” still “he governed France well: and, far from killing her future, as Hugo thought he had done, he left her stronger, economically at least, than he had found her” Craig, pp. 168-169

first president and last monarch

the strength of a name Four generations of Napoleons

the strength of a name huge (75%) mandate of December, 1848 Four generations of Napoleons

the strength of a name huge (75%) mandate of December, 1848 anti-republican vote for the Legislative Assembly (⅔ of the 750 deputies) May, 1849 Four generations of Napoleons

the strength of a name huge (75%) mandate of December, 1848 anti-republican vote for the Legislative Assembly (⅔ of the 750 deputies) May, 1849 republican uprisings over Oudinot’s expedition against the Roman Republic, June Four generations of Napoleons

the strength of a name huge (75%) mandate of December, 1848 anti-republican vote for the Legislative Assembly (⅔ of the 750 deputies) May, 1849 republican uprisings over Oudinot’s expedition against the Roman Republic, June all made it easy for the French right to take action against republicanism Four generations of Napoleons

the strength of a name huge (75%) mandate of December, 1848 anti-republican vote for the Legislative Assembly (⅔ of the 750 deputies) May, 1849 republican uprisings over Oudinot’s expedition against the Roman Republic, June all made it easy for the French right to take action against republicanism 13 deputies arrested, press freedom curtailed, political clubs closed, Church role in schools increased, reduced the franchise (#s who could vote) from universal suffrage Four generations of Napoleons

the strength of a name huge (75%) mandate of December, 1848 anti-republican vote for the Legislative Assembly (⅔ of the 750 deputies) May, 1849 republican uprisings over Oudinot’s expedition against the Roman Republic, June all made it easy for the French right to take action against republicanism 13 deputies arrested, press freedom curtailed, political clubs closed, Church role in schools increased, reduced the franchise (#s who could vote) from universal suffrage dismissed his first set of cabinet ministers as “too republican” Four generations of Napoleons

the policy of the new cabinet

the policy of the new cabinet The name of Napoleon is in itself a whole program. It means order, authority, religion, popular welfare at home, national dignity abroad. This policy, inaugurated by my election, I hope to make triumph with the support of the Assembly and that of the people. (October, 1849)

term limits • Article 45 forbade the reelection of the President after the expiration of his four year term • he had no desire to retire in 1852, so he set about a campaign to build popular pressure to amend the constitution • he went around the country to dedicate new railway spurs, new bridges, to open harvest festivals • crowds greeted him with “Vive Napoleon!” even “Vive L’Empereur!” • Napoleon demanded that the Assembly restore universal suffrage and amend Article 45 • 79 of the 86 departments petitioned for the revision

“...the art of conciliating the soldiery”--Burke • from the beginning, Napoleon had wooed the army • his power of appointment permitted him to advance those officers who would be loyal to him • he made it a point to get to know the young officers, the “Algerians,” combat veterans rather than desk officers • “Many of these beaux sabreurs distrusted politicians in principle and were, therefore, ideal allies against the Assembly.” • those officers who distrusted Napoleon’s popularity were dismissed a key such dismissal was the Governor General of Paris, regarded by the Assembly as their protector against a coup this officer made an ill-advised comment, that the Prince President looked like “a depressed parrot”

“a depressed parrot?”

The Coup d’État and After

The Coup d’État and After • on the night of December 1-2, 1851, Paris was silently occupied by troops • police agents quietly arrested 78 opposition figures, deputies & “notables” • before dawn, posters were pasted up announcing the dismissal of the Assembly, restoration of universal suffrage, and a new constitution • the coup almost succeeded without bloodshed, but two days later the Faubourg St Antoine rose and General Canrobert put it down at the cost of 200 lives • some, like Victor Hugo, never forgave “the massacre of 4 December” • but, like Kent State, the shooting stilled further demonstrations. Paris would not rise again until 1871

