15 03 0460 00 0040 IEEE 802 CSS Tutorial part1

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Information about 15 03 0460 00 0040 IEEE 802 CSS Tutorial part1
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Published on December 28, 2007

Author: Estelle

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Slide1:  Project: IEEE P802.15 Working Group for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs) Submission Title: Introduction to Chirp Spread Spectrum (CSS) Technology Date Submitted: November 11, 2003 Source: John Lampe, Zbigniew Ianelli Company: Nanotron Technologies Address: Alt-Moabit 61, 10555 Berlin, Germany Voice: +49 30 399 954 135, FAX: +49 30 399 954 188, E-Mail: j.lampe@nanotron.com Re: Discussion of interesting RF technology Abstract: Tutorial Presentation on CSS for IEEE 802 – part 1 Purpose: November Plenary Tutorial #4. Notice: This document has been prepared to assist the IEEE P802.15. It is offered as a basis for discussion and is not binding on the contributing individual(s) or organization(s). The material in this document is subject to change in form and content after further study. The contributor(s) reserve(s) the right to add, amend or withdraw material contained herein. Release: The contributor acknowledges and accepts that this contribution becomes the property of IEEE and may be made publicly available by P802.15. Introduction to Chirp Spread Spectrum (CSS) Technology:  Introduction to Chirp Spread Spectrum (CSS) Technology presented by Zbigniew Ianelli Nanotron Technologies GmbH Berlin, Germany www.nanotron.com Contents:  Contents A brief history of Chirp pulses Characteristics of Chirp pulses The basic Chirp signal Properties of signal forms Scalable technology How to code using CSS Key Properties of CSS A brief history of Chirp pulses:  A brief history of Chirp pulses Used by whales and dolphins Patent for radar applications in 1944 by Prof. Hoffmann Further developed by Sidney Darlington (Lifetime IEEE Fellow) in 1947 („Pulse Compression Radar“) Patented by Canon for data transmission in fiber optic systems Chirp Spread Spectrum for commercial wireless data transmission is investigated since 1997 Characteristics of Chirp pulses:  Characteristics of Chirp pulses A chirp pulse is a frequency modulated pulse. Its duration is T; within this time the frequency is changing in a monotonic manner from a lower value to a higher one („Up-Chirp“) or reverse („Down-Chirp“). The difference between these two frequencies is a good approximation for the bandwidth B of the chirp pulse. Up-Chirp in the time domain (roll-off factor 0.25) The basic Chirp signal:  The basic Chirp signal Chirp pulse: Sinc pulse (baseband): Sinc pulse (RF band): Properties of signal forms in the air and baseband interfaces:  Properties of signal forms in the air and baseband interfaces Chirp pulses for the RF channel: High robustness (BT>>1) Wideband signal Constant envelope of the RF waveform Constant, uniform PSD (Power Spectral Density) well controlled spectrum in very simple way Sinc pulses in the baseband: High speed (Bδ=1) Easy signal processing (threshold detector) Scalable Technology:  Scalable Technology Frequency spreading: Basic information theory tells us that CSS benefits when the bandwidth B of the Chirp pulse is much higher than the data rate R: B >> R Time spreading: The data rate can scale independently of the BT product. The duration T of the Chirp pulse can be chosen freely. A signal with a very high BT product can be achieved, which transforms into a very robust signal in the channel. Scalable Technology (continued):  Scalable Technology (continued) Excellent range – data rate scalability: Preferred for system where range and/or data rate requirement varies rapidly. Especially promising for wideband or ultra wideband system where available frequency bandwidth B is much higher than the data rate R How to code using CSS:  How to code using CSS Modulation techniques: On-Off-Keying (OOK), for example: Up-Chirp = „1“; Null = „0“ allows 2 independent coexisting networks Superposed Chirps (4 possible states): Null/Up-Chirp/Down-Chirp/ Superposition of Up- and Down-Chirp allows one network with double the data rate Key Properties of CSS:  Key Properties of CSS High robustness: Due to the high BT product, chirp pulses are very resistant against disturbances. Multipath resistant: Due to the broadband chirp pulse, CSS is very immune against multipath fading; CSS can even take advantage of RF echoes. Low power consumption: CSS allows the designer to choose an analog implementation, which often consumes much less power. Low