19th Century Europe, Part 2, 1850-1871; German Unification

43 %
57 %
Information about 19th Century Europe, Part 2, 1850-1871; German Unification
Education

Published on December 11, 2008

Author: jbpowers

Source: slideshare.net

Description

This lecture addresses the German Question and the reorganization of Europe.

Nineteenth Century Europe PART 2 German Unification, 1850-1871

Major themes of this session: THE GERMAN QUESTION, 1850-1866 THE EVOLUTION OF PRUSSIAN POLICY FROM DÜPPEL TO KÖNIGGRÄTZ THE CONSEQUENCES OF THE WAR THE REORGANIZATION OF EUROPE, 1866-1871 GREAT BRITAIN FROM PALMERSTON TO GLADSTONE RUSSIA UNDER ALEXANDER II THE SHOWDOWN BETWEEN FRANCE AND GERMANY

Die deutsche Frage, 1850-1866 Groß oder Klein deutsch? (Greater or Lesser Germany?)

some preliminary considerations: German and Italian unification have certain similarities: “...the leadership...was taken by the strongest and economically most progressive of the interested states [Prussia & Sardinia] “...the process was achieved by war and by the subsequent absorption of some of the lesser states by the victor and the imposition of his control over the others. “And there too the victim was Austria….” Craig, p. 204

The Evolution of Prussian Policy

The Evolution of Prussian Policy

In economic matters Prussia led Central Europe

In economic matters Prussia led Central Europe she continued adding members to the Zollverein, the tariff union among German states which she had begun in 1821

In economic matters Prussia led Central Europe she continued adding members to the Zollverein, the tariff union among German states which she had begun in 1821 Berlin had become a thriving commercial center of 450,000

In economic matters Prussia led Central Europe she continued adding members to the Zollverein, the tariff union among German states which she had begun in 1821 Berlin had become a thriving commercial center of 450,000 by 1860 the kingdom would have 3,750 miles of all-season roads, a ninefold increase since 1815 a railway net that was developing as rapidly as any in Europe

In economic matters Prussia led Central Europe she continued adding members to the Zollverein, the tariff union among German states which she had begun in 1821 Berlin had become a thriving commercial center of 450,000 by 1860 the kingdom would have 3,750 miles of all-season roads, a ninefold increase since 1815 a railway net that was developing as rapidly as any in Europe industrial production was also expanding although textiles and clothing still led, iron, steel and machine works were coming on smaller industries: brick kilns, breweries, saw mills were moving out into the countryside and changing the predominantly agricultural character of the kingdom

Zollverein The Prussian Customs Union

Zollverein The Prussian Customs Union 1818-Prussia establishes an internal customs 1835-Baden union throughout their state 1841-Brunswick 1821-Anhalt joins 1842-Luxemburg 1826-Mecklenburg-Schwerin joins 1851-Hanover 1828-Grand Duchy of Hesse & Hesse- Darmstadt 1865-Sweden signs a free trade agreement 1831-Hesse-Kassel & Saxony 1868-Schleswig-Holstein, Lauenburg, Mecklenburg 1833-Thuringian States & Bavarian Palatinate 1871-Alsace-Lorraine 1834-Bavaria & Würtemberg 1888-Hamburg & Bremen

economic ties become political ties

economic ties become political ties The Zollverein becomes the model for the 20th century EU

Roads in and outside the Zollverein NOTE chaussiert = Macadamized, i.e., all-weather

Railroad development, 1848-1885 Railroads in the German Customs Union followed by the year

Railroad development, 1848-1885 Railroads in the German Customs Union followed by the year

Economic progress contrasted with political conservatism.

Economic progress contrasted with political conservatism. despite the constitution and Reichstag which had been reluctantly granted in 1848, power remained with the throne and the rural Junker aristocracy

Economic progress contrasted with political conservatism. despite the constitution and Reichstag which had been reluctantly granted in 1848, power remained with the throne and the rural Junker aristocracy to forestall revolutionary recurrences:

Economic progress contrasted with political conservatism. despite the constitution and Reichstag which had been reluctantly granted in 1848, power remained with the throne and the rural Junker aristocracy to forestall revolutionary recurrences: persons displaying democratic or socialist opinions were persecuted

Economic progress contrasted with political conservatism. despite the constitution and Reichstag which had been reluctantly granted in 1848, power remained with the throne and the rural Junker aristocracy to forestall revolutionary recurrences: persons displaying democratic or socialist opinions were persecuted such newspapers, books and plays were suppressed

Economic progress contrasted with political conservatism. despite the constitution and Reichstag which had been reluctantly granted in 1848, power remained with the throne and the rural Junker aristocracy to forestall revolutionary recurrences: persons displaying democratic or socialist opinions were persecuted such newspapers, books and plays were suppressed in foreign affairs, Prussia showed no interest in challenging Austria for leadership in German affairs

Economic progress contrasted with political conservatism. despite the constitution and Reichstag which had been reluctantly granted in 1848, power remained with the throne and the rural Junker aristocracy to forestall revolutionary recurrences: persons displaying democratic or socialist opinions were persecuted such newspapers, books and plays were suppressed in foreign affairs, Prussia showed no interest in challenging Austria for leadership in German affairs in November, 1850, Prussia had issued the Punctation of Olmütz whereby she (1) renounced leadership of the German States in the Erfurt Union and (2)restoration of the Bund, where Austria traditionally led

Economic progress contrasted with political conservatism. despite the constitution and Reichstag which had been reluctantly granted in 1848, power remained with the throne and the rural Junker aristocracy to forestall revolutionary recurrences: persons displaying democratic or socialist opinions were persecuted such newspapers, books and plays were suppressed in foreign affairs, Prussia showed no interest in challenging Austria for leadership in German affairs in November, 1850, Prussia had issued the Punctation of Olmütz whereby she (1) renounced leadership of the German States in the Erfurt Union and (2)restoration of the Bund, where Austria traditionally led if the war of 1859 had lasted a few weeks longer, Prussia probably would have come in on Austria’s side!