Napoleon’s ladies Mistress Haryett Howard & Empress Eugenie

Napoleon’s ladies Mistress Haryett Howard & Empress Eugenie

Napoleon’s ladies Mistress Haryett Howard & Empress Eugenie

Napoleon’s ladies Mistress Haryett Howard & Empress Eugenie

Napoleon’s ladies Mistress Haryett Howard & Empress Eugenie

plebiscites • Napoleon came to rely on this form of popular, “yes” or “no”, referendum • on 21 December 1851 he sought approval of the coup with this: The French people desire the maintenance of the authority of Louis Napoleon Bonaparte and delegate to him the powers necessary for the establishment of the constitution on the foundation proposed by the proclamation • in Paris only 133,000 of the 300,000 registered voters, oui; 80,000 non and 80,000 abstained • but countrywide, 7,500,000 voted oui; only 640,000 non • as the first anniversary, 2 December 1852, approached, he asked the people whether they desired “the restoration of the imperial dignity” • 7,800,000 oui; 250,000 non • 2 December was also the 48th anniversary of Napoleon I’s imperial coronation and the 47th anniversary of the victory of Austerlitz

DOMESTIC POLITICS OF THE SECOND EMPIRE

DOMESTIC POLITICS OF THE SECOND EMPIRE

L’Opera--Le Grand Foyer

We have immense territories to cultivate, roads to open, canals to dig, rivers to render navigable, railways to complete….That is how I interpret the Empire, if the Empire is to be restored. Such are the conquests I contemplate; and you, all of you who surround me, you who wish our country’s good, you are my soldiers. speech at Bordeaux 2 September 1852

“A Saint-Simon on horseback”

Les Haussmannisation de Paris born in Paris to a Protestant family from Alsace appointed Seine prefect, 1852-1870 he directed every aspect of urban planning, parks, creation of wide straight boulevards, public spaces, improved sewer and water systems, monuments and city facilities he cut through the old Paris of dense and irregular medieval alleyways with the radial pattern of today his urban ideas were widely influential the unemployed from all over France flocked to the jobs magnet which this created Georges-Eugène Haussmann (1809-1891)

a gallery of Haussmannisation

a gallery of Haussmannisation

a gallery of Haussmannisation

a gallery of Haussmannisation

a gallery of Haussmannisation

a gallery of Haussmannisation

a gallery of Haussmannisation

a gallery of Haussmannisation

a gallery of Haussmannisation

a gallery of Haussmannisation

a gallery of Haussmannisation

a gallery of Haussmannisation

a gallery of Haussmannisation

a gallery of Haussmannisation

Beautification or riot control?

some final thoughts … when Napoleon fell from power [1870], France was basically prosperous and healthy. This she owed to Napoleon III, who had the imagination to see how the financial resources of the state could be used to stimulate private enterprise and lead it in new directions, while at the same time ameliorating the lot of the poor. Craig, p. 177

Colonial and Foreign Policy

Colonial and Foreign Policy

French Algeria in the Second Empire the French conquest of Algeria began in 1830 under King Charles X with the surrender of resistance leader Abd’ el Qadr in 1847, French military control was complete and would remain so until the 1950s French colonization expanded under Napoleon III as did port improvements, sanitary engineering, and railroads less success followed his efforts to improve relations between the Arab tribes and the French colons, the so-called pied noir (black feet, from their shoes) his 1865 decree of equality between colonists and natives remained a dead letter Abd’ el Qadr

After a massacre of Maronite Christians by the Druze (1860), Napoleon intervenes as protector of Christians in the Ottoman Empire. Improved Beirut port facilities, a railroad to Aleppo, and French economic dominance follow.

After a massacre of Maronite Christians by the Druze (1860), Napoleon intervenes as protector of Christians in the Ottoman Empire. Improved Beirut port facilities, a railroad to Aleppo, and French economic dominance follow.

After a massacre of Maronite Christians by the Druze (1860), Napoleon intervenes as protector of Christians in the Ottoman Empire. Improved Beirut port facilities, a railroad to Aleppo, and French economic dominance follow.

