1612 Edanz Oita

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Information about 1612 Edanz Oita

Published on December 13, 2016

Author: edanz_group

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1. Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University 18 December 2016 Dr Trevor Lane Dr Ruth Tunn Ms Lilly Gray Author Success Workshop: Effectively Communicating Your Research

2. S Be an effective communicator Your goal is not only to publish, but also to be widely read and cited Develop your writing skills Write your ideas clearly Logically present your research

3. Section 1 Importance of academic publishing

4. Academic publishing Writing in English S My manuscript is a written record of my findings My findings speak for themselves, even if the manuscript is written poorly Good English means only grammar and spelling Using complex words makes my writing more impressive Your manuscript is to communicate your findings You need a well-written manuscript to effectively communicate your findings Keep things simple – Using complex words makes your writing more difficult to understand Good English means clear, concise arguments; logical organization; and high readability

5. Academic publishing What editors want “Journal Impact Factor” = No. citations in indexed journals ÷ No. articles, past 2 years Original and novel research (“journalism” aspect) Well-designed, well-reported, transparent study News, importance, innovation, timeliness High scientific & technical quality, sound research & publication ethics Logical, engaging contents; correct English & formatting High readability & interest, informative Useful message Clear, real-world relevance, influence 1 2 3 4

6. Academic publishing { Impact and study design Systematic reviews of RCTs Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) Other controlled trials Observational studies (cohort, case-control, surveys/audits/interviews, diagnostics) # Case studies, case series, technical notes, computer models (in silico), animals (in vivo), in vitro Hypothesis testing { Descriptive/ Qualitative/ Hypothesis generating Methodological { {Secondary research Primary research }Experimental (exposure assigned)* } } Non- experimental * # Ethnography, in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, critical autobiographies, identity portraits, duoethnography, (comparative) historical analysis, document/artefact/discourse analysis, diaries…

7. Academic publishing Use reporting guidelines PRISMA Systematic reviews & Meta-analyses STROBE Observational studies CARE Case reports CONSORT Randomized controlled trials ARRIVE Animal studies http://www.equator-network.org/ QOREC Qualitative studies

8. Academic publishing  Research Article (Original Article, Original Paper, Research Report…)  Short Communication (Brief, Note, Communication, Brief Communication…)  Technical Note  Review Article  Case Report  Letter to the Editor  Book chapter, working paper/preprint (SSRN, IDEAS/RePEc, institutional sites) Brief report about a specific finding Most common; full-length paper Brief report about a new methodology Summary of recent advances in a field: systematic or non-systematic Brief discussion about a previously published article; in some journals, can also be a “Research Letter” containing original research Observations of 1 or 2 cases Types of articles (select your journal early!)

9. Academic publishing Research and publishing ethics Submissions No plagiarism No cheating Authorship Submit to only one journal; do not republish without permissions; do not manipulate peer review Paraphrase/summarize/synthesize & cite all sources Do not fabricate or falsify data/parts of images (1) Study design or data acquisition/analysis; (2) Writing/revising; (3) Approval; (4) Accountability Conflicts of interest State funding source and any financial/personal relationships that could bias the work Safety Ethics board approval; for humans: signed consent, data privacy; animal & environmental safety Committee on Publication Ethics, COPE Know more on research ethics… https://www.jsps.go.jp/j-kousei/data/rinri_e.pdf

10. Effective writing 1 Section 2

11. Customer ServiceEffective writing Nature’s guide to authors: Nature is an international journal covering all the sciences. Contributions should therefore be written clearly and simply so that they are accessible to readers in other disciplines and to readers for whom English is not their first language. www.nature.com/nature/authors/gta/index.html#a4 “I should use complex words to make my writing more impressive.”

12. Customer ServiceEffective writing Improve readability To ascertain the efficaciousness of the program, all of the program participants were interrogated upon participant program completion. To determine the efficacy of the program, we interviewed all participants.

13. Customer ServiceEffective writing Avoid complex words Preferred Enough Clear Determine Begin Try Very Size Keep Enough End Use Avoid Adequate Apparent Ascertain Commence Endeavor Exceedingly Magnitude* Retain Sufficient Terminate* Utilization *OK in certain fields (magnitude of earthquakes, to terminate gene expression)

14. Customer ServiceEffective writing Delete unnecessary words “A number of studies have shown that demographic factors...” “...as described in our previous study.” “...at a birthrate of 2.2 births per couple.” “As a matter of fact, such an observation …” “That is another reason why, we believe…” “It is well known that most of the interviewed informants...”“It is well known that Most of the interviewed informants...” “As a matter of fact, such a This observation…” “A number of studies have shown that Demographic factors...” “That is thus another reason why Therefore, we believe…” “...as described previously in our previous study.” “...at a birthrate of 2.2 births per couple.”

15. Customer ServiceEffective writing Delete unnecessary words Avoid At a concentration of 2 g/L At a temperature of 37C In order to In the first place Four in number Green color Subsequent to Prior to Future plans; past history It can be argued that Prefer At 2 g/L At 37C To First Four Green After Before Plans; history Perhaps/Maybe

16. Customer ServiceEffective writing Active voice is preferred “Use the active voice when it is less wordy and more direct than the passive”. “Use the active voice rather than the passive voice…”. “As a matter of style, passive voice is typically, but not always, inferior to active voice”. “In general, authors should use the active voice…” ACS Style Guide APA Style Chicago Style Guide AMA Style “Use active voice. The use of active rather than passive voice produces clearer, more concise writing” SPE Style “Wherever possible, use active verbs that demonstrate what is being done and who is doing it…” ASCE Style “Use active voice by default; research shows readers comprehend it more quickly than passive voice…” IEEE

17. Customer ServiceEffective writing Avoid reader confusion Is this sentence in the active or passive voice? In this study, a mathematical equation for domestic happiness was developed using factor analysis.

18. Customer ServiceEffective writing In this study, a mathematical equation for domestic happiness was developed using factor analysis. Pack et al. created a questionnaire to probe how happy people feel in their households.3 Avoid reader confusion Part of the Introduction

19. Customer ServiceEffective writing In this study, a mathematical equation for domestic happiness was developed using factor analysis. Pack et al. created a questionnaire to probe how happy people feel in their households.3 Avoid reader confusion Part of the Introduction Who did the work in this study? The author ?Pack et al. ?

20. Customer ServiceEffective writing In this study, we developed a mathematical equation for domestic happiness using factor analysis. Pack et al. created a questionnaire to probe how happy people feel in their households.3 Avoid reader confusion Part of the Introduction Who did the work in this study?

