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human resource management

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Information about human resource management
Education

Published on December 21, 2008

Author: yudodahono

Source: authorstream.com

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Performance Management and Appraisal : Performance Management and Appraisal Tujuan Pembelajaran : www.themegallery.com Company Logo Tujuan Pembelajaran Membedakan antara kriteria pekerjaan dan standar kinerja. Mengidentifikasikan dua kegunaan utama penilaian kinerja. Memberikan contoh-contoh rater errors. Memaparkan kelebihan dan kelemahan penilaian dengan multi sumber atau multisource (360°) appraisal. Tujuan pembelajaran : www.themegallery.com Company Logo Tujuan pembelajaran Mengidentifikasikan karakteristik/sifat pendekatan keperilakuan terhadap penilaian kinerja dan management by objectives (MBO). Mendiskusikan beberapa hal penting mengenai appraisal feedback interviews. Mengidentifikasikan karakteristik sistem penilaian kinerja yang legal dan efektif. Identifying and MeasuringEmployee Performance : www.themegallery.com Company Logo Identifying and MeasuringEmployee Performance Performance Management System Proses yang digunakan untuk identify, encourage, measure, evaluate, improve, dan reward kinerja karyawan. Performance Apa yang dilakukan dan tidak dilakukan oleh karyawan. Jumlah output • Quality of output Timeliness of output • Presence at work Cooperativeness Job Criteria Elemen penting yang diberikan dalam pekerjaan. Keterkaitan antara Strategy, Outcomes,dan Organizational Results : www.themegallery.com Company Logo Keterkaitan antara Strategy, Outcomes,dan Organizational Results Types of Performance Information : www.themegallery.com Company Logo Types of Performance Information JobPerformance? Beberapa permasalahan kriteria kinerja : www.themegallery.com Company Logo Beberapa permasalahan kriteria kinerja Objectivity Deficiency Contamination PerformanceCriteria Performance Standards : www.themegallery.com Company Logo Performance Standards Performance Standards Tingkat kinerja yang diharapkan Benchmarks Goals Targets Karakteristik standar kinerja yang baik Realistik Dapat diukur Secara jelas dapat dipahami Terms Defining Standards on One Company : www.themegallery.com Company Logo Terms Defining Standards on One Company Figure 11–2 Manfaat Penilaian kinerja (Performance Appraisal) : www.themegallery.com Company Logo Manfaat Penilaian kinerja (Performance Appraisal) Performance Appraisal (PA) Proses mengevaluasi bagaimana karyawan dengan baik melakukan pekerjaan mereka ketika dibandingkan dengan standar yang ada, dan kemudian mengkomunikasikan informasi tersebut kepada karyawan. Informal Appraisal Day-to-day contacts, biasanya tidak didokumentasikan Systematic Appraisal Melibatkan adanya kontak formal pada interval waktu yang sudah ditentukan (regular), biasanya didokumentasikan. Manfaat Performance Appraisal (cont’d) : www.themegallery.com Company Logo Manfaat Performance Appraisal (cont’d) PerformanceAppraisal Kritik terhadap Performance Appraisal : www.themegallery.com Company Logo Kritik terhadap Performance Appraisal Terlalu memfokuskan pada individual dan kurang mengembangkan karyawan. Karyawan dan supervisor mempercayai bahwa proses penilaian merupakan proses yg tidak sempurna. Penilaian seringkali tidak konsisten, berorientasi jangka pendek, subjektif, dan berguna hanya pada kinerja yang tertinggi. Conflicting Roles for Performance Appraisal : www.themegallery.com Company Logo Conflicting Roles for Performance Appraisal Figure 11–3 Typical Division of HR Responsibilitiesfor Performance Appraisal : www.themegallery.com Company Logo Typical Division of HR Responsibilitiesfor Performance Appraisal Figure 11–4 Siapa yang melakukan Penilaian : www.themegallery.com Company Logo Siapa yang melakukan Penilaian Supervisor yang menilai bawahan mereka Karyawan yang menilai supervisor mereka Anggota Tim yang menilai satu dengan yang lainnya. Sumber dari luar. Karyawan yang menilai dirinya sendiri. Multisource (360° feedback) appraisal Traditional Performance Appraisal:Logic and Process : www.themegallery.com Company Logo Traditional Performance Appraisal:Logic and Process Figure 11–5 Karyawan menilai Manajer : www.themegallery.com Company Logo Karyawan menilai Manajer Advantages Membantu mengidentifikasikan manajer yang kompeten Membuat manajer lebih responsif terhadap karyawan. Dapat memberikan kontribusi terhadap pengembangan karir manajer. Disadvantages Menimbulkan reaksi negatif manajer terhadap penilaian karyawan. Ketakutan bawahan mengenai tindakan balasan manajer karena bawahan memberikan penilaian yg realistik (negatif). Penilaian hanya bermanfaat hanya untuk self-improvement purposes Penilaian dari Team/Peer : www.themegallery.com Company Logo Penilaian dari Team/Peer Advantages Membantu meningkatkan kinerja individual yang dinilai lebih rendah (lower-rated individuals) Rekan kerja memiliki peluang untuk mengobservasi rekan kerja lainnya. Penilaian rekan kerja memfokuskan pada kontribusi individual terhadap kinerja tim dan teamwork. Disadvantages Secara negatif dapat mempengaruhi hubungan kerja. Dapat menciptakan kesulitan bagi manajer dalam menentukan kinerja individual. Organisasi menggunakan penilaian kinerja individual dapat menghalangi pengembangan teamwork Penilaian dg banyak sumber (Multisource Appraisal) : www.themegallery.com Company Logo Penilaian dg banyak sumber (Multisource Appraisal) Figure 11–6 Metode Performance Appraisal : www.themegallery.com Company Logo Metode Performance Appraisal Figure 11–7 Category Rating