161217 Edanz Kyushu

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Information about 161217 Edanz Kyushu

Published on December 13, 2016

Author: edanz_group

Source: slideshare.net

1. Kyushu University Molecular Device Leading Program 17 December 2016 Dr Andrew Jackson Dr Kate Harris Author Success Workshop: Strategies to Efficiently and Critically Read Research Articles

2. S Be an effective and critical reader Your goal is not only to research and publish, but also to read and learn from your peers Search the literature; develop reading strategies Read efficiently; make notes and discuss Understand whole research articles

3. Searching the literature Section 1 Searching the literature

4. Searching the literature Importance of reading Read often! Stay up-to-date, identify trends Identify knowledge gaps, research ideas Notice article/journal quality, writing styles Critical thinking & peer review practice Discuss with colleagues

5. Searching the literature Importance of reading Read often! Learn how native English speakers write Learn effective argument structure Learn manuscript structures & genres Learn new words & concepts Discuss with colleagues

6. Searching the literature What should I read? What do you already know? Understanding Basic Advanced Understand a new topic (Your Introduction) • Find a method (Your Methods) • Compare your results (Your Discussion) Latest developments; answer specific questions; find target journals What do you want to know? Review articles Primary literature

7. Searching the literature What should I read?  Research Article  Short Communication  Case Study  Technical Note  Review Article  Editorial  Letter to the Editor Brief report about a specific finding Most common; full-length paper Brief report about a specific situation Brief report about a new methodology Summary of recent advances in a field Brief discussion about an interesting topic Brief discussion about a published article

8. Searching the literature Finding articles Databases IEEE Xplore, ChemWeb, PubMed, Springer Link, Web of Science, Scopus, SciFinder Journal websites Recently published, most viewed, editorials Review articles Primary articles discussed in review articles Tip: Search XXX and YYY, XXX or YYY, XXX not YYY, (XXX or AAA) and (YYY or BBB), (XXX or YYY) and AAA not BBB, “XXX”, “define:XXX”

9. Searching the literature Databases Search term Sorting Filters Other info

10. Searching the literature Link Related papers Citations Abstract Databases • x

11. Searching the literature Latest table of contents Search for articles Alerts/email table of contents Journal websites Browse by issue

12. Searching the literature Current trends Follow on social networks

13. Searching the literature Using reviews Since the discovery of the Fujishima-Honda effect in 1972, titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been used as a typical photoelectrode in water photoelectrolysis to convert solar energy for the production of H2.[1-3] Currently, anodized TiO2 nanotubular arrays are one of the most promising architectures, owing to their special features of facile fabrication, tunable structural parameters and high electron collection efficiency.[4-12] A critical drawback of TiO2 nanotubular arrays is their large band gap, which means that only the ultraviolet (UV) region of the solar spectrum can be utilized. Coupling TiO2 nanotubular arrays with a low-band-gap semiconductor of CdS nanoparticles to form heterogeneous nanotubular arrays of TiO2-CdS (TCHNTAs) has been adopted as a method to extend the photoelectrochemical activity from UV to visible light.[13-26] Modified from: Liu et al. Nanomat Nanotech. 23 November 2015; DOI: 10.5772/61970 Basic background Current problems Related review articlesREFERENCES [1] Fujishima A, Honda K (1972) Photolysis-decomposition of water at the surface of an irradiated semiconductor. Nature 238: 37-38. [2] Nakata K, Fujishima A (2012) TiO2 photocatalysis: design and applications. J Photochem Photobiol C 13:169-189. [3] Fujishima A, Zhang X, Tryk D A (2008) TiO2 Photocatalysis. Fundamentals and Applications. Surf Sci Rep 63: 515- 582.

14. Searching the literature Reference management software EndNote Most established Styles easy to find on journal websites Which one to use? RefWorks Web-based Widely used Mendeley Newer (and free!) Allows collaborations Papers Easy-to-use interface (iTunes) Great for paper management

15. Searching the literature “Papers” Search by keywords, authors, journals, etc. Sort articles by authors, titles, journals, or year Read full screen, Email, or print your articles Organize your articles in folders and “smart folders”

16. Coverage and Staffing Plan Reading strategies Section 2 Reading strategies

17. Coverage and Staffing Plan Reading strategies Read around the topic? For your research? Purposes for reading Improve current knowledge? Learn new words/concepts? Interpret/formulate arguments? Search specific info to write? Tip: General/specific, slow/fast reading; look up words, find included definitions; Highlight, make notes, paraphrase/summarize with citations

18. Coverage and Staffing Plan Reading strategies Consider literature type 1o literature Original research 2o Reviews & review journals, databases 3o Accepted facts, e.g., reference books, general textbooks Originality/ proximity/ maturity Academic Journals, preprint servers*, conf’ce proceedings and journal supplements*, conf’ce abstracts#, monographs, specialist books * +/- peer review; # not accepted as citations Gray* Theses, conf’ce proceedings/abstracts#, working papers, technical/government/NGO reports, society/company publications, patents, speeches, leaflets, posters, seminars/ webcasts/multimedia, emails/blogs/memos, data repositories General or Lay Popular books, leaflets, general/ science magazines, newspapers, newsletters, wiki Audience Availability Tip: Judge source, quality, and accuracy (inc. predatory journals)!