Wilhelm Friedrich Ludwig von Preußen (1797-1888) born the second son, William received little education and was destined for the army 1815, he fought at Waterloo and later served successfully as a diplomat 1848, he put down a popular revolt, earning the name Kartätschenprinz Prince of Grapeshot 1857, Frederick William suffered a stroke and Wilhelm became regent 1861, at his brother’s death, William became king, age 64 he was believed to be even more conservative than his brother

The constitutional conflict would change all that. pictured here: Minister President Bismarck War Minister Roon Chief of the General Staff Moltke

The Army Reorganization Struggle, 1860-1863 Wilhelm had a long association with the army, so even as regent, he put a reorganization bill before the Reichstag addressing two concerns raising the term of service from two to three years & doubling the size of the army reducing the role of the Landwehr (reserves) the middle class majority in the lower chamber of the Reichstag blocked the budget which would carry out these reforms a new election increased the size of the opposition Wilhelm considered abdicating, instead calls on Bismarck

The Iron Chancellor, (1815-1862-1890-1898) his father, a Junker and army officer, his mother, the educated daughter of a politician Göttingen & Univ of Berlin, law-- then diplomat, served a year as an officer in Landwehr wanted to resist 1848 with armed peasants from his estate 1851, appointed Prussia’s delegate to the Bund Count Thun and cigar politics becomes more pragmatic, more convinced of the need to oppose Austria, align with France and Russia 24 buttered hard boiled eggs

The Schleswig-Holstein Question

The Schleswig-Holstein Question

The Schleswig-Holstein Question quot;Only three people understood the Schleswig-Holstein Question. The first was Albert, the Prince consort and he is dead; the second is a German professor, and he is in an asylum: and the third was myself - and I have forgotten it.quot; - Lord Palmerston.

some salient geographic facts

some salient geographic facts Schleswig, in 1864 was linguistically 50%-50% German; but becoming more so. Historically, it had been Danish.

some salient geographic facts Schleswig, in 1864 was linguistically 50%-50% German; but becoming more so. Historically, it had been Danish. Holstein was overwhelmingly German, both in language and history, thus was part of the Bund; but its duke was the king of Denmark!

some salient geographic facts Schleswig, in 1864 was linguistically Kiel, at the base of the Kiel Fjord, 50%-50% German; but becoming was the key naval base for controlling more so. Historically, it had been Danish. the entrance to the Baltic Holstein was overwhelmingly German, both in language and history, thus was part of the Bund; but its duke was the king of Denmark!

some salient geographic facts Schleswig, in 1864 was linguistically Kiel, at the base of the Kiel Fjord, 50%-50% German; but becoming was the key naval base for controlling more so. Historically, it had been Danish. the entrance to the Baltic Britain had acquired Helgoland in 1815 and was interested in North Seapower Holstein was overwhelmingly German, both in language and history, thus was part of the Bund; but its duke was the king of Denmark!

the crisis, part i (1848-1852) during 1848-50, the first Schleswig-Holstein War had been fought with a victory for Prussian and Austrian forces the London Protocol of May 8, 1852 was an international treaty to settle the S-H Question signatories: the five Great Powers, Austria, Britain, France, Prussia,and Russia--plus the two Baltic Powers, Denmark and Sweden terms:Schleswig(Danish fief) and Holstein(Ger. fief) restored to Dk. by personal union. However, Frederick VII of DK was childless so a change in dynasty was imminent & lines of succession for the dutchies & Dk conflicted. Duchies were to remain independent & Schleswig was to have “no greater constitutional affinity to Dk. than Holstein.” Fred VII confirms Christian(later IX) as his successor, 31 July

the crisis, part ii (1852-1863) throughout the 1850s, Danish unionists move constitutional changes which infuriate German nationalists 1858, the diet of the German Bund refused to accept the Danish constitution as it applied to S-H during the early 1860s, the S-H Question became the object of heated international diplomacy (Dostoevsky--”the S-H farce”) the new King Christian IX signed a new constitution in November, 1863 which Prussia and Austria claimed violated the London Protocol 23 December, Bismarck ordered the Prussian Army to occupy Holstein pending resolution of the dispute. Austria supports.

the Second Schleswig-Holstein War (February-October, 1864) “Dybbol Skanse” Danish troops in the Battle of Düppel, 7-18 April 1864 by Jorgen Sonne, 1871

Erstürmung der Düppeler Schanzen The Düppel mill, scene of the fiercest fighting, after the battle

Erstürmung der Düppeler Schanzen The Düppel mill, scene of the fiercest fighting, after the battle • the Prussian Army reforms receive their first test:

Erstürmung der Düppeler Schanzen The Düppel mill, scene of the fiercest fighting, after the battle • the Prussian Army reforms receive their first test: • better weapons-(1)the Dreyse “Needle Gun” rifle and (2)longer range, rifled artillery

Erstürmung der Düppeler Schanzen The Düppel mill, scene of the fiercest fighting, after the battle • the Prussian Army reforms receive their first test: • better weapons-(1)the Dreyse “Needle Gun” rifle and (2)longer range, rifled artillery • soldiers are better trained and better led

Erstürmung der Düppeler Schanzen The Düppel mill, scene of the fiercest fighting, after the battle • the Prussian Army reforms receive their first test: • better weapons-(1)the Dreyse “Needle Gun” rifle and (2)longer range, rifled artillery • soldiers are better trained and better led • the new Chief of the General Staff, Helmut v Moltke gets his first test

Erstürmung der Düppeler Schanzen The Düppel mill, scene of the fiercest fighting, after the battle • the Prussian Army reforms receive their first test: • better weapons-(1)the Dreyse “Needle Gun” rifle and (2)longer range, rifled artillery • soldiers are better trained and better led • the new Chief of the General Staff, Helmut v Moltke gets his first test • casualties (KIA,WIA, or deserted/disappeared) Dk =3,600, Pr =1,200

Erstürmung der Düppeler Schanzen The Düppel mill, scene of the fiercest fighting, after the battle • the Prussian Army reforms receive their first test: • better weapons-(1)the Dreyse “Needle Gun” rifle and (2)longer range, rifled artillery • soldiers are better trained and better led • the new Chief of the General Staff, Helmut v Moltke gets his first test • casualties (KIA,WIA, or deserted/disappeared) Dk =3,600, Pr =1,200 • first battle monitored by the new Red Cross

Erstürmung der Düppeler Schanzen The Düppel mill, scene of the fiercest fighting, after the battle • the Prussian Army reforms receive their first test: • better weapons-(1)the Dreyse “Needle Gun” rifle and (2)longer range, rifled artillery • soldiers are better trained and better led • the new Chief of the General Staff, Helmut v Moltke gets his first test • casualties (KIA,WIA, or deserted/disappeared) Dk =3,600, Pr =1,200 • first battle monitored by the new Red Cross • after this victory, Prussia continues to push the Danes back

the Dreyse needle gun (Zündnadelgewehr) main infantry weapon of the Prussians adopted for service in 1841 named for its needle-like firing pin it passes through a paper cartridge to impact a percussion cap at the bullet base the first breech loading rifle to use the bolt action invention of Johan Nikolaus von Dreyse (1787-1867) Prussian soldiers could fire five shots prone in the time an opponent with a muzzleloader, who had to stand to reload, could fire one

outcomes of the Danish War, 1864 Prussia and Austria were given the right to decide the fate of S-H Austria urged a united S-H state Bismarck opposed unless Prussia was given Kiel as a naval base this dispute renewed the tension between the two victors the Prussian patriotism and militarism inspired by success began the pattern followed by the Iron Chancellor all Europe took notice of the emerging military power demonstrated by Prussia Napoleon III took special notice