21. Customer ServiceEffective writing When to use the passive (1) The doer is not important or not known; making generalizations (“English is spoken in many countries”) (2) Avoiding We...We...We... in Methods (3) If the authors did not themselves do a step in the Methods (but a technician/colleague/company did it, and is named in the Acknowledgments) (4) Some journals use passive in the Methods or Abstract (5) Avoiding top-heavy subjects (“All participants were interviewed by the same researcher, who had been thoroughly trained in phenomenological analysis”) (6) To stress the doer (“…by someone/something”)

22. Customer ServiceEffective writing Academic English writing style 1. You deserve the funding, but the study design is not perfect. Which sentence suggests that you will get funding? 2. The study design is not perfect, but you deserve the funding.

23. Customer ServiceEffective writing Academic English writing style Readers focus at the end of the sentence to determine what is important. 1. You deserve the funding, but the study design is not perfect. Which sentence suggests that you will get funding? 2. The study design is not perfect, but you deserve the funding. Stress position Topic position

24. Customer ServiceEffective writing Academic English writing style The study design is not perfect, but you deserve the funding. The grant will be awarded in two stages. Stress position Topic position The stress position can also introduce the topic of the next sentence = Word/theme cohesion

25. Customer ServiceEffective writing Cohesion Referencing within/between sentences • Repeating a word (or singularplural) • Publishing research is important. Publishing takes many forms. • Using the definite article (or “such a/an”) and a synonym/group noun • Publishing research is important. The activity is a part of academia. • Using a demonstrative with or without a group noun • Publishing research is important. This (activity) is a part of academia. • Using a pronoun • Publishing research is important. It ensures knowledge is recorded. • Using a relative pronoun • Publishing research is an activity that ensures knowledge is recorded. • Substituting a word • Publishing research is an important activity; presenting is another. • Omitting the word (ellipsis) • Publishing research is important but is usually not taught. Based on: Halliday and Hassan. Cohesion in English. 1976. London: Longman.

26. Customer ServiceEffective writing Beyond cohesion The study design is not perfect, but you deserve the funding. The grant money of some funding agencies is given only if authors make their data publicly available. The stress position can introduce the topic of the next sentence, but the terms have to be logically connected

27. Customer ServiceEffective writing Coherence Logical relations within and between sentences • Cause and effect • Comparison and contrast • Elaboration, e.g., Classification/Definition, Exemplification • Description (giving characteristics) • Narrative sequence of events (reporting a linear sequence) • Procedures, instructions • Problem and solution • Past, present, future (situation/gap analysis) • Arguing for and against (evaluation) • Whole to parts, or parts to whole • General to specific, or specific to general Based on: Grabe and Stoller, 2002; Teaching and researching reading. Harlow, UK: Pearson Education.

28. Please see Activity 1 in your Workbook Activity 1

29. Structure your manuscript: Introduction, Methods, Results Section 3

30. Coverage and Staffing Plan Manuscript structure Logically organizing your ideas Communicating in English Two factors to consider when writing a manuscript Importance of logic Draft outline & abstract/title; Draft & revise manuscript Edit manuscript & finalize abstract/title

31. Coverage and Staffing Plan Manuscript structure Use your illustrations to structure your manuscript Where to start?  Your findings form the basis of your manuscript  First organize your findings  Logic, then English language Figure 1 Figure 2 Table 1 Figure 3 Logical flow • Time order • Most  least important • General  specific • Simple  complex • Whole  parts Is anything missing? ? Additional analyses?

32. Coverage and Staffing Plan Manuscript structure Prepare an outline I. Introduction A. General background B. Related studies C. Problems in the field D. Aims II. Methods A. Subjects/Samples/Materials B. General methods C. Specific methods D. Statistical analyses III. Results A. Key points about Figure 1 B. Key points about Table 1 C. Key points about Figure 2 D. Key points about Figure 3 E. Key points about Figure 4 IV. Discussion A. Major conclusion B. Key findings that support conclusion C. Relevance to published studies D. Limitations E. Unexpected results F. Implications G. Future directions  Write key ideas in bullet points, as IMRaD (=Intro, Methods, Results and Discussion)  No need for full sentences  Draft title/abstract early; finalize later  Draft article in sections; get feedback & revise each section  Revise content/logic before language  Get help: presubmission peer review & editing by a native English speaker When using information from other articles: Paraphrase with citations!

33. Coverage and Staffing Plan Manuscript structure Manuscript structure How does your study contribute to your field? What did you find? What did you do? Why did you do the study? Title/Abstract Introduction Methods Results Discussion

34. Coverage and Staffing Plan Manuscript structure Title/Abstract Introduction Methods Results Discussion Title/Abstract Methods Results Discussion Introduction Abstract /Title write The ‘write’ order

35. Coverage and Staffing Plan Manuscript structure Introduction Current state of the field Background information Specific aim/approach/contents Results preview? Extra sections (Lit Review)? Aim Problem in the field Previous studies Current study General Specific Research Q / hypothesis Worldwide relevance? Broad/specialized? Recent, International Not too many self-cites Why is your study needed? Importance of filling knowledge gap

36. Coverage and Staffing Plan Manuscript structure Example introduction Most health care systems are currently under pressure to reconcile the need to deliver services more efficiently and provide more personalised health care…. The case for using subgroups based on biological-clinical and socio-demographic variables to address heterogeneity is well-established in effectiveness research…. What remains controversial is the use of subgrouping on the basis of individual preferences or values, moving beyond clustering based on…. If it were decided to treat subgroup preferences as valid and independent determinants of public policy, a transparent analytical procedure will be needed…. The aim of this study is to present a procedure combining two analytical techniques that have not, thus far, featured in the debate: (i) Cluster Analysis (CA) which is used to generate preference subgroups, and (ii) Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA). Background Current state Problem Importance Aim/approach Kaltoft et al. Health Economics Review. 2015;5:10 .