19. Coverage and Staffing Plan Reading strategies Identifying research trends 1. Read the primary literature 2. Identify trends: (systematic) reviews, meta- analyses, editorials, theme issues, Calls for papers, “most read”…organize journal clubs 3. Identify an important question, gap in knowledge/evidence, incomplete answer • Does your research group have the expertise/resources? • Is the question focused? • What is new? How is the study useful? • What is the best/most practical study design?

20. Coverage and Staffing Plan Reading strategies How to read an article From start to finish? Section by section? Not efficient! What do you want to know? Where can you find it? Tip: Be familiar with types of text structure and styles/conventions for different article types

21. Coverage and Staffing Plan Reading strategies Manuscript flow Introduction Discussion Results Methods Why was the study needed? How does the study advance the field? What was done and found? Tip: Check journal for section names; extra sections after Introduction; combined sections; Methods at end, in legends, or brief + online…

22. Coverage and Staffing Plan Reading strategies What are you looking for? Where is it found? What are signal words? Finding specific material Gaps, aims, methods, key findings, implications, opinions Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion Key findings: showed, found, identified, stronger, higher Conclusions: In conclusion, In summary, Taken together, Overall, Therefore, suggest, have implications Problem: however, but, nevertheless, despite, still unclear, lacking, unknown Objectives: examined, aimed, investigated, studied, evaluated Check journal links to Supplementary Information / Protocols / Repositories

23. Coverage and Staffing Plan Reading strategies The study design is not perfect, but you deserve the funding. The grant will be awarded in two stages. Stress position Topic position The stress position can introduce the topic of the next sentence Information flow Tip: Sentences often have old/given/familiar information before new information

24. Coverage and Staffing Plan Reading strategies One method of producing carbon fibre precursors, with the potential of commercial applicability, is electrospinning. It has previously been demonstrated that electrospinning can successfully produce precursor fibres that can be converted into high quality carbon fibres with controlled fibre diameters and morphologies. The majority of electrospun carbon fibre precursors reported in the literature are PAN-based. The high cost of PAN, depleting petroleum resources and the toxicity of its solvent, dimethylformamide, has motivated research to look into alternative electrospinnable materials to produce cheaper and more environmentally friendly carbon fibres. Because petroleum-based carbon resources exhibit negative environmental impacts and are of limited availability further motivates research towards green carbon fibres. Recently, a wide range of renewable resource-based materials have been investigated for the fabrication of carbon materials. Among them, lignin has been looked at as a very promising candidate… Schreiber et al. J Mater Sci. 2014; 49: 7949–7958. Topic sentence Stress sentenceTopic sentence Supporting sentences Paragraph structure

25. Coverage and Staffing Plan Reading strategies Types of reading Skimming Scanning Learning General reading Memorizing Sample/understand segments Search for specific info/words Recognize logic/genre, link content to your knowledge, reread, make inferences General comprehension Reread, understand, integrate information, reformulate, critique, summarize, rehearse Grabe and Stoller, 2002; Teaching and researching reading. Harlow, UK: Pearson Education.

26. Coverage and Staffing Plan Reading strategies Scanning To look for specific information or to see if a passage is relevant • Know the structure o Find signal words for Problem, Aim, Results, Conclusion, Limitations, Implications, Future • Use finger to scan and look for a statistic, name, fact... o Find specific words in contents, index, references • Scan large areas, several sentences at a time, no reading except if text is relevant; keep a specific term in mind to match importance/relevance o Anticipate surrounding words/graphics o Use after general skimming if needed

27. Coverage and Staffing Plan Reading strategies Skimming To preread for gist, to review, and to speed read • Important words o Table of contents; headings and subheadings of paper (find relationships) o Figure/table titles and captions; sentences with callouts o Sentences with bold/italic words, proper nouns, lists, bullets • (Graphical) abstracts, highlights, summaries, keywords; find out who/when/what/why/where/how • Display items (“non-linear text”) • Read Aims, Conclusion • Read the whole first and last paragraph; read first and last sentences of first and last paragraphs in each section

28. Coverage and Staffing Plan Reading strategies Questioning and understanding texts Be an active, critical reader • Question before and during reading: what are you looking for and why; what do you already know about the topic? • What is the author trying to do? Is the argument effective/general/weak; any flaws/contradictions? • What do you agree/disagree with? Why? Is it relevant to your work? Do you need to change your thinking of the topic? • What are the implications, limitations, alternative explanations?