The Seven Weeks War, 1866

The Seven Weeks War, 1866 KEY Red & Pink = Austria + allies Dark & Light Blue= Prussia + allies Yellow = disputed Green = neutral

From Max Boot, War Made New

the road to war

the road to war 20 August 1865, Prussia and Austria agreed to settle the S-H Question at Bad Gastein:

the road to war 20 August 1865, Prussia and Austria agreed to settle the S-H Question at Bad Gastein: Prussia should receive Holstein; Austria, Schleswig

the road to war 20 August 1865, Prussia and Austria agreed to settle the S-H Question at Bad Gastein: Prussia should receive Holstein; Austria, Schleswig October, 1865, Bismarck met with Napoleon III to see what his position would be if war with Austria developed

the road to war 20 August 1865, Prussia and Austria agreed to settle the S-H Question at Bad Gastein: Prussia should receive Holstein; Austria, Schleswig October, 1865, Bismarck met with Napoleon III to see what his position would be if war with Austria developed 16 March 1866, Austria reneged on the Gastein Convention, later both sides mobilized and Bismarck sent troops to occupy Holstein

the road to war 20 August 1865, Prussia and Austria agreed to settle the S-H Question at Bad Gastein: Prussia should receive Holstein; Austria, Schleswig October, 1865, Bismarck met with Napoleon III to see what his position would be if war with Austria developed 16 March 1866, Austria reneged on the Gastein Convention, later both sides mobilized and Bismarck sent troops to occupy Holstein 20 June, Italy, according to a secret agreement (8 April), joined with Prussia in attacking Austria to gain Venetia

the road to war 20 August 1865, Prussia and Austria agreed to settle the S-H Question at Bad Gastein: Prussia should receive Holstein; Austria, Schleswig October, 1865, Bismarck met with Napoleon III to see what his position would be if war with Austria developed 16 March 1866, Austria reneged on the Gastein Convention, later both sides mobilized and Bismarck sent troops to occupy Holstein 20 June, Italy, according to a secret agreement (8 April), joined with Prussia in attacking Austria to gain Venetia 23 June, the Prussian army advanced into Bohemia

the road to war 20 August 1865, Prussia and Austria agreed to settle the S-H Question at Bad Gastein: Prussia should receive Holstein; Austria, Schleswig October, 1865, Bismarck met with Napoleon III to see what his position would be if war with Austria developed 16 March 1866, Austria reneged on the Gastein Convention, later both sides mobilized and Bismarck sent troops to occupy Holstein 20 June, Italy, according to a secret agreement (8 April), joined with Prussia in attacking Austria to gain Venetia 23 June, the Prussian army advanced into Bohemia 30 June, the Generalstab, Marshall von Moltke, and King Wilhelm left Berlin for the front

Helmuth Karl Bernhard Graf von Moltke (1800-1891) Der große Schweiger The Great Mute

Helmuth Karl Bernhard Graf von Moltke (1800-1891) his childhood was harsh because Napoleon’s invasion destroyed the family home in Lübeck Der große Schweiger The Great Mute

Helmuth Karl Bernhard Graf von Moltke (1800-1891) his childhood was harsh because Napoleon’s invasion destroyed the family home in Lübeck 1832, joined the Großgeneralstab (Prussian General Staff) Der große Schweiger The Great Mute

Helmuth Karl Bernhard Graf von Moltke (1800-1891) his childhood was harsh because Napoleon’s invasion destroyed the family home in Lübeck 1832, joined the Großgeneralstab (Prussian General Staff) became chief, 1857-1888 Der große Schweiger The Great Mute

Helmuth Karl Bernhard Graf von Moltke (1800-1891) his childhood was harsh because Napoleon’s invasion destroyed the family home in Lübeck 1832, joined the Großgeneralstab (Prussian General Staff) became chief, 1857-1888 knew seven languages (German, Danish, English, French, Italian, Spanish, and Turkish) Der große Schweiger The Great Mute

Helmuth Karl Bernhard Graf von Moltke (1800-1891) his childhood was harsh because Napoleon’s invasion destroyed the family home in Lübeck 1832, joined the Großgeneralstab (Prussian General Staff) became chief, 1857-1888 knew seven languages (German, Danish, English, French, Italian, Spanish, and Turkish) the Großgeneralstab brilliantly incorporated the technological changes of the Industrial Revolution into military science with pre-war planning Der große Schweiger The Great Mute

Helmuth Karl Bernhard Graf von Moltke (1800-1891) his childhood was harsh because Napoleon’s invasion destroyed the family home in Lübeck 1832, joined the Großgeneralstab (Prussian General Staff) became chief, 1857-1888 knew seven languages (German, Danish, English, French, Italian, Spanish, and Turkish) the Großgeneralstab brilliantly incorporated the technological changes of the Industrial Revolution into military science with pre-war planning Der große Schweiger had the same revolutionary impact that The Great Mute Napoleon had seven decades earlier

What made the Prussian Army so revolutionary?

What made the Prussian Army so revolutionary? the planning function, epitomized in the general staff

What made the Prussian Army so revolutionary? the planning function, epitomized in the general staff with roots in the 1790s, by the 1820s it had 3 sections: eastern, western & southern Europe--for both historical study and contemporary contingencies

What made the Prussian Army so revolutionary? the planning function, epitomized in the general staff with roots in the 1790s, by the 1820s it had 3 sections: eastern, western & southern Europe--for both historical study and contemporary contingencies military cartography (map making) became a science: creation, distribution, updating

What made the Prussian Army so revolutionary? the planning function, epitomized in the general staff with roots in the 1790s, by the 1820s it had 3 sections: eastern, western & southern Europe--for both historical study and contemporary contingencies military cartography (map making) became a science: creation, distribution, updating railroads were incorporated to an unparalleled degree to move men and supplies

What made the Prussian Army so revolutionary? the planning function, epitomized in the general staff with roots in the 1790s, by the 1820s it had 3 sections: eastern, western & southern Europe--for both historical study and contemporary contingencies military cartography (map making) became a science: creation, distribution, updating railroads were incorporated to an unparalleled degree to move men and supplies related to planning was organization

What made the Prussian Army so revolutionary? the planning function, epitomized in the general staff with roots in the 1790s, by the 1820s it had 3 sections: eastern, western & southern Europe--for both historical study and contemporary contingencies military cartography (map making) became a science: creation, distribution, updating railroads were incorporated to an unparalleled degree to move men and supplies related to planning was organization recruitment and garrisoning was done on a territorial basis