37. Coverage and Staffing Plan Manuscript structure Common mistakes in the Introduction  Start is too basic/general  Ideas are not logically organized; too long; listing instead of synthesis/analysis  Important topics in Introduction are not mentioned again in the Results/Discussion  Topics in Results/Discussion were not mentioned in Introduction  Lacks theoretical/conceptual framework, problem statement, rationale of approach, aims  Missing important references; cited studies are not recent/relevant; reviews are cited more than primary research; too many self-cites

38. Coverage and Staffing Plan Manuscript structure Methods What did you do? How the study was done • Processes, interviews, topic guide, recordings, text analysis • Variables/outcomes • Coding/themes/iterations • Data handling/modeling/statistics • Triangulation, reflexivity • Inter-rater reliability; consensus Who/what was studied • Participants (controls), settings • Enrollment (N & “power”) • Materials, databases, survey tools Data analysis Clarify who did what; include any ethics statements; mention software (SPSS, MAXQDA, QDA MINER, ATLAS.ti, NVivo)

39. Coverage and Staffing Plan Manuscript structure Established techniques • Cite previously published studies • Briefly state modifications • Use flow chart/table* if needed • Explain purposes; justify choices • Give enough detail for reproducibility • Use Supplementary Information Organization • Arrange in (titled) subsections • Keep parallel to the display items • Use topic sentences New techniques Methods *Summary of study settings, flow of participants, text selection, variables, chronology of analyses…

40. Coverage and Staffing Plan Manuscript structure Methods: flowchart Johansen et al. BMC Psychiatry. 2013;13:201. Figure 1 Study data flow of participant contact points.

41. Coverage and Staffing Plan Manuscript structure Common mistakes in the Methods  Copy/paste; too much/little detail  Research design is not mentioned or inappropriate  No referencing for techniques/tools/tests used  No timeframe, setting, minimization of biases, details of observers, details on pilot study/data collection/repetition  Sample is not big enough; unclear sources or participant flow; unclear inclusion/exclusion criteria  Unclear analysis, data processing; inappropriate statistical tests; multiple comparisons or confounders without corrections; does not say how missing data were handled  Unclear coding methods; not really “grounded theory”  Ethical issues are not mentioned

42. Coverage and Staffing Plan Manuscript structure Distribution of data affects analysis and presentation • Parametric tests (e.g., t-test and ANOVA) can be used only with continuous & normally distributed data with a large enough sample size • Use the mean ± SD only for normally distributed data Simple guide: • If SD is ≥ mean, most likely not normally distributed • If SD is > 0.5 × mean, may not be normally distributed Use Shapiro-Wilk’s W test for normality Wrong statistical tests Common mistakes in the Methods

43. Coverage and Staffing Plan Manuscript structure 2 categorical endpoints Paired (within sample) Unpaired (between sample) McNemar’s test Fisher’s exact test 2 treatment groups Chi-square test >2 treatment groups du Prel et al. Dtsch Arztebl Int 2010; 107: 343–8. Use appropriate tests

44. Coverage and Staffing Plan Manuscript structure Use appropriate tests Continuous endpoints Parametric Nonparametric Paired Unpaired Paired Unpaired 2 groups: Paired t test >2 groups: Repeated- measuresANOVA 2 groups: Unpaired t test >2 groups: ANOVA (F test) 2 groups: Wilcoxon signed- ranktest >2 groups: Friedman one-wayANOVA 2 groups: Mann–Whitney U test (Wilcoxon rank-sumtest) >2 groups: Kruskal–Wallis test Lang and Secic 1997; 71.

45. Coverage and Staffing Plan Manuscript structure What did you find? Results • Algorithm, test, improvement • Group/subgroups; Core/subthemes • Uni-/bi-/multivariable • Each subsection corresponds to one figure and method • Remember to refer to all figures • What you found, not what it means (except in qualitative research or combined Results/Discussion sections) • Online Supplementary Information • Data accessibility Logical presentation Subsections Factual description

46. Coverage and Staffing Plan Manuscript structure Path analysis Results Chau et al. BMC Neurology. 2009;9:49. Figure 1 Trimmed model with path coefficients at 12 months.

47. Coverage and Staffing Plan Manuscript structure Theme analysis Results Bostrom et al. Int Archiv Occupational Environmental Health. 29 October 2015:1-12. Fig. 1. Experiences of work ability among young workers. To be alert and have energy I feel alert and strong, and my back feels strong. I immediately feel much better – I have more energy. I can tell you, it definitely affects your whole day…you feel like a stronger, better human being and then you’re able to deal with everything else. (Care employee, age 28)

48. Coverage and Staffing Plan Manuscript structure Conversation analysis Results 1. Student: I dunno WHAT he meant=[do you,] 2. Teacher: [No:::] Well,= 3. Student: =So:: (0.5) ER:m (.) ((coughs)) (Well.) I thi- THInk (0.5) it doesn’t (.) matter now.=But anyway. 4. Teacher: Loo::k. (0.7) .hhhh (°sometimes,°) .hh 5. Student: ↑↑Yeah, ((looks away))

49. Coverage and Staffing Plan Manuscript structure Theoretical model Results McCalman. Implementation Science. 2013:8-129. Fig. 1. The theoretical model: Supporting inside-out empowerment by embracing relatedness.

50. Coverage and Staffing Plan Manuscript structure Describe relationships among your results High school students increased their use of social media by 32.7%, increased media downloads by 12.3%, and increased media uploads by 7.3%. Undergraduates increased their use of social media by 22.3%, increased media downloads by 15.6%, and increased media uploads by 2.4%. Postgraduates increased their use of social media by 38.1%, increased media downloads by 6.9%, and decreased media uploads by 9.2%.

51. Coverage and Staffing Plan Manuscript structure Describe relationships among your results Postgraduates reported the greatest increase in use of social media (38.1%), followed by high school students (32.7%) and undergraduates (22.3%). However, postgraduates showed the lowest increase in media downloads (6.9%) compared with high school students (12.3%) and undergraduates (15.6%). Furthermore, postgraduates reported a reduction in media uploads (by 9.2%), whereas high school students and undergraduates increased media uploading by 7.3% and 2.4%, respectively.

52. Coverage and Staffing Plan Manuscript structure Common mistakes in the Results Participant parameters …improved significantly; it is significant that… X was the cause of Y Participants’ characteristics …improved considerably/markedly; it is important that… X was associated with/related to/linked to Y Don’t misuse statistical words!