29. Coverage and Staffing Plan Reading strategies Understanding difficult texts Simplify the text (esp. “inconsiderate” texts) • Split sentences that were joined with conjunctions • Ask WH questions • Underline unfamiliar words to look up • Underline pronouns and find referents • Underline head nouns; ignore pre- and post-modifiers • Match subjects with verbs • Find logical connectors (Therefore, However) • Reread; discuss with colleagues Grabe and Stoller, 2002; Teaching and researching reading. Harlow, UK: Pearson Education.

30. Coverage and Staffing Plan Reading strategies Understanding difficult texts Find logical connectors Sequential Causal Adversative Although/Even though/Whereas (+clause), Despite (+noun), However, In contrast,... Because (of), To (+verb), Owing to, So that, Therefore, Thus, Hence, Consequently,… Until, After, Before, While, Since, When, Then, Next, First/Second/Third,… Conditional If, Even if, Unless, Whether or not, Provided that, Otherwise,…

31. Coverage and Staffing Plan Reading efficiently Section 3 Reading efficiently

32. Coverage and Staffing Plan Reading efficiently Manuscript structure How does their study contribute to your field? What did they find? What did they do? Why did they do the study? Title/Abstract Introduction Methods Results Discussion

33. Coverage and Staffing Plan Reading efficiently Manuscript structure Title/Abstract Introduction Methods Results & Discussion Title/Abstract Introduction Methods & Results Discussion Title/Abstract Introduction Methods & Results & Discussion Conclusion

34. Coverage and Staffing Plan Reading efficiently Read the title and abstract first First impression of a paper Importance of the results Validity of the conclusions Relevance of the aims Judge writing style & credibility of author Title styles: Question, Findings, Objective Abstract styles: Structured, Unstructured Tip: Check what the title promises and what the variables/system are; check abstract to check if promises are kept

35. Coverage and Staffing Plan Reading efficiently Background Aims Methods Results Conclusions What are the 5 parts of an abstract? Reading abstracts Why the study was done Objectives/hypothesis Approach/methodology Most important findings Implications for the field

36. Coverage and Staffing Plan Reading efficiently Unstructured abstract In the Tahe oilfield in China, heavy oil is commonly lifted using the light oil blending technology. However, due to the lack of light oil, the production of heavy oil has been seriously limited. Thus, a new compound technology of light oil blending and electric heating is discussed in this paper, which aims to reduce the usage of light oil and maintain heavy oil production. Based on the mass, momentum and energy conservation, a pressure and temperature coupling model is developed. The heat-transfer parameters are calculated by using Hasan– Kabir method and the pressure drop is calculated by using Hagedorn–Brown method. The model also considers the blend effect of light oil and heavy oil, and the heating effect of electric rod. Example calculation shows that only electric heating or light oil blending technology cannot meet the requirement. The amount of light oil used can be reduced by combining the electric heating technology. Zhu et al. J Petrol Explor Prod Technol. 2014; DOI: 10.1007/s13202-014-0126-x.

37. Coverage and Staffing Plan Reading efficiently Unstructured abstract Conclusion The amount of light oil used can be reduced by combining the electric heating technology. Methods/ results Based on the mass, momentum and energy conservation, a pressure and temperature coupling model is developed. The heat-transfer parameters are calculated by using Hasan–Kabir method and the pressure drop is calculated by using Hagedorn–Brown method. The model also considers the blend effect of light oil and heavy oil, and the heating effect of electric rod. Example calculation shows that only electric heating or light oil blending technology cannot meet the requirement. Aims Thus, a new compound technology of light oil blending and electric heating is discussed in this paper, which aims to reduce the usage of light oil and maintain heavy oil production. Background In the Tahe oilfield in China, heavy oil is commonly lifted using the light oil blending technology. However, owing to the lack of light oil, the production of heavy oil has been seriously limited. Modified from: Zhu et al. J Petrol Explor Prod Technol. 2014; DOI: 10.1007/s13202-014-0126-x.