What made the Prussian Army so revolutionary? the planning function, epitomized in the general staff with roots in the 1790s, by the 1820s it had 3 sections: eastern, western & southern Europe--for both historical study and contemporary contingencies military cartography (map making) became a science: creation, distribution, updating railroads were incorporated to an unparalleled degree to move men and supplies related to planning was organization recruitment and garrisoning was done on a territorial basis its third defining characteristic was education, for both officers and men

What made the Prussian Army so revolutionary? the planning function, epitomized in the general staff with roots in the 1790s, by the 1820s it had 3 sections: eastern, western & southern Europe--for both historical study and contemporary contingencies military cartography (map making) became a science: creation, distribution, updating railroads were incorporated to an unparalleled degree to move men and supplies related to planning was organization recruitment and garrisoning was done on a territorial basis its third defining characteristic was education, for both officers and men analysis was the fourth face of the Prussian army’s paradigm

What made the Prussian Army so revolutionary? the planning function, epitomized in the general staff with roots in the 1790s, by the 1820s it had 3 sections: eastern, western & southern Europe--for both historical study and contemporary contingencies military cartography (map making) became a science: creation, distribution, updating railroads were incorporated to an unparalleled degree to move men and supplies related to planning was organization recruitment and garrisoning was done on a territorial basis its third defining characteristic was education, for both officers and men analysis was the fourth face of the Prussian army’s paradigm staff rides, manoeuvres, and war gaming were the basis for reflection

What made the Prussian Army so revolutionary? the planning function, epitomized in the general staff with roots in the 1790s, by the 1820s it had 3 sections: eastern, western & southern Europe--for both historical study and contemporary contingencies military cartography (map making) became a science: creation, distribution, updating railroads were incorporated to an unparalleled degree to move men and supplies related to planning was organization recruitment and garrisoning was done on a territorial basis its third defining characteristic was education, for both officers and men analysis was the fourth face of the Prussian army’s paradigm staff rides, manoeuvres, and war gaming were the basis for reflection review and display were de-emphasised in favor of moving large forces with the newest technology

What made the Prussian Army so revolutionary? the planning function, epitomized in the general staff with roots in the 1790s, by the 1820s it had 3 sections: eastern, western & southern Europe--for both historical study and contemporary contingencies military cartography (map making) became a science: creation, distribution, updating railroads were incorporated to an unparalleled degree to move men and supplies related to planning was organization recruitment and garrisoning was done on a territorial basis its third defining characteristic was education, for both officers and men analysis was the fourth face of the Prussian army’s paradigm staff rides, manoeuvres, and war gaming were the basis for reflection review and display were de-emphasised in favor of moving large forces with the newest technology in the kriegspiel of 1844, first place went to IV Corps; its chief of staff, Helmuth von Moltke

Moltke’s famous dictum No plan of operations can look with any certainty beyond the first meeting with the major forces of the enemy. All consecutive acts of war are, therefore, not executions of a premeditated plan, but spontaneous actions, directed by military tact. quoted in Max Boot. War Made New. p. 126

Ludwig (Lajos) August Ritter von Benedek (1804-1881)

Ludwig (Lajos) August Ritter von Benedek (1804-1881) seventh in his class, Vienna Military Academy

Ludwig (Lajos) August Ritter von Benedek (1804-1881) seventh in his class, Vienna Military Academy commanded a brigade in battle several times in the First Italian War, 1848-49

Ludwig (Lajos) August Ritter von Benedek (1804-1881) seventh in his class, Vienna Military Academy commanded a brigade in battle several times in the First Italian War, 1848-49 fought in Hungary, promoted to Field Marshall, made Radetzky’s chief of staff

Ludwig (Lajos) August Ritter von Benedek (1804-1881) seventh in his class, Vienna Military Academy commanded a brigade in battle several times in the First Italian War, 1848-49 fought in Hungary, promoted to Field Marshall, made Radetzky’s chief of staff 1859, commanded an army corps at Solferino in the Second Italian War

Ludwig (Lajos) August Ritter von Benedek (1804-1881) seventh in his class, Vienna Military Academy commanded a brigade in battle several times in the First Italian War, 1848-49 fought in Hungary, promoted to Field Marshall, made Radetzky’s chief of staff 1859, commanded an army corps at Solferino in the Second Italian War 1860, made governor of Hungary

Ludwig (Lajos) August Ritter von Benedek (1804-1881) seventh in his class, Vienna Military Academy commanded a brigade in battle several times in the First Italian War, 1848-49 fought in Hungary, promoted to Field Marshall, made Radetzky’s chief of staff 1859, commanded an army corps at Solferino in the Second Italian War 1860, made governor of Hungary a “muddy boots,” hard drinking, fraternize with the soldiers, scorn staff work leader--the opposite of Moltke

Ludwig (Lajos) August Ritter von Benedek (1804-1881) seventh in his class, Vienna Military Academy commanded a brigade in battle several times in the First Italian War, 1848-49 fought in Hungary, promoted to Field Marshall, made Radetzky’s chief of staff 1859, commanded an army corps at Solferino in the Second Italian War 1860, made governor of Hungary a “muddy boots,” hard drinking, fraternize with the soldiers, scorn staff work leader--the opposite of Moltke age 62 at the outbreak of the war with Prussia

Prussian Railroads are crucial Troops leaving Breslau by rail for the front, 1866

Three Prussian Armies Converge

Three Prussian Armies Converge

Jitschin 2. vii.1866 Dear Wife, I have just arrived, the ground is heaped with corpses, horses, and arms. Our victories are much greater than we thought. Send me some French novels to read, but not more than one at a time. May God bless you, Bismarck

Austrian initial moves Austrian attacks Prussian movements Fortress Battle or Attack International border

(night of 26 June) Austrian initial moves Austrian attacks Prussian movements Fortress Battle or Attack International border

(night of 26 June) (26 June) Austrian initial moves Austrian attacks Prussian movements Fortress Battle or Attack International border

(night of 26 June) (27 June) (26 June) Austrian initial moves Austrian attacks Prussian movements Fortress Battle or Attack International border

(night of 26 June) (27 June) (26 June) 28 June Austrian initial moves Austrian attacks Prussian movements Fortress Battle or Attack International border

(night of 26 June) (27 June) (26 June) 28 June (29 June) Austrian initial moves Austrian attacks Prussian movements Fortress Battle or Attack International border

(night of 26 June) (27 June) (26 June) 28 June (29 June) Austrian initial moves Prinz Friedrich Karl Austrian attacks Prussian movements Fortress Battle or Attack International border

Kronprinz Friedrich Wilhelm (night of 26 June) (27 June) (26 June) 28 June (29 June) Austrian initial moves Prinz Friedrich Karl Austrian attacks Prussian movements Fortress Battle or Attack International border

Königgrätz -- 3.vii.1866

Königgrätz -- 3.vii.1866 “The needle gun is king.”