Ferdinand Marie Vicomte de Lesseps (1805-1894)

Ferdinand Marie Vicomte de Lesseps (1805-1894) born to a family of the petit noblesse began as a diplomat, 1823-1853 unsuccessful (March, 1849) in negotiating Pio Nono’s return to Rome first achieved fame as the entrepreneur of the Suez Canal, 1854-1869 failed to repeat this success in Panama, 1879-1889 1884, President of the Franco-American Union 1886, spoke at the dedication of the Statue of Liberty

building the Suez Canal, 1859-1869

Napoleon joins Britain (1858-1860) in putting down the Taiping Rebellion in China. In 1859, French troops land in Saigon. By the end of the decade, all Cochin China has become the beginnings of French Indochina.

French Empire, 1914

the Mexican Fiasco, 1862-1867

the Mexican Fiasco, 1862-1867

Maximilian and Carlotta beginning as a typical gunboat debt collection scheme, Napoleon dreamed of a North American French satellite 1862, while we were occupied in the Civil War, he gave the Monroe Doctrine its “acid test” his willing dupes, Maximilian von Habsburg (1832-1867) and his wife, Charlotte of Belgium (1840-1927) Napoleon learned that Mexican monarchists wished to overthrow the republic & desired the Austrian archduke to be their emperor French troops pushed inland to create this French satellite empire

Maximilian and Carlotta beginning as a typical gunboat debt collection scheme, Napoleon dreamed of a North American French satellite 1862, while we were occupied in the Civil War, he gave the Monroe Doctrine its “acid test” his willing dupes, Maximilian von Habsburg (1832-1867) and his wife, Charlotte of Belgium (1840-1927) Napoleon learned that Mexican monarchists wished to overthrow the republic & desired the Austrian archduke to be their emperor French troops pushed inland to create this French satellite empire

Maximilian and Carlotta beginning as a typical gunboat debt collection scheme, Napoleon dreamed of a North American French satellite 1862, while we were occupied in the Civil War, he gave the Monroe Doctrine its “acid test” his willing dupes, Maximilian von Habsburg (1832-1867) and his wife, Charlotte of Belgium (1840-1927) Napoleon learned that Mexican monarchists wished to overthrow the republic & desired the Austrian archduke to be their emperor French troops pushed inland to create this French satellite empire

Maximilian and Carlotta beginning as a typical gunboat debt collection scheme, Napoleon dreamed of a North American French satellite 1862, while we were occupied in the Civil War, he gave the Monroe Doctrine its “acid test” his willing dupes, Maximilian von Habsburg (1832-1867) and his wife, Charlotte of Belgium (1840-1927) Napoleon learned that Mexican monarchists wished to overthrow the republic & desired the Austrian archduke to be their emperor French troops pushed inland to create this French satellite empire

Maximilian and Carlotta beginning as a typical gunboat debt collection scheme, Napoleon dreamed of a North American French satellite 1862, while we were occupied in the Civil War, he gave the Monroe Doctrine its “acid test” his willing dupes, Maximilian von Habsburg (1832-1867) and his wife, Charlotte of Belgium (1840-1927) Napoleon learned that Mexican monarchists wished to overthrow the republic & desired the Austrian archduke to be their emperor French troops pushed inland to create this French satellite empire

Maximilian and Carlotta beginning as a typical gunboat debt collection scheme, Napoleon dreamed of a North American French satellite 1862, while we were occupied in the Civil War, he gave the Monroe Doctrine its “acid test” his willing dupes, Maximilian von Habsburg (1832-1867) and his wife, Charlotte of Belgium (1840-1927) Napoleon learned that Mexican monarchists wished to overthrow the republic & desired the Austrian archduke to be their emperor French troops pushed inland to create this French satellite empire

Cinco de Mayo the sole Mexican victory during this invasion occurred here--French KIA, 462; Mexican, 83 Mexican president, Benito Juarez, declared the 5th of May to be a national holiday during the following year, French reinforcements overwhelmed the republicans. French honor was avenged by the Foreign Legion in April, 1863. Mexico City fell that July, but Juarez continued the fight with guerilla resistance. Maximilian arrived in 1864 as Emperor of Mexico never remotely popular, he relied on French bayonets, until they were recalled Battle of Puebla, 5 May 1862