38. Coverage and Staffing Plan Reading efficiently Specialist abstract Aims Background Methods Results Conclusion Why the study was done Your objective/hypothesis Techniques, models Most important findings Conclusion/implications

39. Coverage and Staffing Plan Reading efficiently Specialist abstract A model has been developed to predict growth kinetics of the intermetallic phases (IMCs) formed in a reactive diffusion couple between two metals for the case where multiple IMC phases are observed. The model explicitly accounts for the effect of grain boundary diffusion through the IMC layer, and can thus be used to explore the effect of IMC grain size on the thickening of the reaction layer. The model has been applied to the industrially important case of aluminum to magnesium alloy diffusion couples in which several different IMC phases are possible. It is demonstrated that there is a transition from grain boundary-dominated diffusion to lattice- dominated diffusion at a critical grain size, which is different for each IMC phase. Modified from: Wang et al. Metall Mater Trans A. 2015; 46: 4106–4114. What they did What they found

40. Coverage and Staffing Plan Reading efficiently Highlights & Key Points Some journals provide brief summary points of the study along with the abstract • The progress of graphene oxide application in hydrogen storage and photocatalytic water splitting is summarized. • The progress of graphene oxide application in lithium batteries and supercapacitors is systematically discussed. • We summarize the versatile application of graphene oxide in air and water purification. Modified from: Li et al. Nano Energy. 2015;16:488–515. Graphene oxide: A promising nanomaterial for energy and environmental applications

41. Coverage and Staffing Plan Reading efficiently Highlights & Key Points Some journals provide a graphical abstract along with the abstract Carbon-layer protected cuprous oxide nanowire arrays for efficient water reduction Zhang et al. ACS Nano. 2013;7:1709–1717.

42. Coverage and Staffing Plan Reading efficiently Self-assess knowledge of topic Read Title and Abstract first Quickly assessing a paper 1 • Have you read similar papers? Is this a relevant paper? • Are you reading for a general or specific purpose? • Can you predict contents of sections (then check your predictions)? • Are you familiar with the terminology and concepts? • Do you understand the relevance of the hypothesis and findings?

43. Coverage and Staffing Plan Reading efficiently Title/Abstract Introduction Methods Results Discussion Title/Abstract Methods Results Discussion Introduction Abstract /Title write Title/Abstract Intro: Aim Figures/ Results {Methods} Discussion: Conclusion [Intro / Methods IMRaD] read Reading versus writing

44. Coverage and Staffing Plan Reading efficiently Read Display Items and then Results Read Discussion for interpretation Self-assess knowledge of topic Read Title and Abstract first Refer to Introduction and Methods if necessary Quickly assessing a paper 2 Read last paragraph of introduction for hypothesis/objectives

45. Coverage and Staffing Plan Making notes Section 4 Making notes and discussing work

46. Coverage and Staffing Plan Making notes Commenting and highlighting Use Acrobat Reader • Use comment balloons or sticky notes to annotate pdf • Read and reread slowly; be aware of text structure/logic • Comment on key points and examples, whether material is relevant to you, strengths/weaknesses, how the argument is developing, if you agree/disagree, your own questions • Highlight key points in pdf; use a different color for facts, opinions, methods, results • Highlight references that you want to look up later (review or primary research), or new words you want to look up

47. Coverage and Staffing Plan Making notes Commenting and highlighting Use Acrobat Reader

48. Coverage and Staffing Plan Making notes Summarizing and paraphrasing Make notes to help with learning/memorizing • Start with a citation, with page numbers for any quotes (use “ ”); color-code own ideas • Use headings, bullets, numbered lists; think of WH questions • Use abbreviations and symbols (<, >, &, e.g., i.e., NB, para) • Keep notes brief but accurate • Summarize key points in your own words without looking • Paraphrase key sentences; change sentence structure, use back-translation, or tell a colleague; elevator speech • Add highlights and comments on your notes too

49. Coverage and Staffing Plan Making notes Reading critically Be critical of everything you read • Is there enough high-quality, accurate, and up-to-date evidence? • Are any methods, analyses, theories, assumptions, or implications flawed or inappropriate? • Does it make sense in a real-world context? • Are there exceptions, or alternative explanations or interpretations? • Is the reasoning unambiguous, valid, logical, and believable? • Is there any explicit/implicit bias or too much emotion, in reporting or opinions?

50. Coverage and Staffing Plan Making notes Drawing relationships Logical flow • Chronology • Least to most important / Most to least important • General to specific / Specific to general • Whole system + parts / Parts to whole • Whole group + subgroups • Synthesis + characterization + application/optimization • Population + drug efficacy + safety • Single variables + pairs of associations + model of multiple variables • Knowledge + Attitudes + Behaviors

51. Coverage and Staffing Plan Making notes Drawing relationships Rhetorical organization • Cause and effect • Comparison and contrast • Classification • Definition • Description (giving characteristics) • Narrative sequence of events (reporting a linear sequence) • Problem and solution • Procedures • Past, present, future • Arguing for and against (evaluation) Grabe and Stoller, 2002; Teaching and researching reading. Harlow, UK: Pearson Education.