Methods : www.themegallery.com Company Logo Category Rating Methods Graphic Rating Scale Skala yang mengijinkan penilai untuk mengindikasikan kinerja karyawan pada sebuah kontinum. Job criteria scales Behavioral scales Drawbacks Restrictions on the range of possible rater responses Differences in the interpretations of the meanings of scale items and scale ranges by raters Poorly designed scales that encourage rater errors Rating form deficiencies that limit the effectiveness of the appraisal Category Rating Methods (cont’d) : www.themegallery.com Company Logo Category Rating Methods (cont’d) Checklists A performance appraisal tool that uses a list of statements or work behaviors that are checked by raters. Can be quantified by applying weights to individual checklist items. Drawbacks Interpretation of item meanings by raters Weighting creates problems in appraisal interpretation Assignment of weights to items by persons other than the raters Sample Performance Appraisal Form : www.themegallery.com Company Logo Sample Performance Appraisal Form Figure 11–8a Sample Performance Appraisal Form : www.themegallery.com Company Logo Sample Performance Appraisal Form Figure 11–8b Comparative Methods : www.themegallery.com Company Logo Comparative Methods Ranking Menyusun karyawan dari yang berkinerja tertinggi hingga terendah. Drawback Tidak menunjukkan perbedaan ukuran dalam kinerja antara karyawan. Implikasi bahwa karyawan yang diranking paling rendah merupakan unsatisfactory performers. Becomes an unwieldy process if the group to be ranked is large. Comparative Methods (cont’d) : www.themegallery.com Company Logo Comparative Methods (cont’d) Forced Distribution Metode penilaian kinerja dg me-rating karyawan terdistribusi sepanjang bell-shaped curve. Drawbacks Asumsinya kinerja terdistribusi normal. Adanya penolakan dari manajer untuk menempatkan individual dalam kelompok yang paling rendah atau paling tinggi. Memberikan penjelasan ketika menempatkan karyawan dalam kelompok yang lebih tinggi atau lebih rendah dapat menjadi sulit. Tidak applicable untuk kelompok karyawan yang kecil. Forced Distribution on a Bell-Shaped Curve : www.themegallery.com Company Logo Forced Distribution on a Bell-Shaped Curve Figure 11–9 Narrative Methods : www.themegallery.com Company Logo Narrative Methods Critical Incident Manager keeps a written record of highly favorable and unfavorable employee actions. Drawbacks Variations in how managers define a “critical incident” Time involved in documenting employee actions Most employee actions are not observed and may become different if observed Employee concerns about manager’s “black books” Narrative Methods (cont’d) : www.themegallery.com Company Logo Narrative Methods (cont’d) Essay Method Manager writes a short essay describing an employee’s performance. Drawbacks Depends on the managers’ writing skills and their ability to express themselves. Field Review Outside reviewer interviews the manager about the performance of each employee and develops a rating for the employees from the interview notes. Behavioral/Objective Methods : www.themegallery.com Company Logo Behavioral/Objective Methods Behavioral Rating Approach Assesses employees’ behaviors instead of other characteristics Consists of a series of scales created by: Identifying important job dimensions Creating statements describing a range of desired and undesirable behaviors (anchors) Types of behavioral scales Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS) Behavioral observation scales (BOS) Behavioral expectation scales (BES) Customer Service Skills (BOS) : www.themegallery.com Company Logo Customer Service Skills (BOS) Figure 11–10 Management by Objectives : www.themegallery.com Company Logo Management by Objectives Management by Objectives Specifying the performance goals that an individual and his or her manager agree to try to attain within an appropriate length of time. Key MBO Ideas Employee involvement creates higher levels of commitment and performance. Encourages employees to work effectively toward achieving desired results. Performance measures should be measurable and should define results. The MBO Process : www.themegallery.com Company Logo The MBO Process Job Review and Agreement Development of Performance Standards Guided Objective Setting Continuing Performance Discussions Common Rater Errors : www.themegallery.com Company Logo Common Rater Errors Figure 11–11 Feedback as a System : www.themegallery.com Company Logo Feedback as a System Action Based on Evaluation Data Evaluationof Data FeedbackSystem Appraisal Interview Hints : www.themegallery.com Company Logo Appraisal Interview Hints Figure 11–12 Performance Appraisals and the Law : www.themegallery.com Company Logo Performance Appraisals and the Law Legally Defensible PA System Appraisal criteria based on job analysis Absence of disparate impact and evidence of validity Formal evaluation criterion that limit managerial discretion Formal rating instrument linked to job duties and responsibilities Personal knowledge of and contact with ratee Training of supervisors in conducting appraisals Review process to prevent undue control of careers Counseling to help poor performers improve Performance Management System : www.themegallery.com Company Logo Performance Management System Effective PMS systems are: Consistent with the strategic mission of the organization Beneficial as development tool Useful as an administrative tool Legal and job-related Viewed as generally fair by employees Effective in documenting employee performance Slide 39: Thank You !

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