Monroe Doctrine passes the test, 1865-66 Presidente Benito Juarez

Monroe Doctrine passes the test, 1865-66 Presidente Benito Juarez Secretary of State Wm Seward

Monroe Doctrine passes the test, 1865-66 Presidente Benito Juarez Secretary of State Wm Seward General Philip Sheridan, US Army

Manet’s painting of Maximilian’s end Queretaro, 19 June 1867

The Dilemmas of Continental Policy

The Dilemmas of Continental Policy

The Dilemmas of Continental Policy

The attempted assassination of the Emperor Napoleon III and Empress Eugenie by Felice Orsini, January 14, 1858. This artist’s reconstruction shows the scene in front of the old opera house as the fire bombs exploded, killing or wounding several members of the imperial escort and injuring many of the crowd. From, L’Illustration, 23 January 1858

Orsini’s appeal to Napoleon Upon your will hangs the fate of my country for good or ill. I adjure Your Majesty to return to Italy the independence her children lost in 1849 through the fault of France….

Orsini’s appeal to Napoleon Upon your will hangs the fate of my country for good or ill. I adjure Your Majesty to return to Italy the independence her children lost in 1849 through the fault of France…. As long as Italy is not independent, the peace of Europe and of Your Majesty will be but a will o’ the wisp. Let not Your Majesty deny the last prayer of a patriot on the steps of the scaffold, but deliver my country, and the blessings of five-and-twenty millions of citizens will follow you down the ages.

Napoleon’s overall foreign policy goal • he believed that the primary reason for the fall of the July Monarchy had been its tepid foreign policy • determined to avoid this mistake, he set out in 1850 to restore French primacy in the councils of Europe • when he assumed the Imperial title (1852) he knew Britain would be suspicious • that’s why he supported her in the Crimean War (1853-1856) • with the Peace Conference (1856), Paris again became the diplomatic capital of Europe • he next dreamed of revising the Vienna Settlement (1815) into a new Europe based on “completed nationalities and satisfied general interests”

“If the nationalities [were granted] the institutions they demand …. then all nations [would] be brothers, and they [would] embrace one another in the presence of tyranny dethroned, of a world refreshed and consoled, and of a contented humanity.”

the problem with self-determination of nations

the problem with self-determination of nations • feasibility settlement patterns who’s in? who’s out?

the problem with self-determination of nations • feasibility settlement patterns who’s in? who’s out? • acceptibility would Russia, Prussia, and Austria give up their Polish territories? would Britain give up Ireland? Would the Scotch-Irish accept being let go? would the French nationalists accept a unified Italy and Germany on their eastern border?

IV. Nationalism

a definition nationalism: noun; a patriotic feeling, principles, or efforts • an extreme form of this, esp. marked by feelings of superiority over other countries. • advocacy of political independence for a particular country, the desire of a nation to self determine.

types of nationalism

types of nationalism ethnic nationalism liberal nationalism civic nationalism national conservatism expansionist nationalism anarchism and nationalism romantic nationalism religious nationalism cultural nationalism pan-nationalism Third World nationalism diaspora nationalism

four possible cases of states and nationalities

four possible cases of states and nationalities • multi-national states examples: Austrian Empire, Russia (“the prison house of Nations”), British Empire

four possible cases of states and nationalities • multi-national states examples: Austrian Empire, Russia (“the prison house of Nations”), British Empire • nation states although none are perfectly so, the following seemed fairly content during the nationalist heyday of the nineteenth century: France, Spain, Portugal, Netherlands, Swiss Confederation