52. Coverage and Staffing Plan Making notes Drawing relationships Informational structures • Linear relationships, sequence of events, procedures A B C

53. Coverage and Staffing Plan Making notes Drawing relationships Informational structures • Cycle of events A B CD D

54. Coverage and Staffing Plan Making notes Drawing relationships Informational structures • Categories, hierarchies A C D E B

55. Coverage and Staffing Plan Making notes Drawing relationships Informational structures • Characteristics, attributes, alternative pathways A B D E C F

56. Coverage and Staffing Plan Making notes Drawing relationships Informational structures • Interaction effects, cause-effect A B • D • E C • F

57. Coverage and Staffing Plan Making notes Drawing relationships Informational structures • Sets and subsets D C B A

58. Coverage and Staffing Plan Making notes Drawing relationships Informational structures • Central theme and ideas A B C D E

59. Coverage and Staffing Plan Making notes Drawing relationships Informational structures • Situation/Problem – Solution – Evaluation/Comment; logical sequence; flow chart A B C

60. Coverage and Staffing Plan Making notes Discussing work Journal clubs • Regular informal meetings, in English • Rotate “leader” (know background/concepts/definitions) • Find one relevant article per meeting • Everyone reads it critically; leader leads discussion/critique after concisely summarizing problem, aim, approach, main results, conclusion, implications • Find positive and negative points • Future directions/reading; relevance for your research group • Analyze argument and text structure • Appraise language • Practice peer review

61. Coverage and Staffing Plan Making notes Discussing work Journal club questions • What are the goals of and motivation for the study? • Is the goal original, important, relevant, and timely? • Are the hypothesis and methods appropriate and backed up by timely literature? Are all variables clear and defined? • What are the assumptions and limitations (e.g., study period and design, sample size and selection, treatments, measurements, analyses, biases)? • Are the findings valid and reliable, and do they match the goal? Are all results discussed, including negative/ unexpected ones? • Are the conclusions logical? How generalizable are they? • How useful are the findings for practice or future research?

62. Understanding the Introduction Section 5 Understanding the Introduction

63. Understanding the Introduction Read Display Items and then Results Read Discussion for interpretation Self-assess knowledge of topic Read Title and Abstract first Refer to Introduction/Methods if necessary Strategies for reading Read last paragraph of introduction for hypothesis/objectives

64. Understanding the Introduction Introduction Current state of the field Background information Specific aim/approach Aim Problem in the field Previous studies Current study General Specific Importance of area/theoretical framework for hypothesis Worldwide relevance? Broad/specialized? Up-to-date? International? Authors’ past work? Preview of contents / findings? Extra sections: Concepts, Previous studies, Literature review?

65. Understanding the Introduction Background statements Scaffold-based tissue engineering involves the combination of cells, bioactive factors and structural scaffolding materials to promote repair and regeneration of tissues.1-3 Field of research Reviews can be cited early Materials for scaffolds must have appropriate mechanical properties for specific injury sites. The scaffold should support cell attachment and growth. Aspects that will be focused on  General background  Specific background

66. Understanding the Introduction However, the fabrication of these scaffolds was complex and very sensitive to the reaction conditions giving irreproducible results. Pack et al. have achieved promising cell penetration results in poly(glycolic acid) scaffolds after surface modifications.6 Problem statements Recent and relevant primary literature Potential solution There is still a problem Previous work Problems in previous work

67. Understanding the Introduction Problem statements Signal words However, …an alternative approach… …presents a new challenge …a need for clarification… …a problem/weakness with… …has not been dealt with… …remains unstudied …requires clarification …is not sufficiently (+ adjective) …is ineffective/inaccurate/inadequate/inconclusive/incorrect/unclear Few studies have… There is an urgent need to… There is growing concern that… Little evidence is available on… It is necessary to… Little work has been done on…

