Published on March 3, 2014
Management Theory & Organizational Behavior ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Introduction: Organizational behavior is one of the important concepts in the part of management activities. In the organization the no. of peoples is working. The different kinds of peoples are called or gather at a single place, and they are mutually co-operative and work together. If there is no person there is no organization. So, the organization is nothing but the kinds of peoples and their behaviour. Organizational behavior can be classified or divided in to the following way. 1. Organization 2. Behavior 1. Organization: Two or more persons coordinated together to achieve Common goal or set of goals. 2. Behavior: Set of actions or peoples actions. Here the people are Coordinated and they work to achieve a common goals. Meaning: The organizational behavior will do these things. 1. As a structure 2. As a process 3. As a system Definition: According to Luther-“It is directly concerned with the understanding predictions and control of human behavior” According to Mc farland, Organization is “An identifiable group of people contributing their efforts towards the attention of goals” Nature of organizational behaviour: 1) A field of study and not a discipline: Organization behavior can be treated as a distinct field of study and not a discipline. A discipline as an accepted science with a theoretical foundation that serves as the basis for research and analysis. 2) Interdisciplinary approach: An interdisciplinary approach integrates the relevant knowledge drawn from different disciplines for the some specific purpose. In this all types of subjects are discussed. 3) An applied science: the basic objective of organizational behavior is to make application of various researches to solve the organizational problems particularly related to human behavior aspect. Finally the organizational behavior is both science as well as art. 4) Normative and value centered: Organizational behavior is a normative science. It relate to the science. It suggests only cause – effect relationship. In this it will helps to the organizational research value is helps to take the organizational research 5) Humanistic and optimistic: organizational behavior focuses the attention on people from humanistic point of view. It is based on the belief that needs and motivation of people are of high concern. The organization may not the fully operational as a social entity, further there is optimism about the innate potential of man to be independent, creative , productive and capable of contributing positive to objectives of the organization. 6) Oriented towards organizational objective: the organization is having a goals and objectives. The total objectives are concentrating the individual organizational behaviour. 7) A total system Approach: organizational behavior is a total systems approach where in the living system of an organizational is viewed as an encouragement of a man. In this the total organization development is depending upon this. Characteristics of Organization QIS College of Engineering and Technology, Ongole Page 1
Management Theory & Organizational Behavior 1) Common purpose or objectives: Every organization exists to achieve some objectives or goals. So , the people are always try to achieve the objectives . 2) Division of work: In this the total work will be dividing according to their positions. 3) Authority structure: with the organization the people are divided in to levels. At that time the people are having some authorities for their posts or positions. 4) People: The organization is the nothing but the group of people. So, people constitute the dynamic human element of an organization. 5) Communication: Every organization have their own channels ,these are very important to mutual understanding and co-coordinating with all the people in the organization 6) Co-ordination: Co-ordination is one of the important things in the organization. So, which people are co-operative working minds that organization can get good results. 7) Environment: An organization functions is an event comprising economic, social , political and legal factors. So, the organization must be designed to work efficient in a changing event. 8) Rules & Norms: Every organization is having some rules and regulations and norms. So, who are working in the organization they should follow these rules and norms. SCOPE: Importance of organization: Organization is one of the basic functions of management. It is the foundation upon which the whole structure of the management is built. It is the back bone of management like planning, organizations has also an important place in every area of management functions. 1) Facilitates management: the functions are very much important to the organization when which the organization will follow the all functions that organization can shows the good performance. 2) Facilitates coordination: Organization is having the different kinds of departments. So, the organization should maintain the cooperation between departments. 3) Facilitates growth and diversification: Organization helps in the growth and expansion of the enterprise by facilitating its efficient management. So, the various departments and the control and increase the capacity of the enterprise to undertaken more activities. 4) Technological improvement: Organization structure provides for optimum utilization of the human resources within the organization high cost of materials and resources should use proper way. 5) Encourages initiative: The organizations are giving the initiative to all employees when the people having the right to participate in the events they can find new innovations. 6) Better human relation: Organizations will move with the human resources. So, the organization should maintain better human relations. 7) Training and development: Within the organization the people are working so, according to our requirements we have to give training to those people so the training and development is most important to all people. Challenges in organizational behavior: 1) Cross cultural dynamics: Culture is a set of beliefs, attitudes and values and that are shared commonly by the members of the society. Different countries may have different cultures, same way people also have the different behavioral patterns. So, cross cultural dynamics implies that people of different cultures and management also providing their cultural activities. QIS College of Engineering and Technology, Ongole Page 2
Management Theory & Organizational Behavior 2) Work force diversity: Work force diversity is the extent of differences and similarities in such characteristics as age, gender, physical abilities/disabilities, race and sexual orientation among the employees of organizations. Because of this work force diversity behavioral pattern of employees shows great variation. 3) Increasing work force aspirations : Tendency of increasing work force aspirations , international demonstrations effect and easy access to media ,both print and electronics have led to this increased aspirations .now a days the people are wanted not good place they want conclusive work place also. 4) Increasing quality consciousness: Because of increased competition, both from indigenous as well as from foreign organizations. That to the organizations are increased their quality of products and services. For to this every organization maintain the quality control management certification. So, the managers have to adopt suitable practices to ensure the product/service quality. 5) Newer organizational designs: today organizations are not based on the classical approach of division of labor, rigid departmentation, authority-responsibility and numerous hierarchical levels. Now a days the organizations are maintain and design different from classical organizational designs. 