53. Coverage and Staffing Plan Manuscript structure Some teachers reported that they developed an understanding of what ICT is and the way technology can enhance teaching and learning of difficult science concepts through the collaborative design of science lessons in teams. “I developed an understanding of how…ICT can be applied in the design and teachings [sic] of a technology-enhanced lesson,” said one of the pre-service teachers. • Match qualitative data to the claim • “Tell” and “Show” Modified from: Kafyulilo et al. Educ Inf Technol. 5 May 2015; DOI 10.1007/s10639-015-9398-0 Topic sentences are unsupported! Common mistakes in the Results

54. Coverage and Staffing Plan Manuscript structure Common mistakes in the Results  Data are not relevant to research problem/question  Findings are listed, without a narrative or relationships shown  Information in main text is repeated from display items  Unexpected or negative data are not mentioned  Some data are not explained in the Methods  Some of the methods are not used  No denominators (totals) for percentages  Unclear display items; incomplete descriptive data; errors are not defined (SD or SEM; 95% confidence intervals)  Data are not factually presented (includes interpretations)

55. Activity 2 Please see Activity 2 in your Workbook

56. Structure your manuscript: Discussion Section 4

57. Coverage and Staffing Plan Manuscript structure Discussion Summary of findings Relevance Conclusion Similarities/differences Unexpected/negative results Limitations; unanswered Qs Implications Previous studies Current study Future studies Specific General How do you advance your field?

58. Coverage and Staffing Plan Manuscript structure Writing the beginning of a long Discussion State the major conclusion of the study Most health professionals, including dental students, require rudimentary introduction to health economics. The pedagogical challenges of teaching health economics in dentistry arise from the fact that health economics is a nondental subject that requires deep understanding. In this study, we have found that debate when used to teach health economics to dental students enhanced their interest and reinforced their knowledge of the topic and improved organizational thinking. Re-introduction Conclusion Modified from: Khan et al. J Dent Educ. 2012;76: 1675–1683. Problem

59. Coverage and Staffing Plan Manuscript structure Compare your findings with those published by others Writing the middle of your Discussion Modified from: Rimfeld et al. Transl Psychiatry. 2015;5:e638. Comparison with previous studies Current finding Potential reasons We found that most individual differences in second language achievement are accounted for by genetic differences, rather than school, family, and other environmental influences. Our heritability estimates are higher than those in our earlier study [3], which might be because different measures were used. In the present study we used standardized examination scores at the end of compulsory education, as compared with teacher ratings of academic achievement in our earlier report.…

60. Coverage and Staffing Plan Manuscript structure Describe limitations and negative results Why? Reporting transparency • Allows complete evaluation of your study • Prevents others from repeating those experiments • Allows others to modify those experiments • Prevents funding agencies from wasting money Writing the middle of your Discussion

61. Coverage and Staffing Plan Manuscript structure Readers use sentence structure to determine emphasis • Stress position • Main clause vs. subordinate clause • Clause length Useful in the Discussion Vary emphasis of your interpretations Contrasting ideas

62. Coverage and Staffing Plan Manuscript structure Contrasting ideas Main vs. subordinate clause Although the study design is not perfect, you deserve funding. Subordinate Main Linking word • Although • Even though • Whereas (Despite/In spite of) Subordinate clauses say 2 things: • Idea may not be important • There is a contrasting idea coming

63. Coverage and Staffing Plan Manuscript structure Discussing limitations Although this study was limited by its small sample size, our survey demonstrates that women commonly cite experiencing signs and symptoms of postnatal depression within the first 6 months of delivery. Although our survey demonstrates that postnatal depression is common, the study was limited by its small sample size. Bad news = Subordinate clause at the start Bad news = Main clause in stress position Bad news = Subordinate clause at start Good news = LONG main clause in stress position

64. Coverage and Staffing Plan Manuscript structure What do you want people to remember? Writing the end of your Discussion May be a separate section May be a “Future work” section We have demonstrated here that genes explain a larger proportion of differences between children in second language achievement than do shared environmental influences of school and home. Our bivariate results for twins demonstrate a general genetic factor of language achievement in the sense that achievement in English and second language is influenced to a large extent by the same genes. It is important to note that genes not only influence aptitude and achievement, but also appetite for knowledge. Such genotype–environment correlation may be increasingly important during adolescence. Our future research thus involves longitudinal study of second language achievement. Conclusion Key finding Implications Future directions Modified from: Rimfeld et al. Transl Psychiatry. 2015;5:e638.

65. Coverage and Staffing Plan Manuscript structure Discussion: making claims Chiswick Chap, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Toulmin_Argumentation_Example.gif, CC-BY-SA-3.0 Toulmin model of argumentation Qualifier

66. Coverage and Staffing Plan Manuscript structure Common mistakes in the Discussion  Overall findings are not summarized at start  New results are presented  Unexpected/negative results are not explained  Statistical significance is confused with clinical significance, or association is confused with causation  Results are not discussed with extant literature; unbalanced  Limitations are not discussed  Results are repeated in the Discussion  Conclusions are too generalized, precise, or confident  Conclusion is missing or research problem is not really answered; concepts/terms are not parallel  No implications for practice/policy or research

67. Coverage and Staffing Plan Manuscript structure Link your ideas General background Aims Methodology Results and figures Summary of findings Final solution & Implications Evaluation of findings Problem in the field Current state of the fieldIntroduction #®® Methods ##® Results ## Discussion ###®® # Words ® References Your Solution Situation/ Problem Evaluation /Comment Title & Abstract End matter References, Acknowledgments, Funding, Conflicts of interest, Previous publication/presentation, Ethics/Data sharing

68. Coverage and Staffing Plan Manuscript structure Link your ideas Problem-based learning is an instructional method in which problems are the focal part of learning. However, it is unclear which particular aspect of the problem is essential for student learning. In conclusion, this study is among the first to shed more light on the causal interactions of specific problem characteristics at the micro level. Background Research question Conclusion Discussion Modified from: Sockalingam et al. Advances in Health Sciences Education. 2011;16:481–490. We tested a model in which we hypothesized that problem input variables would be related to problem process and outcome variables. Objective Introduction

69. Coverage and Staffing Plan Manuscript structure Qualitative studies Rich data: sufficient, systematically collected, high-quality Quantity (breadth/depth) depends on existing knowledge, size of knowledge gap, agree/disagree with current theory Research question: appropriate and focused Keep a “how” research question in mind when coding and when reporting how you contribute to theory Grounding: relevant or closest literature Introduction: show that there are knowledge gaps and a need for theory development; may include Literature Review section; check validity/reliability Transparency: explain methods and show systematic work Give references of accepted methods; how did you identify/refine themes and identify outliers? Table of quotes (n>1) or in-depth theme boxes (n=1) Reay. Fam Bus Rev. 2014;1–8, DOI: 10.1177/0894486514529209