68. Understanding the Introduction The initial studies on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) filled with metals were carried out in 1993 by Iijima [1], which demonstrated the successful encapsulation of Pb. In the following years, increasing effort was directed to the preparation of CNTs as template nanowires. In order for metal filled CNT synthesis, several methods have been attempted. The CNT can be filled by a physical or chemical method [2]. In the physical method, the nanotubes are filled with melted metal due to the capillarity effect [3, 4]. In the chemical method, the nanotubes are opened by boiling acid, then the inclusion of metal oxide or metal is carried out. One-step methods of metal filled CNT preparation are known as well. Mainly, an arc discharge technique was applied [3, 4], but it requires high temperatures. Carbon nanotubes filled with continuous cobalt nanorods were synthesized by Liu et al. [5, 6] from Co(CO)3NO. The reaction takes place in an autoclave at a temperature of 900 °C and at autogenic pressure. Blank et al. [7] described cobalt-filled nanotube synthesis obtained from CO over Co/Y-zeolite catalysts. Despite the applied high temperature (720 °C) and pressure (0.05 GPa) that was applied, TEM analysis showed the presence of some cobalt particles inside the carbon nanotubes. Long cobalt nanowires were not observed. Some authors reported on methane to carbon nanotubes or nanoparticles decomposition over cobalt contained catalysts [8, 9], but to the best of our knowledge, there is no information on nanotubes filled with continuous cobalt nanowires prepared from methane. The choice of cobalt as the material encapsulated inside carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is motivated by the interesting magnetic properties of composite cobalt– carbon nanomaterials, which are of great interest for various applications such as magnetic data storage, ferrofluids, or magnetic resonance imaging [10]. In this paper, we show that the Co/ZSM-5 prepared by the impregnation method can be used as catalysts of CNT filled with continuous cobalt nanowires (CoF-CNT) growth from methane decomposition even at the temperature of 400 °C. This is the one-step method that is simpler and cheaper than the others described up to now. Evaluating objectives Background Recent studies, knowledge gap, importance Aims & approach / Preview of results or contents Low temperature one-step synthesis of cobalt nanowires encapsulated in carbon Objectives – show, aim, evaluated, studied, investigated, assessed Mejewska and Michalkiewicz. Applied Physics A. 2013;111:1013−1016.

69. Understanding the Introduction The initial studies on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) filled with metals were carried out in 1993 by Iijima [1], which demonstrated the successful encapsulation of Pb. In the following years, increasing effort was directed to the preparation of CNTs as template nanowires. In order for metal filled CNT synthesis, several methods have been attempted. The CNT can be filled by a physical or chemical method [2]. In the physical method, the nanotubes are filled with melted metal due to the capillarity effect [3, 4]. In the chemical method, the nanotubes are opened by boiling acid, then the inclusion of metal oxide or metal is carried out. One-step methods of metal filled CNT preparation are known as well. Mainly, an arc discharge technique was applied [3, 4], but it requires high temperatures. Carbon nanotubes filled with continuous cobalt nanorods were synthesized by Liu et al. [5, 6] from Co(CO)3NO. The reaction takes place in an autoclave at a temperature of 900 °C and at autogenic pressure. Blank et al. [7] described cobalt-filled nanotube synthesis obtained from CO over Co/Y-zeolite catalysts. Despite the applied high temperature (720 °C) and pressure (0.05 GPa) that was applied, TEM analysis showed the presence of some cobalt particles inside the carbon nanotubes. Long cobalt nanowires were not observed. Some authors reported on methane to carbon nanotubes or nanoparticles decomposition over cobalt contained catalysts [8, 9], but to the best of our knowledge, there is no information on nanotubes filled with continuous cobalt nanowires prepared from methane. The choice of cobalt as the material encapsulated inside carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is motivated by the interesting magnetic properties of composite cobalt– carbon nanomaterials, which are of great interest for various applications such as magnetic data storage, ferrofluids, or magnetic resonance imaging [10]. In this paper, we show that the Co/ZSM-5 prepared by the impregnation method can be used as catalysts of CNT filled with continuous cobalt nanowires (CoF-CNT) growth from methane decomposition even at the temperature of 400 °C. This is the one-step method that is simpler and cheaper than the others described up to now. Evaluating objectives Background Recent studies, knowledge gap, importance Aims & approach / Preview of results or contents Low temperature one-step synthesis of cobalt nanowires encapsulated in carbon Do the Aims directly address the identified research problem? Mejewska and Michalkiewicz. Applied Physics A. 2013;111:1013−1016.

70. Understanding the Methods Section 6 Understanding the Methods

71. Understanding the Methods Read Display Items and then Results Read Discussion for interpretation Self-assess knowledge of topic Read Title and Abstract first Refer to Introduction/Methods if necessary Strategies for reading Read last paragraph of introduction for hypothesis/objectives

72. Understanding the Methods Study design How the study was done • Processes, measurements • Variables • Outcome/endpoints (1o, 2o) • Quantification • (Bi-/Multi-variable) models • Statistical tests (& P level) Who/what was studied • Tests, controls • Number of samples/tests • Materials, databases Data analysis

73. Understanding the Methods Study design Established techniques • Cites previously published studies • Look for modifications • See any flow charts/tables • Look for purposes & justified choices • Enough detail for reproducibility • See Supplementary Information Organization • Arranged in (titled) subsections • Parallel to the display items • Read topic sentences first New techniques

74. Understanding the Methods 2.1 Continuous cobalt nanowires synthesis Cobalt concentration in the catalyst was equal to 8 wt%. The experimental setup and the catalyst preparation procedures had been reported in detail previously [11–13]... 2.2 Characterization The morphology of as-prepared cobalt nanorods was characterized by a Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM) equipped with a secondary electron (SE) and backscattered electron (BSE) detectors—Hitachi SU 8200 and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)—TEM-FEI Tecnai F20. Primary objective: synthesis; Secondary objective: testing Objectives/techniques Mejewska and Michalkiewicz. Applied Physics A. 2013;111:1013−1016.