6) Mergers and acquisitions: Mergers is nothing but two or more companies are work with their understanding. Acquisition means the company rights are transferred to another company. For to this both mergers and acquisitions the organization culture and behaviors are changing Opportunities 1. it will improve the quality of product and services 2. It is opportunity for to improving the technology. 3. It helps to change the total organization total culture 4. Organization behavior changing is helps to newer organization structures 5. To improve the competitive strength. 6. Here the organizations increasing the work force aspirations 7. Mergers and acquisitions are helps to the organizations for take the financial helps and working aspirations The above all are the helps to improve the organizational opportunities. These are all helps to improve the organizational strengths. Disciplines contributing to organizational behavior: Organizational behavior is an interactive discipline of knowledge with persons, groups and organizational process. It is an applied behavioral science. It is interdisciplinary approach. A no. of disciplines from arts, social sciences science and behavioral sciences have contributed to the development of organizational behavior. Important contributions from related disciplines are discussed below 1) Psychology 2) Sociology 3) Anthropology 1) Psychology: It is the science of human behavior. It uses scientific view point and methodology together facts about human behavior in order to measure, analyze and explain it. It has been developed in to two disciplines social psychology and industrial psychology. Social psychology seeks to analyze interaction of individuals, group QIS College of Engineering and Technology, Ongole Page 3
Management Theory & Organizational Behavior affiliation etc. Industrial psychology leads with problems associated with origination event and contribution of work etc. 2) Sociology: It is concerned with the investigation of the laws of action and reaction of different parts of social system. It studies man’s reaction with other individuals in the society, social groups, institutions, social class, social culture ,social status and social esteems of individuals. Sociology utilizes scientific methodology for suggesting solutions to social problems. 3) Anthropology: It is a scientific study of man and his works. It includes biological features of man. Development of civilization, culture and value of system of an individual. Anthropology studies societies and human beings. It emerged in to three other disciplines namely, cultural, anthropology, physical anthropology. In this all disciplines are taking concern for all in the organizations contributions. Model of organizational behavior: HUMAN BEHAVIOUR INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR Personality Motivation Perception Values & attitudes GROUP BEHAVIOUR Team work Power politics Communication Leadership Decision making Job satisfaction Learning QIS College of Engineering and Technology, Ongole Page 4 ORGANISATIONAL VARIABLES Org. theories Org. structure design Org. culture Or. effectiveness
Management Theory & Organizational Behavior Human behavior is influence by individuals group, organizational variables. These are also influence the other factors. INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR Personality: It is the unique adjustment of individual to the existing environment. Personality is not physical setup which is in psychology it organize the internal & external and adjustable in a unique way. Motivation: It is the process of stimulating the individual to the predefined goals. The encouraging activity is nothing but motivation. Perception: How we see the world around us like the receiving the sensor organs play major role here. The peoples are receiving the things differently. Values and attitudes : Attitudes: It is the evaluate statement of a person towards a person object. Any other else based on experience. Values: It is the specific mode of conduct; it is acceptable to the society to the opposite mode of society. Job satisfaction: It is a person to interact to perform a job with satisfactory way. The person should work with interest. Learning: Any relatively permanent change that occurs as the result of experience. so, every individual should learn something from known to unknown GROUP BEHAVIOUR: Group behavior is nothing within the organization all individuals has to interact. In this the following are involved Team work: All the people unite and get together to perform better performance which is more than individual performance. Power & politics: Power is a capacity of a person to make decision. Politics means what type of power structure we have to use that strength. Communication: It is the process of exchange of feeling and opinions from one person to another. It is use to management communication. Leadership: It is a process of giving the instructions and maintain these things here decision making, planning, controlling, implementing etc. Decision making: It is one of the important in the management. In this problem identification and selecting the alternative and choose the best alternative and take the best solution for the problem. ORGANISATION VARIABLES QIS College of Engineering and Technology, Ongole Page 5
Management Theory & Organizational Behavior Organization theories: Explain what type of organization activities should be taken and relationships of person jobs, goals. Organization structure & design: It is the process of deciding the planned relationship in the organization activities. In this what type of relations are maintained. Organisation culture: Within the organisations the employees who are working, that means experience and their behavior is came here. Organisation effectiveness: In the sense organisation is the part of society. Organisation is the part of society. Organisation should have certain goals are supposed to be synchronized to society. Organisation effectiveness is depends upon the achievements of its goals. The human behavior is always influencing the organizational goals and objectives these are all always shows the organisation efficiency. PERCEPTION Introduction: Perception is the basic cognitive or physiological process. It is the chief mechanism by which people come to know about their surroundings. Perception is the process of understanding the information received from the environment. It is the intellectual process through which a person selects the data from the environment, organizes it and obtains meaning from it. Meaning: In its simple sense perception is understood as the act of seeing what is there to be seen , but what is seen in influenced by the perceiver the object on the environment. Definition: Perception may be defined as “the process of receiving, selecting, organizing, interpreting, checking, and reacting to sensory data to stimuli.” Process: Perception is receiving the data from the environment. In this perception is having the process. According to this process, we can know how the person having the data from the environment. Types of environment or Models of Man: 1. Rational and economic man: In this model, individual will give the equal importance to all factors.( subject, object and verb). He never neglects anything. He is comparing his efforts to the outcome results. 2. Social man: He is always maintain the good relations, consider the social norms, satisfying himself his needs through interacting with others, accepting the society norms, and traditions etc ; he never neglect the social elements. QIS College of Engineering and Technology, Ongole Page 6