From Max Boot, War Made New

Crown Prince Frederick William and Marshall v Moltke at the Schwerpunkt (hard- or turning-point) the hill at Chlum

the turning point Hungarian rifled artillery on the hilltop at Chlum poured fire into the Prussian 1st Army below, to the west when blue coats were first reported coming from the north, the commander believed them to be Saxon allies about 1430 the Prussians overwhelmed the Austrian batteries. Most fled. this monument commemorates the heroic resistance of one which stood and fell by their guns by 1515 Prussian artillery had replaced them on this commanding position, and the battle turned into an Austrian rout Baterie Myrtvych (Battery of the Dead)

Aftermath of Königgrätz/Sadowa

Aftermath of Königgrätz/Sadowa the field was littered with Austrian equipment-- 19,800 prisoners & 24,400 dead, wounded or missing (21.5% of their total army)

Aftermath of Königgrätz/Sadowa the field was littered with Austrian equipment-- 19,800 prisoners & 24,400 dead, wounded or missing (21.5% of their total army) Prussian losses were much lower (4%)

Aftermath of Königgrätz/Sadowa the field was littered with Austrian equipment-- 19,800 prisoners & 24,400 dead, wounded or missing (21.5% of their total army) Prussian losses were much lower (4%) the next day a Habsburg field marshall was sent to seek a truce--”My Emperor no longer has an army.”

Aftermath of Königgrätz/Sadowa the field was littered with Austrian equipment-- 19,800 prisoners & 24,400 dead, wounded or missing (21.5% of their total army) Prussian losses were much lower (4%) the next day a Habsburg field marshall was sent to seek a truce--”My Emperor no longer has an army.” Moltke wanted to march on Vienna but was restrained by Bismarck

Aftermath of Königgrätz/Sadowa the field was littered with Austrian equipment-- 19,800 prisoners & 24,400 dead, wounded or missing (21.5% of their total army) Prussian losses were much lower (4%) the next day a Habsburg field marshall was sent to seek a truce--”My Emperor no longer has an army.” Moltke wanted to march on Vienna but was restrained by Bismarck a generous peace: only Venetia (for the Italians) was demanded

Aftermath of Königgrätz/Sadowa the field was littered with Austrian equipment-- 19,800 prisoners & 24,400 dead, wounded or missing (21.5% of their total army) Prussian losses were much lower (4%) the next day a Habsburg field marshall was sent to seek a truce--”My Emperor no longer has an army.” Moltke wanted to march on Vienna but was restrained by Bismarck a generous peace: only Venetia (for the Italians) was demanded the Bund was dissolved and Austria renounced all hope of German leadership

Three Results of the Seven Weeks War

Three Results of the Seven Weeks War

I. Ausgleich (Compromise) 1867

I. Ausgleich (Compromise) 1867 Austria Hungary

Prince Felix Schwarzenberg Austrian successor to Metternich, 1848-1852 Reverse the Revolution of ‘48-49

Vienna, 1858 Notice the fortifications are still in place and the suburbs lie outside them!

Alexander Freiherr von Bach

Alexander Freiherr von Bach Minister of Justice, 1848-49 Minister of the Interior, 1849-1859 “Clericalabsolutist” concordat of 1855 gave the RC Church control over education and family life Bachsches System of “four armies:” standing army of soldiers sitting army of office holders kneeling army of priests fawning army of sneaks failure of the war of 1859 caused his fall

Ferenz (Francis) Deak (DAY•aak) moderate Magyar nationalist

Austria becomes Austria-Hungary

Austria becomes Austria-Hungary

Ausgleich (Compromise) of 1867

Ausgleich (Compromise) of 1867 dual monarchy: Kaiserreich von Österreich und Königreich von Ungarn,the so-called K.u.K.

Ausgleich (Compromise) of 1867 dual monarchy: Kaiserreich von Österreich und Königreich von Ungarn,the so-called K.u.K. two independent and equal states with one monarch-- emperor (kaiser) of Austria & king (könig) of Hungary

Ausgleich (Compromise) of 1867 dual monarchy: Kaiserreich von Österreich und Königreich von Ungarn,the so-called K.u.K. two independent and equal states with one monarch-- emperor (kaiser) of Austria & king (könig) of Hungary common military and foreign policy establishment, but separate parliaments and domestic policy bureaucracies

Ausgleich (Compromise) of 1867 dual monarchy: Kaiserreich von Österreich und Königreich von Ungarn,the so-called K.u.K. two independent and equal states with one monarch-- emperor (kaiser) of Austria & king (könig) of Hungary common military and foreign policy establishment, but separate parliaments and domestic policy bureaucracies “restored reasonable efficiency to the government operations of the empire”

Ausgleich (Compromise) of 1867 dual monarchy: Kaiserreich von Österreich und Königreich von Ungarn,the so-called K.u.K. two independent and equal states with one monarch-- emperor (kaiser) of Austria & king (könig) of Hungary common military and foreign policy establishment, but separate parliaments and domestic policy bureaucracies “restored reasonable efficiency to the government operations of the empire” improved the economy with an Austrian “Zollverein”

Ausgleich (Compromise) of 1867

Ausgleich and the nationalities issue “But it did nothing to solve the nationalities problem, and did not try to do so. It may truly be described as a “deal” between the German minority in the western half of the empire and the Magyar minority in the eastern at the expense of all the other peoples--the Czechs, the Slovaks, the Croats, the Serbs, the Poles, and the Rumanians.” Craig, p. 217

Nationalities by language language percent German 24 Magyar 20 Czech 13 Polish 10 Ruthenian 8 Romanian 6 Croat 5 Slovak 4 Serb 4 Slovenian 3 Italian 2

religion and ethnicity

religion and ethnicity

religion and ethnicity

Es ist meine Wille… “It is my will…”,1857 Emperor Franz Josef orders destruction of the fortifications, construction of a beltway known as the Ringstraße, and a series of grand buildings to rival those of Napoleon III’s Haussmannisation of Paris. Here, a photo, 1872

the buildings of the Ringstraße

the buildings of the Ringstraße K.u.K. Hofoper, 1864-1869

the buildings of the Ringstraße K.u.K. Hofoper, 1864-1869

the buildings of the Ringstraße K.u.K. Hofoper, 1864-1869

the buildings of the Ringstraße K.u.K. Hofoper, 1864-1869

the buildings of the Ringstraße Rathaus, 1872-1888 K.u.K. Hofoper, 1864-1869

the buildings of the Ringstraße Rathaus, 1872-1888 K.u.K. Hofoper, 1864-1869

the buildings of the Ringstraße Rathaus, K.u.K. Hofburgtheater, 1879-1888 1872-1888 K.u.K. Hofoper, 1864-1869

the buildings of the Ringstraße Rathaus, K.u.K. Hofburgtheater, 1879-1888 1872-1888 K.u.K. Hofoper, 1864-1869

the buildings of the Ringstraße Rathaus, K.u.K. Hofburgtheater, 1879-1888 1872-1888 K.u.K. Hofoper, 1864-1869 Votivkirche, 1856-1879

the buildings of the Ringstraße Rathaus, K.u.K. Hofburgtheater, 1879-1888 1872-1888 K.u.K. Hofoper, 1864-1869 Votivkirche, 1856-1879

the buildings of the Ringstraße Rathaus, K.u.K. Hofburgtheater, 1879-1888 1872-1888 K.u.K. Hofoper, 1864-1869 Votivkirche, 1856-1879