75. Understanding the Methods 2.1 Continuous cobalt nanowires synthesis Cobalt concentration in the catalyst was equal to 8 wt%. The experimental setup and the catalyst preparation procedures had been reported in detail previously [11–13]... 2.2 Characterization The morphology of as-prepared cobalt nanorods was characterized by a Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM) equipped with a secondary electron (SE) and backscattered electron (BSE) detectors—Hitachi SU 8200 and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)—TEM-FEI Tecnai F20. Primary objective: synthesis; Secondary objective: testing Objectives/techniques Cited methods Mejewska and Michalkiewicz. Applied Physics A. 2013;111:1013−1016.

76. Understanding the Methods Validity and reliability • Validity = internal (sound design, accurate), external (representative, generalizable, real-world setting) • Reliability = results are repeatable, precise • Are the methods appropriate and fully described, including sample size/selection? • Are all variables defined and related to the study problem? • Are measurement procedures clear? Are tests repeated? • Are the analysis method and any statistical treatments/tests appropriate? • Are all assumptions logical? Is the work bias-free? • Are adjustments/corrections needed?

77. Understanding the Results Section 7 Understanding the Results

78. Understanding the Results Read Display Items and then Results Read Discussion for interpretation Self-assess knowledge of topic Read Title and Abstract first Refer to Introduction/Methods if necessary Strategies for reading Read last paragraph of introduction for hypothesis/objectives

79. Understanding the Results Display items • Flowcharts, figures, graphs, and tables display information efficiently • Authors often use their display items to structure their papers • Good way to quickly evaluate the whole study • Title usually shows independent and dependent variables • Detailed methods and results summary may be found in legends Important to readers

80. Understanding the Results Use of display items Study design Flow chart Information on samples/participants Table Characteristics Figures, graphs, or tables Models Flow chart or tables

81. Understanding the Results Figure legends Field emission scanning electron microscope images of CoF carbon nanotubes produced at 400°C (a) and at 800°C (b), magnitude 100 000, secondary electron and backscattered electron detectors; arrows show cobalt nanowires, circles show metal particles Display item Methodology Settings Indicators 1 2 3 4 • Statistics • Abbreviations Mejewska and Michalkiewicz. Applied Physics A. 2013;111:1013−1016. Additional information

82. Understanding the Results Reading tables for specific values Identify the independent and dependent variables Independent: synthesis conditions Dependent: what was measured Dependent Independent Additional information • Methodology • Statistics for associations/differences • Abbreviations Lorusso et al. Nanomat Nanotech. 11 September 2015; DOI: 10.5772/61275

83. Understanding the Results Bar graphs for comparing means, SD Slight et al. J Clin Invest. 2013;doi:10.1172/JCI65728. Figure 7 Adoptive transfer of B6 but not Cxcr5-/- CD4+ T cells rescues T cell localization and protection in Cxcr5-/-Mtb-infected mice... (B) The average size of B cell lymphoid follicles in FFPE lung sections on day 50 using the morphometric tool of the Zeiss Axioplan microscope… *** P = 0.0005. Measured variable Groups Statistical significance Only for normally distributed data

84. Understanding the Results Line graphs for time trends, correlations Measured variable Time Cui et al. Nanomat Nanotech. 2 July 2015; DOI: 10.5772/60910 Compare gradient slope and direction

85. Understanding the Results Box plots for comparing distributions Box-whisker plots depict pretherapy and C1D15 plasma CCL17 or CCL22 concentrations. P values were determined using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Minimum 25% Median 75% Maximum Fehniger et al. Blood. 2011; 118: 5119−5125. Best for data that are not normally distributed Statistical significance

86. Understanding the Results Results Order of results (display items and text) is logical, tells a story of what was found Each subsection often corresponds to one display item/method 1. Population 2. Drug efficacy 3. Drug safety 1. Synthesize 2. Characterize 3. Optimize 1. Single factors 2. Associations 3. Final model Results – accomplishments: we found that, identified, showed, revealed, demonstrated, produced, established; data relationships: compared with, elevated/declined, higher/lower than, increased/decreased, was associated with, statistically significant

87. Understanding the Results Evaluating results • Are the results transparent and complete? • Does the study look like salami publishing? • Are important characteristics given? • Are all units/scales correct? • Are changes absolute or relative? • Are the data precise; are data distributions shown? Are the statistical analyses sound? • Do the data seem reasonable and applicable to the real world?