Management Theory & Organizational Behavior 3. Organizational man: In this the person is always adjusting in various places, in various situations. In this the person can change according to the organizational environment and environmental conditions and organizational situations. 4. Complex man: He is always involving in all activities and giving equal importance to all things so in this the person is always satisfying his needs and wants. Process of perception: Perceptual Inputs Stimuli Receiving: tongue. Perceptual through puts Receiving Selecting organizing Perceptual outputs interpreting Actions There are 5 sensory organs in the human body. They are: eyes, nose, skin, ears, Selecting: After receiving the object the next important step is in the process of perception is selecting. In this selection process particular one object among the various objects, among the various situation and among the various environment. Organizing: After selecting, the next important step in the process of perception is organizing. It includes arrange the activities in orderly and systematically in order to priority. Interpretation: After organizing the data or object the next step is interpretate in the mind of human being and before interpretation we have to eliminating understandable activities which are not relevant to our expectations and etc; Factors influencing the perception: The factors can be classified into 2 types. They are: 1. External factors 2. Internal factors External factors: these factors consist of environmental influences and are in the form of the characteristics of perceptual inputs or stimuli. These characteristics may distinguish a particular stimulus from other stimulus of the same group. 1. Size: size of the object is also one of the important thing. In this one particular thing is having the data. But it may be big or small. We will take the object should be understandable and selected data. 2. Intensity: the intensity principle of attention states that the more intense the external stimulus is the more likely, it is to be perceived. A loud sound, strong order or bright light is noticed more as compared to a soft sound, weak odour , or dim light 3. Repetition: in this repetition states the object or data or pictures are more influencing the peoples, when they are looking are seeing repeatly. For to this repetition will make to purchase or change the behavior. QIS College of Engineering and Technology, Ongole Page 7
Management Theory & Organizational Behavior 4. Novelty and familiarity: novelty and familiarity principle states that either a novel or a familiar external situation can serve as attention-getter. Now objects or events in a familiar setting or familiar objects or events in new setting draw better attention. 5. Contrast: the contrast principle states that stimuli which stand against the background. Letter of bold types , building colors are influence the people and attract the colors. 6. Motion: motion principle states that a moving object draws more attention as compared to a stationery object. In this principle people can analyze the object or stimuli. In this they can get the data from the stimuli. Internal factors: makeup. internal factors are related to the individual’s complex psychological 1. Self- concept: the way a person views the world depends a great deal on the concept or image he has about himself. This concept plays an internal role in perceptual selectivity. This is totally based on individual’s psychological balance. 2. Belief: A person’s beliefs have profound influence on his perception. The individual normally censors stimulus inputs to avoid disturbance of his existing beliefs. So peoples are having their own beliefs and opinions. These are also influence the perception. 3. Expectations: expectations affect what a person perceives. Expectations are related with the state of anticipation of a particular behavior from a person. 4. Inner needs: people’s perception is determined by their inner needs. The people’s are having some inner needs in the minds. So at that time people also search for their needs when the need parallel items are compared, people will receive quickly. 5. Response Disposition: It refers to a person’s tendency to perceive familiar stimuli rather than unfamiliar ones. A person will perceive the things with which he is familiar. 6. Response salience: it is the set of dispositions which are determined not by the familiarity of the stimulus, but by the person’s own cognitive predispositions. Thus a particular problem in an organization may be viewed as a marketing problem by marketing personnel, a control problem by accounting people and human relations problems by personnel people. It indicates that type of response salience which people have affects their perception. 7. Perceptual defense: It refers the screening of those elements which create conflict and threatening situation in people. Perceptual defense performed by: Importance of conflicting information Distorting the new information to match the old one, or Acknowledging the new information but treating it as a nonrepresentative exception. QIS College of Engineering and Technology, Ongole Page 8
Management Theory & Organizational Behavior Barriers in perceptual accuracy: Perception is one of the important things in the human body. In this perception is depending the sensory organs . When the person at receiving the data he is having some problems and facing some barriers in perception. Those are as follows: 1. Halo effect: in this halo effect the person is in the situation, he is not taking the full or required information. When the person gets the full information that time he can take and move a correct action. In this situation what he get the 1 st information and he will ready to take decision on 1st attempt information. 2. Stereo typing: in this person is in the situation at what type of mood he is having that will be impact on another situational incident. Ex: A person is in cool. When you enter to meet that time, his response is also same. 3. First impression: first impression is nothing but we have a strong impact at 1 st receiving data. So in this any one we get the data at first time, that will satisfy the person at that time he can get good impression on that one. 4. Egos: ego is one of the important concepts in man’s life. In our perceptual process ego dominate the perceptual things. When a person in ego state we can’t get the require and full information. 5. Response distinction: in this response distinction we will take the data according to the age, situation, knowledge and personality. Eg: when even we are going on road, a child also passing on road. Suddenly we saw a dog on road we can’t change our feelings but child may get fear, but at time child can take a stick he can’t get fear. Here his knowledge is placed. 6. Psychological pre occupation: the feelings have before we get the information. In this before we take the information what is our mind set and what we are thinking and what type of thinking’s placed in the mind that all are imposed in this. The above all are the barriers of perception. In this humans take the data from our 5 sensor organs and the mental condition of the personality and the personality stage. When the person is in correct position he can get correct data otherwise he can’t. So when he left the barriers he can success in this life. So everybody should overcome the barriers. Perceptual skills: Any time perception is one of the important thing. Every perception is for need satisfaction. For this purpose people should get correct perception. At this time people should have some perceptual skills those are as follows: 1 Perceiving oneself accurately: one of the major reasons why people misperceive others is that they fail to perceive themselves accurately. So people should understand himself more accurately. So in this everybody should know about themselves accurately. QIS College of Engineering and Technology, Ongole Page 9