II. The Surrender of Prussian Liberalism Berlin Reichstag, 1871

Deutsche Fortschrittspartei (German Progressive Rudolf Virchow, MD

Deutsche Fortschrittspartei (German Progressive Theodor Mommsen, PhD Rudolf Virchow, MD

Deutsche Fortschrittspartei (German Progressive Theodor Mommsen, PhD Rudolf Virchow, MD Paul Singer

Deutsche Fortschrittspartei (German Progressive Theodor Mommsen, PhD Rudolf Virchow, MD Paul Singer Werner v Siemens

Die Nationalliberale Partei 1867-1918 16. xi.1868

III. Norddeutscher Bund, 1866-1871

the North German Confederation (August, 1866) began as a military alliance of 22 North German states unlike the Bund, the Norddeutscher Bund, was a true state whose territory was the German lands north of the Main River it cemented Prussian control there and extended that same control southward via (1)the Zollverein and (2)secret military treaties with Bavaria, Würtemberg, Baden & the southern part of the Grand Duchy of Hesse although it ceased to exist after the creation of the German Empire in 1871, the federation was the building block for the new constitution adopted that year

Great Britain From Palmerston to Gladstone

Great Britain From Palmerston to Gladstone

Non-intervention and Colonial Problems

Non-intervention and Colonial Problems

Non-Interventionism the Crimean War (1854-1856) left a terrible taste in British mouths no government could count thereafter on parliamentary support or a bellicose public outcry for military interventions in Europe in the early stages of the S-H dispute, both Prussia and Austria ignored British warnings. No follow through. when Russia ignored British notes about her treatment of the Poles in 1863, both sides in Commons called for an end to the policy of “meddle and muddle”

George Malcolm Fraser’s “Flashman” series

George Malcolm Fraser’s “Flashman” series Fraser (1925-2008), a retired officer of the Gordon Highlanders with WW II service, is the author of this marvelous humorous historical fiction

George Malcolm Fraser’s “Flashman” series Fraser (1925-2008), a retired officer of the Gordon Highlanders with WW II service, is the author of this marvelous humorous historical fiction his fictional character, Harry Flashman, is “present” and “plays a key part” in all of Britain’s imperial wars

George Malcolm Fraser’s “Flashman” series Fraser (1925-2008), a retired officer of the Gordon Highlanders with WW II service, is the author of this marvelous humorous historical fiction his fictional character, Harry Flashman, is “present” and “plays a key part” in all of Britain’s imperial wars Flashman--First Afghan War, 1841

George Malcolm Fraser’s “Flashman” series Fraser (1925-2008), a retired officer of the Gordon Highlanders with WW II service, is the author of this marvelous humorous historical fiction his fictional character, Harry Flashman, is “present” and “plays a key part” in all of Britain’s imperial wars Flashman--First Afghan War, 1841 Flashman and the Mountain of Light--First Sikh War, 1845-6

George Malcolm Fraser’s “Flashman” series Fraser (1925-2008), a retired officer of the Gordon Highlanders with WW II service, is the author of this marvelous humorous historical fiction his fictional character, Harry Flashman, is “present” and “plays a key part” in all of Britain’s imperial wars Flashman--First Afghan War, 1841 Flashman and the Mountain of Light--First Sikh War, 1845-6 Royal Flash--Lola Montez & Bismarck, 1848

George Malcolm Fraser’s “Flashman” series Fraser (1925-2008), a retired officer of the Gordon Highlanders with WW II service, is the author of this marvelous humorous historical fiction his fictional character, Harry Flashman, is “present” and “plays a key part” in all of Britain’s imperial wars Flashman--First Afghan War, 1841 Flashman and the Mountain of Light--First Sikh War, 1845-6 Royal Flash--Lola Montez & Bismarck, 1848 Flashman at the Charge--...of the Light Brigade, 1854

George Malcolm Fraser’s “Flashman” series Fraser (1925-2008), a retired officer of the Gordon Highlanders with WW II service, is the author of this marvelous humorous historical fiction his fictional character, Harry Flashman, is “present” and “plays a key part” in all of Britain’s imperial wars Flashman--First Afghan War, 1841 Flashman and the Mountain of Light--First Sikh War, 1845-6 Royal Flash--Lola Montez & Bismarck, 1848 Flashman at the Charge--...of the Light Brigade, 1854 Flashman and the Great Game--the Sepoy Mutiny, 1857

George Malcolm Fraser’s “Flashman” series Fraser (1925-2008), a retired officer of the Gordon Highlanders with WW II service, is the author of this marvelous humorous historical fiction his fictional character, Harry Flashman, is “present” and “plays a key part” in all of Britain’s imperial wars Flashman--First Afghan War, 1841 Flashman and the Mountain of Light--First Sikh War, 1845-6 Royal Flash--Lola Montez & Bismarck, 1848 Flashman at the Charge--...of the Light Brigade, 1854 Flashman and the Great Game--the Sepoy Mutiny, 1857 Flashman & the Dragon--the Taiping Rebellion, 1859-60

George Malcolm Fraser’s “Flashman” series Fraser (1925-2008), a retired officer of the Gordon Highlanders with WW II service, is the author of this marvelous humorous historical fiction his fictional character, Harry Flashman, is “present” and “plays a key part” in all of Britain’s imperial wars Flashman--First Afghan War, 1841 Flashman and the Mountain of Light--First Sikh War, 1845-6 Royal Flash--Lola Montez & Bismarck, 1848 Flashman at the Charge--...of the Light Brigade, 1854 Flashman and the Great Game--the Sepoy Mutiny, 1857 Flashman & the Dragon--the Taiping Rebellion, 1859-60 Flashman on the March--France in Mexico, Britain in Abyssinia