88. Understanding the Discussion Section 8 Understanding the Discussion

89. Understanding the Discussion Read Display Items and then Results Read Discussion for interpretation Self-assess knowledge of topic Read Title and Abstract first Refer to Introduction/Methods if necessary Strategies for reading Read last paragraph of introduction for hypothesis/objectives

90. Understanding the Discussion Discussion structure Summary of findings Relevance Conclusion Similarities/differences Unexpected/negative results Limitations (validity, reliability) Implications Previous studies Current study Future studies Specific General Discussion – conclusions: In summary; In conclusion; We conclude; Overall; Taken together, these results/findings show; implications: suggest, indicate, recommend, advise, is likely to, may, might, could, further/more research is needed/warranted, merits further study

91. Understanding the Discussion Combined Results–Discussion Results Interpretation Figure 1 Results Interpretation Figure 2 Results Interpretation Figure 3 Results Interpretation Figure 4 Initial observation Logical presentation Characterization Application

92. Understanding the Discussion Combined Methods– Results–Discussion Methods & Results Interpretation Figure 1 Methods & Results Interpretation Figure 2 Methods & Results Interpretation Figure 3 Methods & Results Interpretation Figure 4 Initial observation Logical presentation Characterization Application

93. Understanding the Discussion Reading the Discussion Nitrogen pollution in household wastewater tends to lead to eutrophication in natural waters, which can diminish water quality and ecosystem services. However, the comparative cost and effectiveness of conventional and alternative wastewater treatment strategies to reduce nitrogen have not been clearly evaluated. In this study, we found that the most cost- effective alternatives for mitigating nitrogen are decentralized systems, paired with conventional septic systems as necessary. Sensitivity analysis shows that... Re-introduction Conclusion Modified from: Wood et al. J Environ Manage. 2015; 150: 344–354. Problem Beginning usually states the major conclusion of the study …Supporting findings

94. Understanding the Discussion Modified from: Ketola & Hiltunen. Ecol Evol. 2014; 4: 3901–3908. Compares findings with others; assesses strength of evidence; puts findings in context The middle of the Discussion Comparison with previous studies Current finding Potential reasons Our observations suggest that fluctuating growth conditions did not select for generalism at the tested salinity levels. This finding is in contrast to several studies where evidence for an evolved generalism was found to be the consequence of fluctuating environments (Buckling et al. 2006, Ketola et al. 2013, 2014; Condon et al. 2014). One explanation for the lack of expected adaptation in fluctuating environments in the current study could be that our salinity fluctuations were too coarse-grained… “Rebuttal” for disagreements or exceptions Possible objections, limitations

95. Understanding the Discussion Reading the Conclusion These results show that increasing temperature decreased the density, surface tension, and viscosity of all the tested alloys. By contrast, increasing the zinc content in these alloys decreased the density but increased the surface tension and viscosity. The surface tension results show good agreement with the Butler model, while the viscosity results are in agreement with the Kaptay and Kozlov– Romanov–Petrov models. These findings may be useful for designing new lead-free solder materials. Further understanding of the physiochemical properties of these alloys could also extend the possible applications of this system to additional electronic materials. Claim Validation Modified from: Gancarz T. J Electonic Mater. 2014; 43: 4374–4385. Implications Future directions Conclusion May be a separate section May be a “Future work” section Generalization, analogy, association, extrapolation, causation, principle: What is new?

96. Understanding the Discussion Understand the overall article structure General background Aims Methodology Results and figures Summary of findings Conclusion/Implications Relevance of findings Problem in the field Current state of the field Introduction Methods Results Discussion Solution Situation/ Problem Evaluation /Comment

97. Understanding the Discussion Appraising conclusions Problem-based learning is an instructional method in which problems are the focal part of learning. However, it is unclear which particular aspect of the problem is essential for student learning. In conclusion, this study is among the first to shed more light on the causal interactions of specific problem characteristics at the micro level. Background Question ConclusionDiscussion Modified from: Sockalingam et al. Advances in Health Sciences Education. 2011;16:481–490. We tested a model in which we hypothesized that problem input variables would be related to problem process and outcome variables. Objective Is this logical? Is the Q answered? Is this supported? Is this useful and important?

98. Understanding the Discussion Appraising conclusions Problem-based learning is an instructional method in which problems are the focal part of learning. However, it is unclear which particular aspect of the problem is essential for student learning. In conclusion, this study is among the first to shed more light on the causal interactions of specific problem characteristics at the micro level. Background Question ConclusionDiscussion Modified from: Sockalingam et al. Advances in Health Sciences Education. 2011;16:481–490. We tested a model in which we hypothesized that problem input variables would be related to problem process and outcome variables. Objective …Future directions? Unaddressed points? Improve on flaws/limitations?

99. S Be an effective and critical reader Your goal is not only to research and publish, but also to read and learn from your peers Search the literature; develop reading strategies Read efficiently; make notes and discuss Understand whole research articles

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