Management Theory & Organizational Behavior 2. Enhancing self- concept: self concept is normally a function of how successfully people accomplish the things they attempt to do. When self concept is developed and people have acquired a positive self regard, they are adopt to respect others more and perceive them more accurately. 3. Having positive attitudes: attitudes also effect the perception. When the people are in the positive attitude and positive mind their receiving is also positive. So they can get the information correct way and correctly. At that time they can take correct decisions. 4. Being empathetic: empathy means being able to see a situation as it is experienced by others. This is putting your legs in another’s shoes. A person can understand the problem in true perceptive when he looks at it from others point of view also. This is help to understand the others problems. 5. Communicating more openly: communication is more important in the organizations and society. So in this everybody should have the open communication effective. When the communication is effective there is no problems and understanding also more effective. 6. Avoiding common perceptual distortions: As discussed earlier, there are some factors which effect the perception adversely like halo effect, stereo typing, attribution, first impression etc;. in order to have better perception of the situation, people in the organization should guard themselves specially against these common biases. So in this, people should avoid some common perceptual distortions. ATTITUDES Introduction: Attitude is an evaluation of a thing, object or a person in a specific way. It is formulation of certain important impressions. It is a physical phenomenon and forms as a basis for human behavior. Human being behaves in a particular way on the basis of impressions formulated by him. These impressions are called pre-disposition. Important theory in a psychological concept in others mind. It is one of the important internal process we can’t say directly the attitude of the people. It is only the way to identify the attitude of the people on the basis of his external behavior. Definition: KATZ and SCOTAND defined “attitude as a tendency or pre-disposition to evaluate an object or symbol of that object in a certain way”. Characteristics of attitudes: Attitudes refer to feelings and beliefs of individuals or groups of individuals. The feelings and beliefs are directed towards other people, objects or ideas. QIS College of Engineering and Technology, Ongole Page 10
Management Theory & Organizational Behavior Attitudes tend to result in behavior or action. Attitudes can fall anywhere along a continuum from very favorable to very un favorable. Attitudes endure but they can be changed. Attitudes have emotional and motivation aspects. Attitudes have cause and effect towards relationship. Attitudes do not exit at the time of birth they are not in born. They are learnt through worldly experience. Attitudes are positive or negative and favorable or unfavorable. Components of the attitude: There are three important components they are as follows. At tit u de The above components are also called as ABC model. These are shows the persons Attitude and it will make a significant behavior in the minds of the opposite person. 1. Affective: Effective means the affection, feeling and emotions of a person. It will affective when a opposite person seems or identify the personality. 2. Behavior: Behavior is one of the important they when we build up a attitude. We build a attitude we are mainly targeted on a person’s behavior. 3. Cognition: It is also one of the important things in the concept of a attitude. It includes beliefs and values are calculated. In this we can calculate what the time is while he is making his behavior and we have to consider the flexi time of a persons. Formation of Attitude: 1. Direct experience with the object: It can develop from a personally rewarding or punishing experience with an object. QIS College of Engineering and Technology, Ongole Page 11
Management Theory & Organizational Behavior 2. Classical conditioning and attitudes: In this formation of attitude one of the basic processes underlying attitude formation can be explains on the basis of hearing principles. 3. Operate conditioning and attitude acquisition: In this the learning theory is operant conditioning theory. The person’s total learning will be depending upon the individual attitude. 4. Vicarious learning: This refers to formation of attitude by observing behavior of others and consequences of that behavior. We can learn attitudes vicariously. 5. Family and peer groups: A person may learn through imitation of their parents. If parents are having positive attitude toward object the children’s are also having the positive attitude. In this some peoples are followed their peer group characteristics. 6. Neighborhood: Our neighborhood is also influence the behavior. In this their culture, structure and dress code everything will be influence the person’s character. 7. Economic status and occupations: our economic and occupation status is also contributed to attribute formation. 8. Mass communication: All varieties of mass communications- televisions, radio, newspapers and magazines feed- their audience’s large quantities of formation. The presentations of news are always influence the attitude of a person or a organization. Benefits from the positive attitude: Increase productivity. Fosters team work. Solves problems. Improves quality. Makes for congenial atmosphere. Breeds loyalty. Increase profits. Better relationship between employees and management. Reduces stress. Makes for a pleasing personality. Functions of Attitudes: QIS College of Engineering and Technology, Ongole Page 12
Management Theory & Organizational Behavior Adjustment Ego Defensive Attitude Knowledge Value Expression VALUES Introduction: Like attitudes, values that a person has are one of the major forces shaping behaviour. Values are conviction and a framework of philosophy of an individual on the basis if which he judges what is good or bad, desirable or undesirable, ethical or unethical. Rokeach, a noted sociopsychologist, has defined values as “global beliefs that guide actions and judgements across a variety of situation”. Definition: According to the ROKEACH values are “A specific mode of conduct or end state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite mode of conduct (or end state of existence)” Characteristics of values: • Values are abstract terms. • They determine the mode of individual behaviour. • Values emerge out of societal value system. QIS College of Engineering and Technology, Ongole Page 13
Management Theory & Organizational Behavior • They are mode permanent and stable. • They are developed an over a period of time. • Values are differ from individual to individual • These are different for nation. Religion, occupation, family structure cast and time etc... • Values are also varying from to society to society. • Values contain system orientation. • It is good oriented concept. • These are necessary to survive in the society • Most important for peoples where they are living in the society. • It shows a different from values and behaviour Types of values: Values are abstract. They represent a description of psychological state of individual. Various types of values are described below. 1. Theoretical: these are developed out of an attempt to discover truth by using critical and nation approach 2. Economic values: these are emerging out of national human interest of satisfaction with material rewords. They emphasize on seeking practical and immediate and benefit with monitory benefits. 3. Aesthetic values: it emerges out of psychological contentment. They are expressed in terms of innovative aspects. 4. Social values: these values are represents love and affection, belongingness and being values relate to welfare, convince and sympathy of the society. 5. Political values: these values are when individuals believe that power and influence of controlling the society their self respect. 6. Religious values: Religious values emphasize on unity, integrity, non material aspects as important to lead peaceful life these are irrespective of the society. 7. Reactive values: these are basic to any individual. They relate to the satisfaction biological desires 8. Tribalistic values: these values arise out of traditions and customs of the society. 9. Egocentric values: aggression, selfish and individualistic approach represent egocentric values. They are related to satisfaction of one’s esteem, recognition and power QIS College of Engineering and Technology, Ongole Page 14