four possible cases of states and nationalities • multi-national states examples: Austrian Empire, Russia (“the prison house of Nations”), British Empire • nation states although none are perfectly so, the following seemed fairly content during the nationalist heyday of the nineteenth century: France, Spain, Portugal, Netherlands, Swiss Confederation • nationalities without a state Poland (divided among three states) Ireland (Catholics under the heel of the British and the Protestant Scotch-Irish of Ulster)

four possible cases of states and nationalities • multi-national states examples: Austrian Empire, Russia (“the prison house of Nations”), British Empire • nation states although none are perfectly so, the following seemed fairly content during the nationalist heyday of the nineteenth century: France, Spain, Portugal, Netherlands, Swiss Confederation • nationalities without a state Poland (divided among three states) Ireland (Catholics under the heel of the British and the Protestant Scotch-Irish of Ulster) • nationalities with nonunited states the Germanies the Italian States

elements of romantic nationalism • folklore collections the Grimm brothers “Kinder und Haus-Märchen” (1812) • national epics discovered: “Ossian” forgeries (1790s), “Beowulf” (1818), “Chanson de Roland”(1837) “Niebelungen Lied” (subject to intensive “Germanic” study, 19th c) composed: “Pan Tadeusz” (1831) • national histories, dramas, operas • monuments • public architecture

challenges to the development of Italian nationalism • cultural divisions linguistic urban liberals (North) vs rural peasantry (South) • religious loyalty to the reactionary papacy • provincialism state rivalries village vendettas • economic barriers primitive transportation system tariff barriers between states

V. Risorgimento Italian Unification literally, “rebirth” or “Renaissance”

V. Risorgimento

liberal (idealist) <------> conservative (realist) Mazzini Garibaldi Cavour (1805-1872) (1807-1882) (1810-1861) leader, politician, visionary, soldier diplomat revolutionary “the divine stupidity “a strong sense of “hope & change” of a hero” practicality”

history’s lessons, 1815-1850 • liberal revolutions of the 1820s local Italian rulers crush with Metternich’s military help • liberal revolutions of 1830-31 a repeat with both Mazzini and Garibaldi exiled to London and South America the Carbonari become Young Italy • 1848-49 even with the “Hungry Forties” mass base, and initial success in Venice, Milan, & Rome, Italy was unable to maintain the Risorgimento against foreign intervention: Austria in the north France in the Papal States

enter Count Cavour Camillo Paolo Filippo Giulio Benso, born in 1810 to the fifth Conte di Cavour in Turin prior to entering the cabinet he had practical experience as a soldier, farmer, industrialist and banker founder of the original Italian Liberal Party began in 1850 as minister for agriculture, industry and commerce by the Crimean War, dominated the cabinet “round-faced, rather rumpled...bore a vague resemblance to Mr. Pickwick” “ability to recognize the prerequisites of … success and the will to acquire them”

Sardinia Piedmont

Sardinia Piedmont after the defeats at Custozza (24 July 48) and Novara (22-23 March 49) King Charles Albert abdicated

Sardinia Piedmont after the defeats at Custozza (24 July 48) and Novara (22-23 March 49) King Charles Albert abdicated his son Victor Emmanuel II “a rude almost primitive man … preferred the joys of the chase and the ballet to the labors of politics”

Sardinia Piedmont after the defeats at Custozza (24 July 48) and Novara (22-23 March 49) King Charles Albert abdicated his son Victor Emmanuel II “a rude almost primitive man … preferred the joys of the chase and the ballet to the labors of politics” “bluff manners ...almost excessive virility … native shrewdness … served Italy well”

Sardinia Piedmont after the defeats at Custozza (24 July 48) and Novara (22-23 March 49) King Charles Albert abdicated his son Victor Emmanuel II “a rude almost primitive man … preferred the joys of the chase and the ballet to the labors of politics” “bluff manners ...almost excessive virility … native shrewdness … served Italy well” “… made him accept the advice of a minister whom he personally detested [Cavour]”

Sardinia Piedmont after the defeats at Custozza (24 July 48) and Novara (22-23 March 49) King Charles Albert abdicated his son Victor Emmanuel II “a rude almost primitive man … preferred the joys of the chase and the ballet to the labors of politics” “bluff manners ...almost excessive virility … native shrewdness … served Italy well” “… made him accept the advice of a minister whom he personally detested [Cavour]”