70. Coverage and Staffing Plan Manuscript structure Qualitative studies Tell an intriguing empirical (not theoretical) story Engaging and interesting, surprising and new; short version in Introduction and long version in Results; “tell” & “show” Tell a convincing theoretical story Discussion: clearly explain how your study connects to literature; refer to references from Introduction Show clear contribution to target journal Clearly explain how your analysis/model advances or changes theory, or where current theory doesn’t hold; keep to target journal aim/scope Ethically conducted and reported/published Informed consent, confidentiality, avoiding harm, research integrity (www.ethicsguidebook.ac.uk) Reay. Fam Bus Rev. 2014;1–8, DOI: 10.1177/0894486514529209

71. Coverage and Staffing Plan Manuscript structure After the first draft…. Format manuscript • Use journal template/style • Re-check word limits • Format references Revise manuscript • Get input from colleagues • Check Figures/Tables • Check consistency/logical flow between sections • Edit for clarity, conciseness, and accuracy • Have a rest! Then proofread

72. Coverage and Staffing Plan Manuscript structure Check spelling Confused spellings Accept/Except Advice/Advise Affect/Effect All together/Altogether Aloud/Allowed Altar/Alter Bare/Bear Bazaar/Bizarre Brake/Break Canvas/Canvass Chord/Cord Coarse/Course Complement/Compliment Currant/Current Defuse/Diffuse Desert/Dessert Discreet/Discrete Interesting/Interested Loose/Lose Principle/Principal Sight/Site/Cite Stationary/Stationery Storey/Story There/Their/They’re https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/usage/commonly-confused-words

73. Activity 3 Please see Activity 3 in your Workbook

74. Making your best first impression Section 5

75. Attract your readers Title and abstract First impression of paper: clear/concise/convincing Importance of your results Validity of your conclusions Relevance of your aims Your title & abstract should attract readers It sells your work: Readers judge your style & credibility Often first or only part that is read by readers/reviewers

76. Attract your readers Title and abstract Title Important points  Only main idea/s  Accurate, simple  Population/model  Include keywords  Fewer than 20 words  Include method/ study type Avoid Unneeded words (“A study of”) Sensationalism, journalistic style Complex word order Abbreviations, jargon “New” or “novel”

77. Attract your readers Title and abstract Title Interrogative Are subjective cognitive complaints related to memory functioning in the working population? Indicative/ Descriptive Evidence-based treatment for depersonalisation-derealisation disorder … + Approach (subtitle) Xxxxxxx: a cross-sectional study; Xxxxxxx: a systematic review Assertive/ Declarative Rumination and interoceptive accuracy predict the occurrence of the thermal grill illusion of pain / Implicit priming of conflicting motivational orientations in heavy drinkers From: BMC Psychology.

78. Attract your readers Structured abstracts Aim Objective, hypothesis Results Most important findings Conclusion Relevance, implications Methods Techniques, measurements No jargon, unusual abbreviations, figures/tables Usually no references (or one in-text, as Author + Journal + year/volume/pages) Background Context, problem

79. Attract your readers Unstructured abstract Malsch et al. Perspectives. 2015; 17: 215. The international dialogue on responsible governance of nanotechnologies engages a wide range of actors with conflicting as well as common interests. It is also characterised by a lack of evidence-based data on uncertain risks of, in particular, engineered nanomaterials. The present paper aims at deepening understanding of the collective decision making context at international level using the grounded theory approach as proposed by Glaser and Strauss in “The Discovery of Grounded Theory” (1967). This starts by discussing relevant concepts from different fields including sociological and political studies of international relations as well as political philosophy and ethics. This analysis of current trends in international law making is taken as a starting point for exploring the role that a software decision support tool could play in multi-stakeholder global governance of nanotechnologies. These theoretical ideas are then compared with the current design of the SUN Decision Support System (SUNDS) under development in the European project on Sustainable Nanotechnologies (SUN, www.​sun-fp7.​eu). Through constant comparison, the ideas are also compared with requirements of different stakeholders as expressed during a user workshop. This allows for highlighting discussion points for further consideration.

80. Attract your readers Malsch et al. Perspectives. 2015; 17: 215. The international dialogue on responsible governance of nanotechnologies engages a wide range of actors with conflicting as well as common interests. It is also characterised by a lack of evidence-based data on uncertain risks of, in particular, engineered nanomaterials. The present paper aims at deepening understanding of the collective decision making context at international level using the grounded theory approach as proposed by Glaser and Strauss in “The Discovery of Grounded Theory” (1967). This starts by discussing relevant concepts from different fields including sociological and political studies of international relations as well as political philosophy and ethics. This analysis of current trends in international law making is taken as a starting point for exploring the role that a software decision support tool could play in multi-stakeholder global governance of nanotechnologies. These theoretical ideas are then compared with the current design of the SUN Decision Support System (SUNDS) under development in the European project on Sustainable Nanotechnologies (SUN, www.​sun-fp7.​eu). Through constant comparison, the ideas are also compared with requirements of different stakeholders as expressed during a user workshop. This allows for highlighting discussion points for further consideration. How does your study contribute to your field? What did you find? What did you do? Why did you do the study? Unstructured abstract

81. Attract your readers Bioethics traffics in matters moral. As such, bioethics frequently bumps up against religion, offering an ideal arena to examine how the sacred and the secular encounter each other in modern medicine. In this essay I consider two places where bioethics and religion intersect: 1) the response of bioethics to the universal problem of suffering, and 2) the professional proselytizing or “missionizing work” that bioethics does in order to make a place for itself among the professions of the life sciences. Some social sciences (short abstract) Why you did the study What you did

82. Attract your readers Check author guidelines Check recently published articles Consider your audience For interdisciplinary audiences, include background/aim, method, results, and conclusion Identify journal editor preference What the journal requires Social science abstracts What sections should you include? Longer & informative versus shorter & descriptive: “…Implications and limitations of this study are discussed.”

83. Attract your readers Search Engine Optimization  Identify 7–8 keywords (include geographic region/ setting, approach, topic, concepts; use standard terms*)  Use 2 in your title; 5–6 in the keyword list  Use 3 keywords 3–4 times in your abstract  Use keywords in headings when appropriate  Be consistent throughout your paper; include some synonyms  Cite your previous publications when relevant *Standard terms from PsycINFO, BIOSIS, ChemWeb, ERIC Thesaurus, GeoRef, MeSH, etc

84. Attract your readers Examples of keywords Empowering citizens in international governance of nanotechnologies Nanotechnology – International governance – Responsible research and innovation – Sustainability School-Based Screening: A Population-Based Approach to Inform and Monitor Children’s Mental Health Needs Screening – Assessment – Service delivery models – Response to intervention – Mental health Beyond the Head: The Practical Work of Curating Contemporary Art Cultural sociology – Distributed cognition – Actor-network theory – Object-interaction Malsch et al. Perspectives. 2015;17:215; Dowdy et al. School Mental Health. 2010;2:166-176; Acord. Qual Sociol. 2010;33:447-467.