Management Theory & Organizational Behavior Values and behaviour: Behaviour of people is influenced by the values which they hold, particular in terms of those stimuli which have some values orientations. In the organizational context, understanding the influence of individual value systems on their behaviour is important. Values influence the behaviour of individuals in the following manner. Values influence an individual perception about the problems he faces and consequently the decisions he makes to overcome those problems. Even value system of top management influence choice of organizational and strategies adopted to achieve those goals. Value influence the way in which an individual looks at other individual and groups of individuals, that is interpersonal relationship values become the basis of such interpersonal interactions. Individual judge’s organizational success as well as its achievement on the basis of their value systems. Thus for some individuals organizational success may be in the form of high-profit earning irrespective of the means adopted whereas, this may be a means thing for other individuals. Individuals set limit for the determination of what is ethical or unethical behaviour for themselves as well as for others. Values determine the extent to which individuals accept organizational pressures and goals. If these do not match with the values help by them, they thwart the organizational pressures and goals, and event leave the organization. Factors in value formation: Values of people have their roots in numerous aspects of contemporary society. In particular, there are five sources of values formation in any society. These are value-formatting, activities of various social institutions, values of an organization, peers and colleagues in the organization, work and career, and professionalization and professional code of conduct. Let us see how each of these affects ethical behaviour. Value-forming institutions: The life and development of a society are both based upon and produce values. Therefore, there can be various institutions in the society which inculcate source of values for persons and organisation. Family, school, state, and religion. Value of system is constructed over a life time of experience in which the value shaping influences of these institutions predominate. A key characteristic of all these basic value farming sources is their interrelatedness. The value fostered by each reinforces the value of the others. And together they exert many influences on the value patterns exhibited both by the individuals and organisations. Organization values: Apart from value forming institutions of the society. Organizations, where the individuals work also shape their values though in a lesser degree. An organization has its own values which are reflected in the form of Collective values of individuals who join it. However, since various organizational processes are QIS College of Engineering and Technology, Ongole Page 15
Management Theory & Organizational Behavior designed mostly by managers at comparatively higher levels, organizational value are more in tune with the values of these managers. An individual may subscribe those organization values easily which match with his own values. Peers and career: An individual gets clue of behaviors from his peers and colleagues. He develops and applied beliefs attitudes and values derived from the group of peers and colleagues with whom he is associated. An individual in a work group tends to conform to the groups norms as long as he values the friendship and approval of his associates or fears the possibility that they will cut him from rights, privileges, and benefits they can offer. In the case of values the individual feels an intimate involvement with a number of people, a nation, a society, or a business organization, or a work group. Work and career: Work consists of the tasks or responsibilities associated with a particular job or position in an organization. Essentially, work is human energy directed at the achievement of a desired end. In organization this work is organized directed, controlled, and entrusted to individuals willing to become employee through a more or less permanent association with the organization. An individual’s experience over a period of time constitutes his career. Generally, this career is within an occupation, and in an occupational career, the individual follows a resulted, progressive series of jobs, positions, or stages of development. Professional codes: Professional codes are an increasing source of ethical norms for managers in business organizations. There are three of codes available in an organization. First in the so-called company creeds or philosophies which usually cover those basic philosophies and behaviors that govern the business. Most of the companies have such sets. Learning Introduction: Learning is one of the important part in human life. Most human behaviors are acquired through learning. Rewarded behaviors are learned and repeated and unrewarded behaviors are discontinued. Learning is a psychological process of understanding acquiring information, processing, storing and using the same in future. It is a natural human activity influence the behavior learning is permanent change in the behavior of an individual. It gives insight into how best develop the talents and skills that employees need to perform effectively. Definition: According to SCHIFTMAN and KANUK “learning is a process by which individuals acquire knowledge and experience which they apply to future related behavior”. Nature characteristics of learning: • Learning is a psychological process and a behavioral reaction. QIS College of Engineering and Technology, Ongole Page 16
Management Theory & Organizational Behavior • It is the cognitive function of human brain. • It involves a permanent change, temporary change in behavior does not reflect learning. • Change in behavior is brought about by practice of experimentation and not by physical maturity alone. • Learning occurs through repetitions or reinforced practices or experience. • It involves feedback from outside environment. • It is related to the future based on past actions. • It helps to adjusting a new situation or new environment. The above are the nature and characteristics of the human behavior learning. Learning process components: Learning is a process. It is not a single time activity. It is the continuous and it occurs with a change in behavior. The below are the components for learning process. 1. Cue stimuli: Cue stimuli are any objects existing in the environment as perceived by the individual. It is common to speak of one stimuli simply as stimuli or to use the term cues and stimuli interchangeably. There may be two types of stimuli so far as their results in terms of response are concerned generalization and discrimination. 2. Drive: Drive is an action produced by a strong stimuli or cue. It is the basis for human motivation. Drives can be physiological or psychological. Physiological related to human body and psychological related human brain. But both are interdependent. Both may respond to a given stimuli. But response may vary with intensity of cue. 3. Generalization: It occurs when a response is elicited by similar but new stimuli. The principle of generalization has important implications for human learning. It makes possible stability in man’s actions across the time. Because of a person does not leave to completely relearn each of the new tasks or objects which constantly confront him. 4. Discrimination: It opposite of generalization. This is a process whereby an organism learns to emit a response to a stimulus but avoids making. The same response to a similar but somewhat different stimulus. E.g.: A rat may learn to respond to the white color but not to black. 5. Response: Response is any action or reaction shows by the individual to the stimuli. The response may be overt, that is physically observable or can be convert that is only an expression of behavior. QIS College of Engineering and Technology, Ongole Page 17