George Malcolm Fraser’s “Flashman” series Fraser (1925-2008), a retired officer of the Gordon Highlanders with WW II service, is the author of this marvelous humorous historical fiction his fictional character, Harry Flashman, is “present” and “plays a key part” in all of Britain’s imperial wars Flashman--First Afghan War, 1841 Flashman and the Mountain of Light--First Sikh War, 1845-6 Royal Flash--Lola Montez & Bismarck, 1848 Flashman at the Charge--...of the Light Brigade, 1854 Flashman and the Great Game--the Sepoy Mutiny, 1857 Flashman & the Dragon--the Taiping Rebellion, 1859-60 Flashman on the March--France in Mexico, Britain in Abyssinia Flashman and the Tiger--Zulu War, 1879

George Malcolm Fraser’s “Flashman” series Fraser (1925-2008), a retired officer of the Gordon Highlanders with WW II service, is the author of this marvelous humorous historical fiction his fictional character, Harry Flashman, is “present” and “plays a key part” in all of Britain’s imperial wars Flashman--First Afghan War, 1841 Flashman and the Mountain of Light--First Sikh War, 1845-6 Royal Flash--Lola Montez & Bismarck, 1848 Flashman at the Charge--...of the Light Brigade, 1854 Flashman and the Great Game--the Sepoy Mutiny, 1857 Flashman & the Dragon--the Taiping Rebellion, 1859-60 Flashman on the March--France in Mexico, Britain in Abyssinia Flashman and the Tiger--Zulu War, 1879

Colonial distractions

Colonial distractions 1857-58--the great Sepoy Rebellion in India shook British imperialism and led to reform of the East India Company

Colonial distractions 1857-58--the great Sepoy Rebellion in India shook British imperialism and led to reform of the East India Company 1858-60--Chinese Taipings rebelled against the Manchu government and Palmerston and Napoleon III used this as an excuse for military intervention and more rights in China

Colonial distractions 1857-58--the great Sepoy Rebellion in India shook British imperialism and led to reform of the East India Company 1858-60--Chinese Taipings rebelled against the Manchu government and Palmerston and Napoleon III used this as an excuse for military intervention and more rights in China both Australia (Gold Rush of the early ‘50s) and New Zealand (Maori Wars) had dramatic population growth and demanded attention

Colonial distractions 1857-58--the great Sepoy Rebellion in India shook British imperialism and led to reform of the East India Company 1858-60--Chinese Taipings rebelled against the Manchu government and Palmerston and Napoleon III used this as an excuse for military intervention and more rights in China both Australia (Gold Rush of the early ‘50s) and New Zealand (Maori Wars) had dramatic population growth and demanded attention finally, throughout this period, North America required much attention; especially after 1861

“Cotton is King!” or is it? Charles Francis Adams, U.S. Minister to Britain

“Cotton is King!” or is it? the Trent Affair, 1861 Charles Francis Adams, U.S. Minister to Britain

“Cotton is King!” or is it? the Trent Affair, 1861 Britain disengages from the Maximilian Affair, 1862 Charles Francis Adams, U.S. Minister to Britain

“Cotton is King!” or is it? the Trent Affair, 1861 Britain disengages from the Maximilian Affair, 1862 the Emancipation Proclamation, 1862 Charles Francis Adams, U.S. Minister to Britain

“Cotton is King!” or is it? the Trent Affair, 1861 Britain disengages from the Maximilian Affair, 1862 the Emancipation Proclamation, 1862 the Laird Rams, 1862-1863 Charles Francis Adams, U.S. Minister to Britain

“Cotton is King!” or is it? the Trent Affair, 1861 Britain disengages from the Maximilian Affair, 1862 the Emancipation Proclamation, 1862 the Laird Rams, 1862-1863 St Albans raid, 1864 Charles Francis Adams, U.S. Minister to Britain

“Cotton is King!” or is it? the Trent Affair, 1861 Britain disengages from the Maximilian Affair, 1862 the Emancipation Proclamation, 1862 the Laird Rams, 1862-1863 St Albans raid, 1864 the Alabama claims, 1862-1872 Charles Francis Adams, U.S. Minister to Britain

“Cotton is King!” or is it? the Trent Affair, 1861 Britain disengages from the Maximilian Affair, 1862 the Emancipation Proclamation, 1862 the Laird Rams, 1862-1863 St Albans raid, 1864 the Alabama claims, 1862-1872 submitted to arbitration (1865) Charles Francis Adams, U.S. Minister to Britain

“Cotton is King!” or is it? the Trent Affair, 1861 Britain disengages from the Maximilian Affair, 1862 the Emancipation Proclamation, 1862 the Laird Rams, 1862-1863 St Albans raid, 1864 the Alabama claims, 1862-1872 submitted to arbitration (1865) the British North American Act, 1867 Charles Francis Adams, U.S. Minister to Britain

Party Politics

Party Politics Palmerston Disraeli Gladstone

Palmerston <----------------------> Disraeli

Palmerston <----------------------> Disraeli Intervention

Palmerston <----------------------> Disraeli Intervention Don Pacifico affair, 1850

Palmerston <----------------------> Disraeli Intervention Don Pacifico affair, 1850 CIVIS ROMANVS SVM speech

Palmerston <----------------------> Disraeli quot;As the Roman, in days of old, held himself free from indignity, when he could say, Civis Romanus sum [I am a Roman citizen], so also a British subject, in whatever land he may be, shall feel confident that the watchful eye and the strong arm of England will protect him from injustice and wrong.quot;---in Commons, 30 June 1850

Palmerston <----------------------> Disraeli Isolationism

Palmerston <----------------------> Disraeli Isolationism “splendid isolation”

Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield (1804-1881) 1817--his father, Isaac D’Israeli, a distinguished historian, converted the family to C. of E. (Anglicanism) Disraeli didn’t consider it problematic to have Jewish ethnicity and Christian faith 1830s and ‘40s--first famous as a novelist, he squabbled with other writers his political trilogy, chiefly Sibyl, or the Two Nations (1845) marked his shift first ran unsuccessfully as a radical gained a seat as a Tory for Maidstone in 1837

From “Young England” to “Tory Democracy” in the 1830s his radicalism and desire to make a mark were in conflict “Toryism is worn out and I cannot condescend to be a Whig.” his solution: to revive the Tory Party the Corn Law debates split the Tories into several factions Disraeli navigated them in the spirit of Realpolitik, his enemies said “opportunism” during the 20 years between 1845 and the Second Reform Bill (1867) he sought a Radical-Tory Alliance

John Bright (1811-1889) educated at a Quaker secondary school, he entered his father’s textile mill at 16 ardent Nonconformist, he entered politics to protest church rates (taxes to support the C. of E.) joined with Richard Cobden to found the Anti-Corn Law League, 1839 originally considered a Radical, he joined with Wm Gladstone in the 1860s to create the Liberal Party together they began the campaign for a second reform bill to make Britain a true democracy