Sardinia Piedmont after the defeats at Custozza (24 July 48) and Novara (22-23 March 49) King Charles Albert abdicated his son Victor Emmanuel II “a rude almost primitive man … preferred the joys of the chase and the ballet to the labors of politics” “bluff manners ...almost excessive virility … native shrewdness … served Italy well” “… made him accept the advice of a minister whom he personally detested [Cavour]”

Sardinia Piedmont after the defeats at Custozza (24 July 48) and Novara (22-23 March 49) King Charles Albert abdicated his son Victor Emmanuel II “a rude almost primitive man … preferred the joys of the chase and the ballet to the labors of politics” “bluff manners ...almost excessive virility … native shrewdness … served Italy well” “… made him accept the advice of a minister whom he personally detested [Cavour]”

Sardinia Piedmont after the defeats at Custozza (24 July 48) and Novara (22-23 March 49) King Charles Albert abdicated his son Victor Emmanuel II “a rude almost primitive man … preferred the joys of the chase and the ballet to the labors of politics” “bluff manners ...almost excessive virility … native shrewdness … served Italy well” “… made him accept the advice of a minister whom he personally detested [Cavour]”

Sardinia Piedmont after the defeats at Custozza (24 July 48) and Novara (22-23 March 49) King Charles Albert abdicated his son Victor Emmanuel II “a rude almost primitive man … preferred the joys of the chase and the ballet to the labors of politics” “bluff manners ...almost excessive virility … native shrewdness … served Italy well” “… made him accept the advice of a minister whom he personally detested [Cavour]”

Sardinia Piedmont after the defeats at Custozza (24 July 48) and Novara (22-23 March 49) King Charles Albert abdicated his son Victor Emmanuel II “a rude almost primitive man … preferred the joys of the chase and the ballet to the labors of politics” “bluff manners ...almost excessive virility … native shrewdness … served Italy well” “… made him accept the advice of a minister whom he personally detested [Cavour]”

Sardinia Piedmont after the defeats at Custozza (24 July 48) and Novara (22-23 March 49) King Charles Albert abdicated his son Victor Emmanuel II “a rude almost primitive man … preferred the joys of the chase and the ballet to the labors of politics” “bluff manners ...almost excessive virility … native shrewdness … served Italy well” “… made him accept the advice of a minister whom he personally detested [Cavour]”

Sardinia Piedmont after the defeats at Custozza (24 July 48) and Novara (22-23 March 49) King Charles Albert abdicated his son Victor Emmanuel II “a rude almost primitive man … preferred the joys of the chase and the ballet to the labors of politics” “bluff manners ...almost excessive virility … native shrewdness … served Italy well” “… made him accept the advice of a minister whom he personally detested [Cavour]”

Sardinia Piedmont after the defeats at Custozza (24 July 48) and Novara (22-23 March 49) King Charles Albert abdicated his son Victor Emmanuel II “a rude almost primitive man … preferred the joys of the chase and the ballet to the labors of politics” “bluff manners ...almost excessive virility … native shrewdness … served Italy well” “… made him accept the advice of a minister whom he personally detested [Cavour]”

Cavour’s connubio (marriage) • how to obtain that foreign assistance which he knew was necessary to achieve unification? • the first step was to dispel the stereotype of Italians as “a volatile and irresponsible people, given to pointless political frenzies but incapable of considered action” • Sardinia must model domestic peace and progress • under his leadership, the Sardinian legislature created a moderate bloc (the so-called connubio) of liberals and conservatives which kept the political extremes impotent • domestic reforms: currency stabilization, tax and tariff reforms, funding of the national debt improvement of the railway net and creation of a transatlantic steamship company encouragement of new private enterprise

The Enemy--Austria in Italy

Austria in Italy

Austria in Italy • since 1815 Austria had encouraged the industrial development of Lombardy and Venetia

