Published on February 26, 2009
Slide 1: Seminar 18 Jamie Huang, period 6 In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the cultures of China, and India were viewed by Europeans as equal and perhaps superior to their own. In the nineteenth century, this attitude changed to one of contempt and distain. Write an essay that offers reasons why this shift in attitude occurred and that discusses the events in European history that may have accounted for it. Slide 2: Whereas the in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries Chinese and Indian culture had been regarded fairly equal, and at times with a deal of respect by Europeans, this attitude saw a radical change in the nineteenth century. Economic success, international competition, technological developments, and other such advancements brought Europeans to new ideology. The new ideology included such concepts as “jingoism” and that of “the white man’s burden”. These internationally and racially competitive concepts demanded that if one is greater, another must be lesser. The Industrial Revolution, first and second, Napoleonic conquests, and others are events that lead to this new chauvinistic ideology. Thesis: India in the 19th Century : India in the 19th Century India, which was fully conquered by the British East India Company by 1848 and later officially placed under Parliamentary rule from Britain in 1858, was deemed racially inferior by British. Lord Kitchener, highly distinguished military commander in India, “However well educated and clever a native may be, and however brave he may prove himself, I believe that no rank we can bestow on him would cause him to be considered an equal of the British officer.” Lord Macaulay, “… a single shelf of a good European library is worth the whole native literature of India and Arabia.” Indians reaped minor gains from Western technology and education, but racial attitudes of Britons ensured top jobs, top housing, and at times certain railroad compartments were unavailable to even top Indians. China in the 19th Century : China in the 19th Century China is opened up to foreign trade by Britain after Opium Wars. Foreigners bring in Western ideas, and Chinese adopted- traditionalists attempted to turn back. Jet Li’s Fearless based on events during this period. “Protect the country, destroy the foreigner.” What in the WORLD Changed?! : What in the WORLD Changed?! Industrial Revolutions brought about more advanced technology, as well as playing an economic role. technological advancement => weapons + cheap goods + transportation … + etc. FIRST…. Economic historians say railroads were “the most important single factor in promoting European economic progress in the 1830s and 1840s. …. “Steam is an Englishman”…. SECOND….. Electricity was discovered, spawning an entire slew of new inventions. Foreign markets were heavily saturated, leading to return to tariff laws. That’s not all… right? : That’s not all… right? Napoleonic conquests fostered emergence of nationalism. German states except for Austria and Prussia were united into the Confederation of the Rhine. Nationalist/liberalist uprisings throughout Europe followed. The Age of Romanticism supported sentimentality and emotion, against the dry reason of science. also lead to revival of religious feeling, both Catholic and Protestant, after 1815. I THINK That Means… : I THINK That Means… New Imperialism: European powers seeking to spread their influence through the “backward” countries of the world. Rudyard Kipling’s “The White Man’s Burden”: “To wait, in heavy harness/On fluttered folk and wild- Your new caught sullen peoples/Half-devil and half-child.” New imperialism arose not only from brutal generosity, but also economic need as well. Colonies provided new markets as well as a bit more prestige. Lenin’s Imperialism: the Highest Stage of Capitalism explained imperialism was a delaying of the end of the doomed system. “The sun never sets on the British Empire.” at the time, about a fifth of the earth’s surface Also, the Christians missionaries traveled to convert those “half-devils”. Slide 8: International competition was present in Industrializing and trade, why not colonialism as well? Nationalism= this country’s great... … but who shall be the less great? Social Darwinism was the idea of society being a case of “survival of the fittest”. contributed somewhat to racism and new imperialism. New technology… greater advantage over 3rd World countries. telegraphs, machine guns, gun boats… Slide 9: During the nineteenth century, a number of events occurred that separated the Western countries from the 3rd World countries. The Industrial Revolutions provided technological advancements and foreign trade competition; Napoleon’s conquests for his Great Empire brought up feelings of nationalism in some areas; and the Age of Romanticism lead to a revival of religious feeling. Nationalism, international competitiveness, and technological advantages over the 3rd World countries saw that the “great” European countries had found their “less great” counterparts. India and China in particular had both been put under Europeans in terms of power: India being taken over by the British East India Company, and China having lost territories to various European countries in the 19th century. So, by whatever rationale, the European sentiment towards India and China became that of condescending disregard from a country to its lessers. Conclusion Bibliography : Bibliography Paul, Halsall. "Modern History Sourcebook: Thomas Babington Macaulay (1800-1859) On Empire and Education". Internet Modern History Sourcebook. 2-21-09 <http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1833macaulay-india.html>. Libbon, Robert. Instant European History. New York: Byron Preiss, 1996. Spielvogel, Jackson. Western Civilization, Sixth Edition. Toronto: Clark Baxter, 2006. McKay, John, Bennett Hill, and John Buckler. A History of Western Society, Eighth Edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2006.