85. Attract your readers Common mistakes in the Title/Abstract  Title has an uncommon abbreviation or is too long  Title sounds too informal or unprofessional  Promise in title is not delivered in main text  Title’s relevance is not obvious from Abstract or Introduction  Title & Abstract: study system or design not obvious; contain jargon  Abstract is too long, or omits key information  Abstract is in wrong format or style  Abstract has (refs,) tables/figures, too many abbreviations  Abstract is biased (excludes your negative findings)  Abstract contains same text as in the main manuscript

86. Please see Activity 4 in your Workbook Activity 4

87. S Be an effective communicator Your goal is not only to publish, but also to be widely read and cited Develop your writing skills Write your ideas clearly Logically present your research

88. S Be an effective communicator Your goal is not only to publish, but also to be widely read and cited Develop your writing skills Select the right journal Promote your research to the journal editor and reviewers Promote your research to others

89. Effective writing 2 Section 6

90. Customer ServiceEffective writing The study design is not perfect, but you deserve the funding. The grant will be awarded in two stages. Stress position Topic position The stress position can introduce the topic of the next sentence (useful for explanations and processes) Sentence and paragraph structure 1

91. Customer ServiceEffective writing The local government has been striving to introduce Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in education. In medical education, technology was introduced through the ICT-Connect-TED project. The program aimed at improving the quality of lecturers through the use of ICT. ICT-Connect-TED recently provided computers and a networking infrastructure to all medical colleges. idea ideaideaidea Topic link sentence Adapted from: Kafyulilo et al. Educ Inf Technol. 5 May 2015; DOI 10.1007/s10639-015-9398-0 Sentence and paragraph structure 1

92. Customer ServiceEffective writing Sentence and paragraph structure 1 Almost all participants indicated a high level of satisfaction with the content, sequence and relevance of the ICT professional development program they attended. Only a few lecturers reported that the duration of the professional development program was too short. However, the majority of the lecturers reported that they developed an understanding of what TPACK is, and the way technology can enhance teaching and learning of difficult medical concepts through the collaborative design of technology- enhanced clinic sessions in teams. “I developed an understanding of how TPACK can be applied in the design and teaching of a technology-enhanced lesson” said one of the pre- service lecturers. A lecturer from College C said if it was not the professional development he attended, he would not know how to use technology in teaching. The pre-service lecturers had the opportunity to further develop learning about technology integration in teaching after the professional development program had finished. They were invited to use their TPACK knowledge in workshops organized by the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training… Topic sentence Stress sentence Topic sentence Supporting sentences Adapted from: Kafyulilo et al. Educ Inf Technol. 5 May 2015; DOI 10.1007/s10639-015-9398-0

93. Customer ServiceEffective writing Lecturers were positive about the effectiveness of technology in teaching. They reported the effectiveness of technology on students’ learning, and on simplifying their teaching process. Most of the lecturers reported to be comfortable and satisfied with the outcomes of the technology-integrated lessons they had developed and taught during the professional development program. One of the lecturers from College A said,… idea ideaideaidea Topic link Adapted from: Kafyulilo et al. Educ Inf Technol. 5 May 2015; DOI 10.1007/s10639-015-9398-0 Information in the topic position can introduce the topic of the next sentence (useful for definitions, descriptions, and narratives). Sentence and paragraph structure 2

94. Customer ServiceEffective writing Findings in this study are presented in four sections. The first section presents the continuation of technology use in teaching. The second section presents the factors affecting the continuation of use of technology in teaching among lecturers who participated in the study. The third section presents the college management view on the impact of the professional development program and the institutional challenges on using technology in teaching. Finally, the enabling and hindering factors affecting the continuation of technology are summarized. idea ideaideaidea Topic link Adapted from: Kafyulilo et al. Educ Inf Technol. 5 May 2015; DOI 10.1007/s10639-015-9398-0 Information in the stress position can introduce the topic of the next few sentences (useful for lists and describing whole/parts). Sentence and paragraph structure 3

95. Customer ServiceEffective writing Coherence in science communication Logical connectors at starts of sentences/clauses Sequence, process Cause-Effect Contrast/ concession Although, Even though, Whereas, However, In contrast, Despite (+noun or verb -ing),… Because (of), To (+verb), Owing to, So that, Therefore, Thus, Hence, Consequently,… Until, After, Before, While, Since, When, Then, Next, First/Second/Third, Finally,… Conditional If, Even if, Unless, Whether (or not), Except, Provided that, Until, Without, Otherwise,…

96. Customer ServiceEffective writing Improving readability Use short sentences 15–20 words One idea per sentence Always keep the reader in mind Keep Subjects and Verbs together Use strong verbs; clarify subjects Bottom heavy clauses > Top heavy clauses Familiar/old information before new information

97. Customer ServiceEffective writing 30 words Economists considered Tanaka Industries, a large Japanese trading corporation founded in 1916 outside of Nagoya by Ichiro Tanaka, to be a model in the development of modern employee conditions worldwide. Use short sentences

98. Customer ServiceEffective writing 30 words Economists considered Tanaka Industries, a large Japanese trading corporation founded in 1916 outside of Nagoya by Ichiro Tanaka, to be a model in the development of modern employee conditions worldwide. Use short sentences

99. Customer ServiceEffective writing Economists considered Tanaka Industries to be a model in the development of modern employee conditions worldwide. This large Japanese trading corporation was founded in 1916 outside of Nagoya by Ichiro Tanaka. 16 words 15 words One idea per sentence Use short sentences

100. Customer ServiceEffective writing Avoid nominalizations Use strong verbs instead of converting a verb into a noun Estimate Estimation Decide Decision Assess Assessment We made a/an… We conducted a/an… Extra, weak verb We decided… Clear, short, and direct Use strong verbs Analyze Analysis Check if journal allows I/We, or prefers This study/These findings/This author

101. Customer ServiceEffective writing Readers expect…  verbs to closely follow their subjects  heavy ends (not starts) of clauses Subject The viral infection that the patient caught on a trip to an outbreak-prone area in Africa spread among the hospital staff quickly. The patient caught a viral infection on a trip to an outbreak-prone area in Africa. This infection spread quickly among the hospital staff. Verb Write clear sentences

102. Customer ServiceEffective writing Readers expect…  old/given/familiar information to appear first  new information to appear last An increasing number of people are relying on medical information on the Internet. Hence, governments could conduct public campaigns to promote healthy lifestyles via online media. Order your information The Internet is being used as a source of environmental health information by an increasing number of people. Hence, online media campaigns could be used by governments to improve environmental health literacy. / [OR] Hence, the public could benefit greatly from government online campaigns aimed at improving environmental health literacy. Passive Active

103. Customer ServiceEffective writing Clarify the subject “Half of the physicians who were interviewed said that discussing affordability of treatment makes many patients feel uneasy. They also want to avoid long, difficult conversations…” “Half of the physicians who were interviewed said that discussing affordability of treatment makes many patients feel uneasy. The patients also want to avoid long, difficult conversations…” ?