Goals of the Reformers

Goals of the Reformers 1. a broader franchise--more (men) should be allowed to vote the Reform Act of 1832 had added voters to 1 in 6 adult males this included the upper middle classes Radicals called for universal suffrage, but many Liberals wanted to exclude “the Residuum” what they considered “the feckless and criminal poor”

Goals of the Reformers 1. a broader franchise--more (men) should be allowed to vote the Reform Act of 1832 had added voters to 1 in 6 adult males this included the upper middle classes Radicals called for universal suffrage, but many Liberals wanted to exclude “the Residuum” what they considered “the feckless and criminal poor” 2. redistricting to reflect population shifts since 1832 the urbanization of the Industrial Revolution meant that urban areas were under represented, while rural areas were over represented this violated the principle of “one man, one vote” and favored conservative policies

Reapportionment

Disraeli defeats the Liberals’ 1866 Bill he skillfully drew support from the reactionary-conservative wing of the Liberals, led by Robert Lowe when the bill failed, Lord Russell’s ministry was replaced by a Conservative one (June 28); Lord Derby as P.M., Disraeli as Chancellor of the Exchequer they were challenged to revive Conservatism. Lord Palmerston, the great Liberal leader was dead, his party split Disraeli offered his own version of reform under the banner of “Tory Democracy” his bill attempted to include only the “better sort” of artisans and proletarians

The Disorders in Hyde Park, London (July, 1867)

The Disorders in Hyde Park, London (July, 1867) The interest aroused in Europe by these events is shown by this French drawing from L’Illustration, July, 1866

Parliamentary Maneuvering The figures, left to right, “Dizzy”=Disraeli & “Mr Punch” Wm Gladstone & John Bright “Mr Punch” the voice of this famous humor magazine, suggests there may have been improprieties in the Conservative victory with his cynical “DON’T BE TOO SURE, WAIT TILL HE’S WEIGHED

The Reform Act of 1867

The Reform Act of 1867 gave the vote in the boroughs (urban districts) to all householders, whatever the value of their homes to all lodgers who paid at least £10 per year

The Reform Act of 1867 gave the vote in the boroughs (urban districts) to all householders, whatever the value of their homes to all lodgers who paid at least £10 per year in the counties (rural districts) owners of property yielding £5 income a year tenants paying £12 a year

The Reform Act of 1867 gave the vote in the boroughs (urban districts) to all householders, whatever the value of their homes to all lodgers who paid at least £10 per year in the counties (rural districts) owners of property yielding £5 income a year tenants paying £12 a year it added 938,000 voters to an existing English and Welsh electorate of 1,056,000

The Reform Act of 1867 gave the vote in the boroughs (urban districts) to all householders, whatever the value of their homes to all lodgers who paid at least £10 per year in the counties (rural districts) owners of property yielding £5 income a year tenants paying £12 a year it added 938,000 voters to an existing English and Welsh electorate of 1,056,000 a act followed which redistributed parliamentary representation

William Ewart Gladstone (1809-1898) four time P.M. 1868-74, 1880-85, 1886, and 1892-94) famous for his intense political and personal rivalry with Disraeli his nickname, GOM (Grand Old Man) “Dizzy” said really stood for God’s Only Mistake Queen Victoria complained, “He always addresses me as if I were a public meeting” he is still regarded as one of the greatest British prime ministers, with Winston Churchill and others citing Gladstone as their inspiration

So they told me how Mr. Gladstone read Homer for fun, which I thought served him right… W. L. S. Churchill, My Early Life : A Roving Commission, p. 23

Gladstone’s “Great Ministry,”(1868-1874) passed a series of basic reforms, civil administration, education, Irish affairs and the (secret) Ballot Act of 1872 the Cardwell army reforms--cleaned up the mess, 1870 the Martini-Henry breechloader better training and staff work abolished the purchase system of promotion “My mission is to pacify Ireland” Disestablishment Act, 1869 Land Act, 1870 too little, too late--”the Troubles” continue to this day

Russia under Alexander II

Russia under Alexander II

An odd similarity: Britain and Russia At opposite ends of the political liberty spectrum, these two had remarkably similar experiences, 1856-1870 • both were determined to reform after a miserable performance in the Crimean War • both were focused on domestic issues and colonial concerns and, thus, stayed out of the power struggles transforming central Europe • both were concerned with Asian colonial matters: Russia; the “stans” of Central Asia, Vladivostok, 1860 (her first warm water port), Sakhalin Island, 1875 and liquidating “worthless” Alaska, 1867

Tsar Alexander II, reluctant soldier

Tsar Alexander II, reluctant soldier born the son of Nicholas I, passionate militarist

Tsar Alexander II, reluctant soldier born the son of Nicholas I, passionate militarist his mother, Charlotte of Prussia, daughter of Frederick Wm III

Tsar Alexander II, reluctant soldier born the son of Nicholas I, passionate militarist his mother, Charlotte of Prussia, daughter of Frederick Wm III educated by the liberal poet Vasil

Add a comment

Related presentations

Related pages

SparkNotes: Europe (1848-1871): German Unification (1850-1871)

... (1850-1871) in 's Europe (1848-1871). ... Guides → Europe (1848-1871) → German Unification ... unification of Germany in central Europe--an ...
Read more

Unification | LinkedIn

... (part 1/2): Party Unification and Donor Support ... German unification and return of Hong Kong and Macau to ... 19th Century Europe, Part 2, 1850-1871; ...
Read more

SparkNotes: Europe (1848-1871): Italian Unification (1848 ...

... in 's Europe (1848-1871). ... German Unification (1850-1871) The Second Empire in France ... Italian Unification (1848-1870), page 2.
Read more

Search › german unification ap european large | Quizlet

Study sets matching "german unification ap european large" Study sets. Classes. Users
Read more

Unification of Germany - Topic - YouTube

The unification of Germany into a politically and administratively integrated nation state officially occurred on 18 January 1871 in the Hall of Mirrors ...
Read more

19th Century | LinkedIn

19th Century and Orientalist Paintings Specialist at Bonhams, 19th Century and Orientalist Paintings Specialist at Bonhams, 19th Century... Cataloguer ...
Read more

European Politics, Late 19th Century - SlideServe

European Politics, Late 19th Century . ... 1850-1871 . From 1848 to 1851 ... The impact of the 19th century is seen throughout Europe .
Read more

Long 19th Century: European History from 1789 to 1917 Prof ...

Few periods of history are so captivatingly complex as Europe's 19th century, ... the German chancellor ... Long 19th Century: European History from ...
Read more