Austria in Italy • since 1815 Austria had encouraged the industrial development of Lombardy and Venetia • by the 1850s the two Italian provinces represented 25% of the Empire’s tax revenue

Austria in Italy • since 1815 Austria had encouraged the industrial development of Lombardy and Venetia • by the 1850s the two Italian provinces represented 25% of the Empire’s tax revenue • 70,000 soldiers were based in the Quadrilateral

Austria in Italy • since 1815 Austria had encouraged the industrial development of Lombardy and Venetia • by the 1850s the two Italian provinces represented 25% of the Empire’s tax revenue • 70,000 soldiers were based in the Quadrilateral • they represented a “quick reaction force” ready to put down revolutions in the imperial states or in any of Austria’s Italian client states

Austria in Italy • since 1815 Austria had encouraged the industrial development of Lombardy and Venetia • by the 1850s the two Italian provinces represented 25% of the Empire’s tax revenue • 70,000 soldiers were based in the Quadrilateral • they represented a “quick reaction force” ready to put down revolutions in the imperial states or in any of Austria’s Italian client states • the Austrian general staff had plans to expand its troop levels in Italy to 120,000 if necessary

Austria in Italy • since 1815 Austria had encouraged the industrial development of Lombardy and Venetia • by the 1850s the two Italian provinces represented 25% of the Empire’s tax revenue • 70,000 soldiers were based in the Quadrilateral • they represented a “quick reaction force” ready to put down revolutions in the imperial states or in any of Austria’s Italian client states • the Austrian general staff had plans to expand its troop levels in Italy to 120,000 if necessary • most of the Austrian military budget was devoted to fortress construction and maintenance: in Italy and on the other frontiers

the road to Plombiers, 20 July 1858

the road to Plombiers, 20 July 1858 • the connubio won admiration for Sardinia, especially in Britain and France

the road to Plombiers, 20 July 1858 • the connubio won admiration for Sardinia, especially in Britain and France • Sardinia’s entry into the Crimean War won their friendship, and the right to denounce neutral Austria at the international forum of the Paris Peace Congress

the road to Plombiers, 20 July 1858 • the connubio won admiration for Sardinia, especially in Britain and France • Sardinia’s entry into the Crimean War won their friendship, and the right to denounce neutral Austria at the international forum of the Paris Peace Congress • still, both countries warned Cavour to accept the status quo for now

the road to Plombiers, 20 July 1858 • the connubio won admiration for Sardinia, especially in Britain and France • Sardinia’s entry into the Crimean War won their friendship, and the right to denounce neutral Austria at the international forum of the Paris Peace Congress • still, both countries warned Cavour to accept the status quo for now • he could not. As he wrote: If we had dropped the flag that we had waved at Paris, Mazzinianism [revolutionary republican politics] would have recovered and the moral influence of the revolutionary party would have reached complete ascendancy

the road to Plombiers, 20 July 1858 • the connubio won admiration for Sardinia, especially in Britain and France • Sardinia’s entry into the Crimean War won their friendship, and the right to denounce neutral Austria at the international forum of the Paris Peace Congress • still, both countries warned Cavour to accept the status quo for now • he could not. As he wrote: If we had dropped the flag that we had waved at Paris, Mazzinianism [revolutionary republican politics] would have recovered and the moral influence of the revolutionary party would have reached complete ascendancy • he gave secret support to the National Society, an alliance promoting Victor Emmanuel as King of Italy

the road to Plombiers, 20 July 1858 • the connubio won admiration for Sardinia, especially in Britain and France • Sardinia’s entry into the Crimean War won their friendship, and the right to denounce neutral Austria at the international forum of the Paris Peace Congress • still, both countries warned Cavour to accept the status quo for now • he could not. As he wrote: If we had dropped the flag that we had waved at Paris, Mazzinianism [revolutionary republican politics] would have recovered and the moral influence of the revolutionary party would have reached complete ascendancy • he gave secret support to the National Society, an alliance promoting Victor Emmanuel as King of Italy • an “elaborate correspondence” with Napoleon III proved the emperor willing to make a deal