104. Customer ServiceEffective writing Use correct verb tense Present simple Present perfect Past simple Stating an accepted fact or current implications Referring to past studies that are still relevant Reporting what you or others did/showed Introduction Discussion Introduction, Discussion (new paragraph) Methods, Results (& Intro/Discussion) “Grounded theory is a useful methodology for...” “Our findings have implications for…” “Blogging has been shown to increase...” “In this study, we have shown that…” “We conducted a telephone survey to investigate…” “Mindfulness improved quality of life...” Methods & Results may be in present tense for theoretical papers

105. Customer ServiceEffective writing Respectively is used for corresponding list items The two values were 143 and 21, respectively. The values for groups A and B were 143 and 21, respectively. The two values were 143 and 21. Avoid mistakes 1

106. Customer ServiceEffective writing  Compared with is for saying how things are different Avoid mistakes 2 The accuracy of the new program was low compared to the previous program. The accuracy of the new program was low compared with that of the previous program. The accuracy of the new program was lower than that of the previous program. The computer can be compared to the brain.

107. Customer ServiceEffective writing  Due to means “caused by” or “attributable to” Due to the heavy rain, the produce was spoiled. Owing to the heavy rain,… Because it rained heavily,… The spoiling of the produce was due to the heavy rain. Avoid mistakes 3

108. Customer ServiceEffective writing  Don’t use numbers to start a sentence 50 participants were recruited. We recruited 50 participants. / In this study, 50 participants were recruited. Fifty participants were recruited. Avoid mistakes 4

109. Customer ServiceEffective writing Avoid mistakes 5 Three The replies that came from five students were transcribed and translated. The replies, which came from five students, were transcribed and translated.  Use that and which appropriately We transcribed and translated the replies, which came from five students.

110. Customer ServiceEffective writing Paraphrasing tips Vary sentence structure to avoid patchwriting or listing Change voice, rhythm, style Separate/join sentences Discourse markers Coincidentally; Also in agreement; Indeed Join 2 sentences (semicolon, colon for a reason/list, or by subordination); alternate short/long sentences Active to passive, or passive to active; negative to positive, or positive to negative; invert word or sentence order Sentence logic Either/or; neither/nor; not only, but also Introductory phrase According to X’s method,…; In X’s study,…; X showed/reported…; When X… Change word class An altered direction -> A directional change

111. Customer ServiceEffective writing Good paraphrasing “Historical institutionalism can therefore explain why certain negotiations without particularly high political stakes can be closed to nonstate actor participation.” Historical institutionalism may thus explain why certain negotiations without particularly high political stakes may be closed to nonstate actor participation.24 24. Nasiritousi and Linnér. International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics. 17 Jan 2014; 1-18.

112. Customer ServiceEffective writing Good paraphrasing 24. Nasiritousi and Linnér. International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics. 17 Jan 2014; 1-18. “Historical institutionalism can therefore explain why certain negotiations without particularly high political stakes can be closed to nonstate actor participation.” Historical institutionalism may thus explain why certain negotiations without particularly high political stakes may be closed to nonstate actor participation.24 Thus, a historical institutionalist study may reveal the reason that nonstate actors are sometimes not involved in negotiations with low political stakes.24

113. Please see Activity 5 in your Workbook Activity 5

114. Select the best journal Section 7

115. Journal selection Choose your journal early! Author guidelines • Manuscript structure • Word limits, References • Procedures, Copyright Aims and scope • Topics • Readership • Be sure to emphasize • Learn writing style • Check relevant references • Check originality, importance & usefulness!

116. Journal selection Evaluating impact How new/important are your findings? How strong is the evidence? Incremental or large advance? Low or high impact journal Novelty Assess your findings honestly & objectively New algorithm for predicting profits of crop production Medium to high impact factor journal Improve the accuracy of an existing algorithm • Low to medium impact factor journal

117. Journal selection Evaluating impact How broadly relevant are your findings? International or regional journal General or specialized journal Relevance/ Application Aims & scope, Readership Assess your findings honestly & objectively

118. Journal selection Evaluating journals Journal indicators IPP* (CWTS, Leiden Uni) SNIP* (CWTS, Leiden Uni) Eigenfactor* & SJR* (SCImago) Eigenfactor (Eigenfactor.org) and SCImago journal rank adjust IF for citing journals Source-normalized impact per paper = IPP corrected for discipline Impact per publication = No. of citations to articles in past 3 years ÷ No. of articles Hirsch (h-) index h = No. of articles with at least that No. of citations IF (Thomson Reuters) Impact factor = No. of citations to “items” published in past 2 years ÷ No. of “articles” *Uses SCOPUS index; IF uses WoS; h-index can use WoS, SCOPUS, or Google Scholar

119. Journal selection Evaluating articles Article/researcher indicators Almetric (Altmetric.com) Quartile scores Post-publication peer review e.g., F1000Prime recommendations; UK institution-level assessment e.g., Q1/2/3/4 proportions for rank of target journal in different disciplines How often articles are viewed/saved/ cited/discussed/recommended Impact case studies e.g., institution-level: 2014 UK Research Excellence Framework Hirsch (h-) index h = No. of articles with at least that No. of citations (depends on database) Moving away from IF: Declaration on Research Assessment (DORA)

120. Journal selection Evaluating your study 1. Novelty/originality? 2. Real-world significance and importance/interest? 3. How soon can the findings be applied? 4. Is the study discussed in the context of what is known? 5. Potential for changing international practice/policy? 6. Potential for changing thinking in the field? 7. Potential for changing thinking in other fields? 8. Are implications both short term and long term? 9. Methodological quality (study design type, analyses)? 10. Study quality (sample/controls, size, duration, variables)? 11. Are biases minimized so as not to affect validity/reliability? 12. Compliance with…(a) research, trial, publishing ethics? 13. …(b) relevant reporting and data accessibility guidelines? 14. Writing is high quality and suitable for non-specialists?  1 2 3 4 …Be clear on topic/focus, report type, readers, urgency, reach, publishing cost