Management Theory & Organizational Behavior Factors Affecting the Learning: 1. Motivation: It is one of the important thing in learning. When the people are motivated they can ready to learn. 2. Mental Set: When the people are in learning stage mental condition is very important. When he is in perfect mind he can learn well. 3. Nature of Learning Materials: In this stage the person learning materials also influence the human behavior. If the materials are easy method he can learn well. 4. Practice: Practice man makes perfect. So practice is always make perfect at that particular situation. 5. Environment: Environment is also depend upon the learning skills. When a person want to learn some, at that time environment supposed to that person, he can ready to learn with good interest. Principles of Learning: 1) Motivation: It is one of the important principle, because every person is having future so for to that achieve the goals and objects they will learn the things. So, everybody should motivate for their future goals. 2) Knowledge about the results: In this everybody should know about the results also in this the person who wants learn something that person know what the results from that are. So, everyone knows about the results. Eg. If you win the match you can get good prize. 3) Reinforcement: It will include give the knowledge about the consequences of the behavior . 4) Schedule of learning: It classified in to 3 types a) Duration of practice section b) Duration of rest section c) Position of rest section 5) Whole vs partly: In this how much we want to learn the things 6) Learning curves 7) Meaning fullness of materials Theories of Learning: The learning theories are classified in to 4 types those are as follows. 1) Classical conditioning theory 2) Social learning theory QIS College of Engineering and Technology, Ongole Page 18
Management Theory & Organizational Behavior 3) Operant conditioning theory 4) Cognitive learning theory Operant Conditioning Classical conditioning Learning Cognitive Learning Social Learning The above four are main theories of the learning theories. Theories of classical conditioning: Classical conditioning is based on the premise that a physical event-termed a stimulus. That initially does not elicit a particular response gradually acquires the capacity to elicit that response as a result of repeated pairing with a stimulus that can elicit a reaction. Learning of this type is quite common and seems to play an important aversion, some aspects of sexual behavior and even racial or ethnic prejudices. Classical conditioning became the subject of careful study in the early 20th century. When ‘ Ivan Pavlov ” a Nobel prize winning psychologist from Russia. He was conducted a experiment on dog, and tried to relate the dog’s salivation and the ringing of a bell. When Pavlov presented that dog with a piece of meat the dog exhibited a notifable increased in salivation.When he with held the presentation of meat and merely rang a bell the dog has no salivation. In this theory Pavlov produced to link between meat and ringing the bell. After repeated no.of times learning the bell before getting the food. The dog begins to salivate as soon as the bell rang. After a while the dog would salivate merely at the sound of the bell was rang. But the dog was responded exhibits its saliva. In effect the dog has learned to respond to the bell. The Pavlov respond to a relationship between the two stimuli. QIS College of Engineering and Technology, Ongole Page 19
Management Theory & Organizational Behavior a) The bell ring b) The meat in the minds of the dog Important elements in classical condition theory 1) Dog 2) Bell 3) Meat 4) Saliva Operant Condition Theory It is an instrument in learning process and it is also called instrumental conditioning theory. According to this theory, learning takes place when an individual makes an effort to gain control over the environment. This is a process of trial and error. If certain behavior produces more favorable results than the other behavior, the favorable results reinforce the behavior. Therefore individual responds to learn the behavior that behavior that is rewarded and do not respond to the behavior that is punished or not rewarded. Operant conditioning indicates a voluntary change in behavior . Eg. Response Stimuli The student Hard work Good results Business man Ethics in business wealth maximize Employee performance Promotion Operant condition in more relevant to human learning than classical conditioning it also explains most of the organizational behavior aspects and the operant conditioning theory is used by organization behavior researches to explain the effectiveness of managers. Cognitive learning theory: Cognitive learning theory is the one of important theory in organizational learning. Cognition refers to an individual’s thoughts, knowledge, interpretation understanding ideas about himself and his environment. It establishes the relationship between environmental “cues” and expectations. “Edward Talmon” is widely recognized cognitive theories . He conducted an experiment using rats. QIS College of Engineering and Technology, Ongole Page 20
Management Theory & Organizational Behavior He found that a rat food learn to run through an intercede maze with purpose and direction towards a goal(food). The rat learn to expect that certain cognitive ‘cues’ associated with the choice point mighty eventually led to food. Talmon’s approach depicted as s s. In other words learning is the association between cues and expectations. He observed that rats developed the expectations every choice point in the maze food and image and thus they learn certain cognitive thoughts related to the choice point could ultimately lead to food. On the basis of talmon ideas some training programs were designed to strength and the relationship between cognitive cues such as supervision, job processing and worker expectations such as monitory and other rewards. [High salary, promotion, quality of work life ] Social learning theory: Social learning theory also called observational learning. It emphasizes the ability of an individual to learn by observing others. A learner acquires tacit knowledge and skills through various learning Social learning theory having the following process: ATTENTION RETENTION SOCIAL LEARNING Individual acquired behavior of the model PRODUCTION PROCESS REINFORCEMENT PROCESS Attention: It is the first step in the process of social learning. But the model always plays a central role in the process of social learning. The unique features of characteristics innovations which are attracted the various people always use the arrest the attention of the people. Retention: It is the 2nd step in the process in the process of the social hearing. It influence will depend how well the individual remembers the model actions and they can QIS College of Engineering and Technology, Ongole Page 21
Management Theory & Organizational Behavior remember and repeat the things or features and characteristics of the model, If the model is no longer readily available. Production process: It is our ability to act on the memory representation. It involves recall of the models behavior and performing own actions and matching them with those of the model. Reinforcement process: It is strengthen the people towards their adopted behavior. It is extent to which on repeats the above behavior .generally every individual will be motivated to exhibit the model behavior. If positive incentives or rewards are provided, If they are not provided they will withdrawn from that exhibit behavior. Personality Introduction:Personality is a dynamic growing thing different in each person. It is unique and specific. Behavior is influenced by personal and environmental factors. Personality is a vital aspect of organizational behavior. Hence it helps to know how people in organization acts, reacts to certain stimuli. Personality is more comprehensive than the terms “temperament” or” character” or” externals “of an individual. The external or physique or appearance constitutes only one factor in one’s personality. Personality is the totally of one’s behavior towards one self and others as well. Definition:Floyd Ruch has defined personality as “how a person affects others, how he understands and views himself and his pattern of inner and outer measurable traits”. According to Stephen Robbins, “personality is the sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others”. Characteristics of personality:1Ppersonality refers to psychological qualities of an individual. 2. It is unique. 3. Personality is the manner of adjustment of individual to the members of the group. 4. It is a qualitative aspect, but there are certain techniques to quantity it indirectly. 5. Personality is dynamic. 6. It changes with the time and situation. 7. It consists of both physical and psychological systems. 8. Personality is a system .it has input processing and output mechanisms. QIS College of Engineering and Technology, Ongole Page 22
