Published on March 13, 2014
STRATIGRAPHICAL MODEL of the MIA ILLUSION OR REALITY ?
History of Drilling A lot of time and money !
Bore Log Description
WHY IS STRATIGRAPHICAL INFORMATION IMPORTANT ? 1. UNDERSTANDING GROUNDWATER BEHAVIOUR 2. RICE LAND CLASSIFICATION 3. COMPUTER MODELS NEED INPUT 4. DRAINAGE APPLICATIONS 5. OTHER ?
UNDERSTANDING GROUNDWATER BEHAVIOUR
OBSERVED VERSUS PREDICTED AVERAGE GROUNDWATER BEHAVIOUR 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 Depth(m) Observed versus Predicted Depth to Groundwater Kooba SE Observed Predicted
COMPUTER MODELLING AIMS • Figure out Impact Irrigation and Rainfall • Effect of Rice Growing, Channel Seepage etc. • Long Term Salinity Effects • Benefits of Management Options
STRATIGRAPHICAL INPUT NEEDS • Deep Leakage Component • Spatial Distribution of Stratigraphy – Clays and Sands in the Profile • Hydro-geological Factors – Transmissivity – Resistance in Clays to vertical Flow WE CAN DO IT - THE MIA IS SO DATA RICH !!!
GROUNDWATER MANAGEMENT MODELS 1. Very Dependent on good Stratigraphical Data Input: • SHAHBAZ etc – 2001 TO 2004 MIA MODEL • CSIRO Canberra - 2006 TO 2011 MIA MODEL (follow up) 2. Less Dependent but Work better with good Stratigraphical Data: • VAN DER LELY: • GROUNDWATER BALANCE AND BEHAVIOUR MODEL • SOIL SALINITY MODEL
The MIA SUPPOSEDLY has a STRATIGRAPHY DATA RICH SYSTEM But: Is it Real ? Does it Exist ? What is its Essence ? Can it be used ? ONTOLOGICAL COLLAPSE !!
2012 RECONSTRUCTION • BORE LOG DIGITISATION • BORE COORDINATES ASSIGNED • G.I.S COMPATIBLE DATA SET FOR M.I. AND – Newly Generated: • Hydro-geological Information based on interpolation for a range of soil layers (0-3, 3-6, 6-9, 9-13.5, 13.5-18, 18-22.5, 22.5-30m)
NUMBER OF BORES Table 2: Number of bores for the Mirrool/Benerembah area and the Yanco I.A contributing to gridding for mapping purposes. Depth to (m) Mirrool / Benerembah Yanco I.A. Total (*1) 6 2235 1978 4213 13.5 1815 1741 3556 18 1086 1036 2122 22.5 704 668 1373 30 525 143 668 (*1: The bores in the overlapping area of the Kooba sub-division are duplicated in these numbers- see maps of Appendix 2)
ASSUMED HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY FOR EACH TEXTURE CLASS DESCRIPTION k m/day DESCRIPTION k m/day BROWN COAL 0.100 GRAVEL 20.000 CLAY 0.020 GRIT 2.000 CEMENTED CLAY LOAM 0.050 GRAVELLY CLAY 0.100 CEMENTED LOAM 0.100 GRAVELLY SAND 6.000 CEMENTED SANDY CLAY 0.100 GRAVELLY LOAM 0.300 CEMENTED SANDY CLAY 0.020 HEAVY CLAY 0.003 CLAY LOAM 0.150 LOAM 0.300 CLAYEY COARSE SAND 1.000 LIGHT CLAY 0.030 CLAYEY FINE SAND 0.300 LOAMY SAND 0.500 CLAYEY GRAVEL 2.000 MEDIUMCLAY 0.006 CLAYEY SAND 0.500 PIPE CLAY 0.001 COARSE SAND 15.000 ROCK, STONE OR SIMILAR 0.001 COARSE SAND AND GRAVEL 20.000 SAND 8.000 DIRTY COARSE SAND 5.000 SANDY CLAY 0.030 DIRTY COARSE SAND AND GRAVEL 5.000 SANDY CLAY LOAM 0.200 DIRTY FINE SAND 1.500 SAND AND GRAVEL 10.000 DIRTY SAND 2.000 SANDY HEAVY CLAY 0.006 DIRTY SAND AND GRAVEL 3.000 SILTY CLAY 0.100 FINE SAND 2.000 SILTY HEAVY CLAY 0.010 FINE SANDY CLAY 0.100 SILTY MEDIUMCLAY 0.020 FINE SANDY CLAY LOAM 0.300 SANDY LOAM 0.300 FINE SAND AND GRAVEL 5.000 SANDY MEDIUMCLAY 0.010 FINE SANDY LOAM 0.400 SANDY PIPE CLAY 0.005 FINESANDY MEDIUMCLAY 0.020
THERE ARE 22 MAPS LIKE THIS !
WHAT CAN WE DO WITH THIS? 1. Numerical Groundwater Models. Improved input data for a groundwater flow model, if such was contemplated (again). 2. Groundwater Balance and Behaviour Model. Reference Deep Leakage Factors to improve the results spatially. 3. Soil Salinity Model. Input in terms of hydrological factors such as transmissivity, resistance to vertical flow and deep leakage. 4. Rice Environmental Management. Two aspects: a) current soil profile criteria based for classifying rice land suitability b) the effect of seepage from rice fields in high ground water table areas. 5. Channel Seepage. Finding potential channel seepage sites 6. Drainage / Groundwater Pumping Sites This Talk will only Consider the Rice Management Aspects.
Rice Land Classification • Current System only considers layers to 3 metres, not always adequate. The stratigraphical model information allows consideration of deeper layers; clearly useful. • Rice Water Use data and WT monitoring have shown that groundwater will rise anyway. Consideration of the top three metres only is not a sufficient indicator of “suitability”. CONCLUSION: USE IT – DON’T LOSE IT !
RICE FIELD SEEPAGE MODELING The Quantification of: the flow from a rice field through the clays vertically, and then through the aquifer (if any) horizontally, and then the upward movement in adjacent land..... should be considered. The Stratigraphical Model offers an opportunity to find a spatial representation of this potential flow.
Rice Seepage Analytical Model (Lateral Seepage beneath Boundary) Ponded Field Dry Area q(x) HydraulicHead Aquifer h(x) H Original watertable q(x) New watertable --->s(0) ------ >s(x) -x <------ x=0 ------->+x A s (0) = H * T / (SQRT(T x Cp) + SQRT(T x Cd))
POTENTIAL RATES OF LATERAL RICE SEEPAGE MAPS
Implications of High Rice Lateral Seepage Rates • High rice seepage rates cause higher WTs in adjacent areas. • More Salt movement to adjacent Land • Reduced viability of other crops such as cotton and grapes where groundwater levels are high ? • Somewhat Higher Rice Water Use
CONCLUSIONS • The historical data has been preserved • The stratigraphical data may be used to develop spatially distributed information of T and C for all layers to 30 metres depth • The T and C information is potentially useful for a range of modelling applications • The T and C information of deeper layers may be used as a back-up of rice classification questions • Clearly, some parts of the MIA are more suited for rice than others • Quantification of spatially distributed potential lateral rice seepage rates may allow the addressing of crop compatibility questions
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