121. Journal selection Choosing a journal v Which factor is most important to you? Aims & scope, Readership Publication speed/frequency Print/Online, Open access Indexing, Rank, Impact factor Acceptance rate/ criteria (novelty?) Articletype/length, evidence level “Luxury” / Traditional / Megajournal Circulation/reach, Cost, Production quality, Copyright, Services Review quality, Cascading review, Fast track Reputation, Review/reviewer quality, Society-owned? Topic area, Audience type and location, Relevance (cited in your manuscript?) Theory versus practice, Laboratory versus field

122. Journal selection Publication models Subscription- based • Mostly free for the author • Reader has to pay Open access • Free for the reader • Author usually has to pay Hybrid • Subscription-based journal • Has open access options

123. Journal selection Open access models Green (subscription journals) • Can self-archive accepted version in personal, university, or repository website • May allow final version to be archived • May have embargo period before self-archiving is allowed Gold (author/institution pays) • Free for public on publication • Author might keep © but may pay (e.g., US$1000–5000)

124. Journal selection Open access myths Open access (OA) is expensive and low quality • Not all OA journals charge a fee • Many research grants and universities pay for OA fees • Journals may offer waiver for authors who cannot afford it • OA journals are peer reviewed • Impact factors may be lower partly because they are newer

125. Journal selection Predatory journals Some Open Access journals are not good Easy way to get money from authors • Promise quick and easy publication • Often ask for a low “submission/handling” fee • May copy name or website of real journal; false IF • May not exist, or may be of low quality; may charge fee to claim back your article if not yet accepted • Beware of spam e-mails soliciting authors/reviewers/editors! If you are ever unsure, please check Beall’s List of Predatory Publishers http://scholarlyoa.com/2016/01/05/bealls-list-of-predatory-publishers-2016/ Also check DOAJ: Directory of Open Access Journals

126. Journal selection Reputable publisher Elsevier, Wiley, PLOS, etc. Clear contact details Editorial board International and familiar Indexed Indexed by common databases Authors Do you recognize the authors? Fees Paid only after acceptance; clearly stated in website Trustworthy journals

127. Journal selection THINK Trusted and appropriate? SUBMIT Only if OK thinkchecksubmit.org CHECK Do you know the journal? Trustworthy journals

128. Journal selection Journal Selector www.edanzediting.co.jp/journal_selector Insert your proposed abstract or keywords

129. Journal selection Filter/sort by: • Field of study • Impact factor • Indexed in SCI • Open access • Publishing frequency Journal’s aims & scope, IF, and publication frequency • Author guidelines • Journal website Similar abstracts? Journal Selector www.edanzediting.co.jp/journal_selector

130. Please see Activity 6 in your Workbook Activity 6

131. Making a good first impression with your cover letter Section 8

132. Coverage and Staffing Plan Communicating with journals First impression for journal editors Timeliness, Uniqueness, Relevance Writing style Interesting to their readers? Why your work is important! Cover letters

133. Coverage and Staffing Plan Communicating with journals Dear Dr Struman, Please find enclosed our manuscript entitled “Evaluation of ICT in Glasgow prognostic scoring in patients undergoing curative resection for liver metastases,” which we would like to submit for publication as an Original Article in the International Medical ICT Journal. The Glasgow prognostic score (GPS) is of value for a variety of tumours. Several studies have investigated the prognostic value of the GPS in patients with metastatic breast cancer, but few studies have performed such an investigation for patients undergoing liver resection for liver metastases. Furthermore, there are currently no studies that have examined the prognostic value of the modified GPS (mGPS) using an ICT platform in these patients. The present study evaluated the mGPS using ICT in terms of its prognostic value for postoperative death in patients undergoing liver resection for breast cancer liver metastases. A total of 318 patients with breast cancer liver metastases who underwent hepatectomy over a 15-year period were included in this study. The mGPS was calculated using ICT based on the levels of C-reactive protein and albumin, and the disease-free survival and cancer-specific survival rates were evaluated in relation to the mGPS. Prognostic significance was retrospectively analyzed by univariate and multivariate analyses. Overall, the results showed a significant association between cancer-specific survival and the mGPS and carcinoembryonic antigen level, and a higher mGPS was associated with increased aggressiveness of liver recurrence and poorer survival in these patients. This study is the first to demonstrate that the preoperative mGPS via a simple ICT tool is a useful prognostic factor for postoperative survival in cancer patients undergoing curative resection. This information is immediately clinically applicable for surgeons as well as hospital information and patient record systems and health care protocol developers. As a premier journal covering ICT in health care, we believe that the International Medical ICT Journal is the perfect platform from which to share our results with all those concerned with ICT use in cancer management. Give the background to the research What was done and what was found Interest to journal’s readers Cover letter to the editor Editor’s name Manuscript title Article type Declarations on publication ethics Suggested reviewers Contact information

134. Coverage and Staffing Plan Communicating with journals Cover letter to the editor However, …an alternative approach… …presents a new challenge …a need for clarification… …a problem/weakness with… …has not been dealt with… …remains unstudied …requires clarification …is not sufficiently (+ adjective) …is ineffective/inaccurate/inadequate/inconclusive/incorrect/unclear Few studies have… There is an urgent need to… There is growing concern that… Little evidence is available on… It is necessary to… Little work has been done on…  Key phrases: Problem statement (para 2)

135. Coverage and Staffing Plan Communicating with journals Cover letter to the editor Highlight recent issues in the media “Given the considerable attention climate change has received worldwide, it will be important to…” Highlight recent policy changes “Recently, the Japanese government has implemented new incentives to promote entrepreneurship …” Highlight recently published articles in their journal “It has recently been theorized in your journal that labor movement promotes international trade. However, it still remains unclear…” Highlight current controversies “Currently, there is disagreement on the role of contemporary art in public spaces. Our study aims to address this controversy…”

136. Coverage and Staffing Plan Communicating with journals Cover letter to the editor This study is the first to demonstrate that the preoperative mGPS via a simple online social media tool is a useful prognostic factor for postoperative survival in cancer patients undergoing curative resection. This information is immediately clinically applicable for surgeons as well as hospital information and patient record systems and health care protocol developers. As a premier journal covering ICT in health care, the International Medical ICT Journal is the perfect platform from which to share our results with all those concerned with ICT us

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