Management Theory & Organizational Behavior 9. Personality influences goal achievement and performance of an individual. 10. It is goal oriented. 11. It is an object oriented concept. 12. It is always make the organization with desirable behavior. Personality development: - a no of factors contribute to personality development. For instance, heredity, environment, maturation and learning contribute in different degrees in the process of development of personality. Freudian stages: - Freud’s physiological approach of personality development states that development of personality of an individual occurs in 5 stages. 1. Oral stage: - oral stage covers the period from birth to 18 months of age. This stage can’t learn on his experience. Thus oral stage is identified to dependent orientation. 2. Anal stage: - this stage is from 18 months to 3 years. It is a compulsive orientation. In this stage the person develops by his own experience. It is thus identified as compulsive orientation. 3. Phallic stage:-this stage extends from 3 to 7 years. it is adult stage. In this stage person associates himself with own family members. Thus he tries to develop certain a. Characteristics which are influenced by the members of the family. 4. Latency stage: - this stage is from 7 to 12 years. At this stage, the child sexual instincts are usually at sleep because of social fear. 5. Genital stage: - this stage is from 12 to 20 years. Genital stage is known as mature orientation. At this stage person accumulates knowledge and experience and transform them to younger generation. Mostly at this stage one develops characteristics for attainment of life achievement needs. In this personality is one of the important things. Every personality should be developed when the personality age is raising his knowledge is also improved. So knowledge is makes him a perfect personality. Determinants of personality In the previous topics we discussed about the personality psychological growth. When the personality having sound mental ability and good know ledge the person can get good future. So in the organization the managers should work effective way for the development of organization. In this way every organization chooses right persons for the right job, at that time. They must work for the firm, but in this process some of the determinants are impact the personality those are as follows. QIS College of Engineering and Technology, Ongole Page 23
Management Theory & Organizational Behavior Biological factors Family & group factors Individual personality Situational factors Cross cultural factors factors 1. Bio logical factors:-the general characteristics of human biological system influence the way in which human being tends to sense external event data interpret and respond to them. a. Heredity: - heredity pre disposes to certain physical neural and emotions states in this some of the genuine characteristics are following the personality. b. Brain: - it plays a major role in the personality. When the person brain conditions very sound that personality can make perfect. c. Physical features: - this is 3 rd biological factor of a personality. When the personality physical qualities are good that persons character is also good. So in this his physical are most important. When the person is satisfied in the society he can adjust in the organization also. 2. Family and social factors: - The development of the individual proceeds under the influence of many socializing forces and agencies, form nuclear family to more distant or global groupings. Family and social groups have most significant impact on personality development Socialization and identification process is influenced by home environment, family members and social groups a. Home environment b. Family members c. Social groups 3. Cultural factors: - In this the personality where he is living and how he is taking decisions everything is depending on this cultural factors 4. Situational factors: - In this personality situations are calculated. When the persons want to take any decision, that are depending upon the persons situations, and impact of personality theories QIS College of Engineering and Technology, Ongole Page 24
Management Theory & Organizational Behavior 5. Theories of personality: - Personality is one of the important concepts in organizational behavior. In this the personality can be explain by the following theories 1. Type 2. Trait 3. Psychoanalytic 4. Social learning, and 5. Humanistic Typ e Humanisti c Trait Humanisti c Personality Theories Social learning Psycho analytic QIS College of Engineering and Technology, Ongole Page 25
Management Theory & Organizational Behavior 1. Type theory:-According to type theories, people are grouped into identifiable categories. One basis for classifying personalities is the structure of the body. In this theory, a relationship was sought to be established between features of face or body and the personality in this a person’s physique may have some influence on personality. Type theory classified the personality on a basis of physical and subject Another basis to type personality is psychological factors. The personality analyst are classified the personality as introverts and extroverts. These terms are normally associated with an individual’s sociability and interpersonal orientation. Extroverts are gregarious, sociable individuals, while introverts are shy, quiet and retiring. In a more technical sense, introverts are characterized by a greater sensitivity and concern for feelings and are more comfortable dealing with abstract things extroverts are more oriented towards other people, events and objects the type theory is totally based introverts 2. Trait theory: A personality trait is understood as being an enduring attribute of a person that appears consistently in a variety of situations A trait differentiates one from another in a relatively permanent or consistent way. A Trait of an individual is abstracted from his behavior and serves an useful “unit of analysis” to understand personality. In this analysis the personality physical & Psyclogical aspects units of personality 3. Psychoanalytic: In this theory it is totally related to personality psychological things are to be calculated and estimated. These are classified into 3 types The ID: - The word ‘Id’ is the Latin word for ‘It’ and refers exclusively to the innate component of personality. The Id is the mental agency containing everything inherited, present at birth and fixed in the individual’s constitution, especially instincts. It is a child stage the persons don’t know anything The Ego: - This is the stage people can take the data what they want to required. In this people can’t have full information half of the knowledge is having by the people The super Ego: - This is the stage people are having the good knowledge about things. The persons having the full fledged knowledge about the society and about organization 4. Social learning theory:Much of human behavior is either learnt or modified by learning. Through learning one acquires knowledge, language, attitudes, values, manual skill, fears, personality traits and self insight. In this theory is study of the process of human activities and understanding the peoples. Social learning theory is always influence the people and it will teach the people to behave in the society and organization etc. 5. The humanistic approach: - This theory emphasis on man’s potential for self- direction and freedom of choice. They are concerned with the ‘self’ and the individual’s subjective experience. It is study on personality self freedom will be calculated. In this theory humanistic thing are calculated and estimate the personality theories QIS College of Engineering and Technology, Ongole Page 26