the agreement

the agreement • if Piedmont found herself at war with Austria, she would receive the support of the armies of France

the agreement • if Piedmont found herself at war with Austria, she would receive the support of the armies of France • after victory, she would be allowed to annex Lombardy and Venetia, Parma and Modena, and part of the Papal States

the agreement • if Piedmont found herself at war with Austria, she would receive the support of the armies of France • after victory, she would be allowed to annex Lombardy and Venetia, Parma and Modena, and part of the Papal States • Italy would become a federation under the presidency of the pope:

the agreement • if Piedmont found herself at war with Austria, she would receive the support of the armies of France • after victory, she would be allowed to annex Lombardy and Venetia, Parma and Modena, and part of the Papal States • Italy would become a federation under the presidency of the pope: the new Piedmontese kingdom

the agreement • if Piedmont found herself at war with Austria, she would receive the support of the armies of France • after victory, she would be allowed to annex Lombardy and Venetia, Parma and Modena, and part of the Papal States • Italy would become a federation under the presidency of the pope: the new Piedmontese kingdom Tuscany, enlarged by papal Umbria and the Marches

the agreement • if Piedmont found herself at war with Austria, she would receive the support of the armies of France • after victory, she would be allowed to annex Lombardy and Venetia, Parma and Modena, and part of the Papal States • Italy would become a federation under the presidency of the pope: the new Piedmontese kingdom Tuscany, enlarged by papal Umbria and the Marches a greatly reduced Roman state

the agreement • if Piedmont found herself at war with Austria, she would receive the support of the armies of France • after victory, she would be allowed to annex Lombardy and Venetia, Parma and Modena, and part of the Papal States • Italy would become a federation under the presidency of the pope: the new Piedmontese kingdom Tuscany, enlarged by papal Umbria and the Marches a greatly reduced Roman state an unchanged Naples (Kingdom of the Two Sicilies)

the agreement • if Piedmont found herself at war with Austria, she would receive the support of the armies of France • after victory, she would be allowed to annex Lombardy and Venetia, Parma and Modena, and part of the Papal States • Italy would become a federation under the presidency of the pope: the new Piedmontese kingdom Tuscany, enlarged by papal Umbria and the Marches a greatly reduced Roman state an unchanged Naples (Kingdom of the Two Sicilies) • France would receive Nice and Savoy from Piedmont Sardinia

the agreement • if Piedmont found herself at war with Austria, she would receive the support of the armies of France • after victory, she would be allowed to annex Lombardy and Venetia, Parma and Modena, and part of the Papal States • Italy would become a federation under the presidency of the pope: the new Piedmontese kingdom Tuscany, enlarged by papal Umbria and the Marches a greatly reduced Roman state an unchanged Naples (Kingdom of the Two Sicilies) • France would receive Nice and Savoy from Piedmont Sardinia • “the bargain would be sealed by the marriage of Victor Emmanuel’s 15 year old daughter Clotilde to Napoleon’s cousin Jerome, a man rich in years and bad habits”

Austria’s blunders

Austria’s blunders • Austria imposed conscription on Lombardy and Venetia, December, 1858

Austria’s blunders • Austria imposed conscription on Lombardy and Venetia, December, 1858 • hundreds of evaders fled to Piedmont, Austria demanded their return, border incidents mount

Austria’s blunders • Austria imposed conscription on Lombardy and Venetia, December, 1858 • hundreds of evaders fled to Piedmont, Austria demanded their return, border incidents mount • Cavour refuses, begins war preparations: floats war bonds in February, calls for volunteers and activates the reserves

Austria’s blunders • Austria imposed conscription on Lombardy and Venetia, December, 1858 • hundreds of evaders fled to Piedmont, Austria demanded their return, border incidents mount • Cavour refuses, begins war preparations: floats war bonds in February, calls for volunteers and activates the reserves • in March and April, internatio

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