Management Theory & Organizational Behavior Johari Window Introduction: The Johari Window model is a simple and useful tool for illustrating and improving selfawareness, and mutual understanding between individuals within a group. The Johari Window model can also be used to assess and improve a group's relationship with other groups. The Johari Window model was devised by American psychologists Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham in 1955, while researching group dynamics at the University of California Los Angeles. The model was first published in the Proceedings of the Western Training Laboratory in Group Development by UCLA Extension Office in 1955, and was later expanded by Joseph Luft. Today the Johari Window model is especially relevant due to modern emphasis on, and influence of, 'soft' skills, behavior, empathy, cooperation, inter-group development and interpersonal development. Over the years, alternative Johari Window terminology has been developed and adapted by other people - particularly leading to different descriptions of the four regions, hence the use of different terms in this explanation. Don't let it all confuse you - the Johari Window model is really very simple indeed. Luft and Ingham called their Johari Window model 'Johari' after combining their first names, Joe and Harry. In early publications the word appears as 'JoHari'. The Johari Window soon became a widely used model for understanding and training self-awareness, personal development, improving communications, interpersonal relationships, group dynamics, team development and inter-group relationships. The Johari Window model is also referred to as a 'disclosure/feedback model of self awareness', and by some people an 'information processing tool'. The Johari Window actually represents information - feelings, experience, views, attitudes, skills, intentions, motivation, etc - within or about a person - in relation to their group, from four perspectives, which are described below. The Johari Window model can also be used to represent the same information for a group in relation to other groups. Johari Window terminology refers to 'self' and 'others': 'self' means oneself, ie, the person subject to the Johari Window analysis. 'Others' mean other people in the person's group or team. Johari window four regions 1. what is known by the person about him/herself and is also known by others - open area, open self, free area, free self, or 'the arena' 2. what is unknown by the person about him/herself but which others know - blind area, blind self, or 'blind spot' QIS College of Engineering and Technology, Ongole Page 27
Management Theory & Organizational Behavior 3. what the person knows about him/herself that others do not know - hidden area, hidden self, avoided area, avoided self or 'facade' 4. what is unknown by the person about him/herself and is also unknown by others - unknown area or unknown self 1. Open Area: This quadrant represents the things that you know about yourself, and the things that others know about you. This includes your behavior, knowledge, skills, attitudes, and "public" history. 2. Blind Area: This quadrant represents things about you that you aren't aware of, but that are known by others. This can include simple information that you do not know, or it can involve deep issues (for example, feelings of inadequacy, incompetence, unworthiness, or rejection), which are often difficult for individuals to face directly, and yet can be seen by others. 3. Hidden Area: This quadrant represents things that you know about yourself, but that others don't know. 4. Unknown Area: This last quadrant represents things that are unknown by you, and are unknown by others. Models of Organizational Behaviour The system’s base rests in the fundamental beliefs and intentions of those who join together to create it such as owners and managers who currently administer it. The philosophy of organizational behaviour held by management consists of an integrated set of assumptions and beliefs about the QIS College of Engineering and Technology, Ongole Page 28
Management Theory & Organizational Behavior way things are, the purpose for these activities, and the way they should be. These philosophies are sometimes explicit and occasionally implicit, in the minds managers. Organizations differ in the quality of organizational behaviour that they develop. These differences are substantially caused by different models of organizational behaviour that dominant management’s thought in each organization. The model that a manager holds usually begins with certain assumptions about people and thereby leads to certain interpretations of organizational events. The following four models of organizational behaviour are as follows: A. Autocratic model B. Custodial model C. Supportive model D. Collegial model Autocratic Model: In an autocratic model’, the manager has the power to command his subordinates to do a specific job. Management believes that it knows what is best for an organization and therefore, employees are required to follow their orders. The psychological result of this model on employees is their increasing dependence on their boss. Its main weakness is its high human cost. Custodial Model: This model focuses better employee satisfaction and security. Under this model organizations satisfy the security and welfare needs of employees. Hence, it is known as custodian model. This model leads to employee dependence on an organization rather than on boss. As a result of economic rewards and benefits, employees are happy and contented but they are not strongly motivated. Supportive Model:The supportive model depends on ‘leadership’ instead of power or money. Through leadership, management provides a climate to help employees grow and accomplish in the interest of an organization. This model assumes that employees will take responsibility, develop a drive to contribute and improve them if management will give them a chance. Therefore, management’s direction is to ‘Support’ the employee’s job performance rather than to ‘support’ employee benefit payments, as in the custodial approach. Since management supports employees in their work, the psychological result is a feeling of participation and task involvement in an, organization. Collegial Model: The term ‘collegial’ relates to a body of persons having a common purpose. It is a team concept. Management is the coach that builds a better team. The management is seen as joint contributor rather than as a boss. The employee response to this situation is responsibility. The psychological result of the collegial approach for the employee is ‘self-discipline’. In this kind of environment employees normally feel some degree of fulfillment and worthwhile contribution towards their work. This results in enthusiasm in employees’ performance. FOUR MODELS OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Autocratic Basis of Custodial Supportive Collegial Power Economic Leadership Partnership QIS College of Engineering and Technology, Ongole Page 29
Management Theory & Organizational Behavior Model resources Managerialorientation Authority Employee psychological result Dependence on Dependence on Participation boss organization Employee needs met Subsistence Security Status and recognition Self-actualization Performance result
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