latency: CSS needs no synchronization; a wireless connection can be established very quickly. Mobility Properties of CSS:  Mobility Properties of CSS Resistance against Doppler effect: The Doppler effect causes a frequency shift of the chirp pulse, which introduces a negligible shift of the baseband signal on the time axis. Example: Bandwidth of the chirp 80 MHz Duration of the chirp 1 µs Center frequency of the chirp (ISM band) 2.442 GHz Relative speed between transmitter and receiver 2000 km/h Frequency shift due to Doppler effect 4.52 kHz Equivalent shift of the message on the time axis 56.5 ps Note: 2000 km/h is equivalent to 1243 miles/hour Coexistence Properties of CSS:  Coexistence Properties of CSS Immune to in-band interferer: Scalable processing gain (determined by BT product of the chirp) enables selection of appropriate immunity level against in-band interferences. Example: Bandwidth B of the chirp 64 MHz Duration time T of the chirp 1 µs Center frequency of the chirp (ISM band) 2.442 GHz Processing gain, BT product of the chirp 18 dB Eb/N0 at detector input (BER=0.001) 14 dB In-band carrier to interferer ratio (C/I @ BER=0.001) -4 dB Some Applications and Measurements of Chirp Spread Spectrum (CSS) Technology:  Some Applications and Measurements of Chirp Spread Spectrum (CSS) Technology presented by John Lampe Nanotron Technologies GmbH Berlin, Germany www.nanotron.com New Applications / Global Markets:  Applications requiring mobility faster than 11 mph, such as: Tire pressure Assets in vehicles (in-car communications) Drive-by Drop boxes Drive-by AMR Toll booths Applications requiring robustness or fewer retransmissions in multipath environments, such as: Industrial mission-critical Airplanes Ships / engine rooms Gaming New WINA alliance one example of this need Applications requiring ranging accuracy better than 0.5 meters, such as: Asset tracking (active RFID) Personnel tracking Motion detection Automatic network installation New Applications / Global Markets Enhanced Applications / Markets:  Applications desiring extended range, such as: Meter Reading Building Automation And other longer-range applications where repeaters are not practical Enhanced Applications / Markets Evaluation Board:  Evaluation Board Includes: RF IC SAW filter Optimized balun for asymmetrical antenna operation Crystals Outdoor testing with CSS:  Outdoor testing with CSS Test environment: Straße des 17. Juni - Siegessäule Comparing CSS to DECT Outdoors:  Comparing CSS to DECT Outdoors Slide20:  d=23 m, Pout = -15 dBm = 32 µW, G=1,5 dB, BER = 10-3 d=15 m, Pout = -15 dBm = 32 µW, G=1,5 dB, BER = 10-3 Result: d = 23 m with Pout = -15 dBm Calculated: d = 50 m with Pout = +10 dBm, a = 3 Indoor testing with CSS Indoor testing with CSS :  Indoor testing with CSS d=5 m, Pout = -30 dBm= 1 µW, G = 1,5 dB, BER = 10-4 d=26 m, Pout = 8 dBm = 6,3 mW, G = 1,5 dB, BER = 10-3 CSS transmits 1Mbps with Pout = 1 µW over 5m and with 6,3mW over 26m Load-bearing Walls Outdoor Link-Budget:  Outdoor Link-Budget Link budget without cable losses or antenna-gain, best case: LBbest = 103 dB Outdoor free space propagation: distance ~ link-budget with  = 2.1 … 2.3 But: Outdoor propagation is not always free space propagation, due to e.g. hills, trees, houses, … Therefore: Measurements have to be done! d = 940 m Testing CSS on Hahneberg, Berlin-Spandau:  Testing CSS on Hahneberg, Berlin-Spandau 4626±10 m 3404±10 m 739±10 m Ref P1 P2 P3 P4 940±10 m Outdoor testing with CSS:  Outdoor testing with CSS 4626±10 m Pout = 24 dBm = 250 mW 3404±10 m 739±10 m Pout = 7 dBm = 5 mW Ref P1 P2 P3 P4 940±10 m Pout = 9 dBm = 7.9 mW Outdoor testing with CSS:  Outdoor testing with CSS Measurement Challenge: Teufelsberg 6483 m distance 7.7 dBm output power 18 dB antenna gain No FEC BER 10E-3 CSS Outdoor Test Summary:  Gant = 1 dB Pout = 9 dBm, d = 940 m Pout = 7 dBm, d = 740 m Pout = 26 dBm, d = 6.4 km Pout = 30 dBm, d = 9.8 km CSS Outdoor Test Summary Need for Standardization Ole Ploug R&D Manager Central Controls R&D Refrigeration and Air Conditioning www.danfoss.com:  Need for Standardization Ole Ploug R&D Manager Central Controls R&D Refrigeration and Air Conditioning www.danfoss.com Summary:  Summary Introduced CSS technology Explained behavior and benefits Suggested some additional applications that can be satisfied Shown test results that demonstrate some of CSS’ capabilities Shown one customer’s application requirements Conclusions:  Conclusions CSS has qualities of both spread spectrum and UWB. CSS enhances robustness and range CSS adds mobility CSS can be implemented with today’s technologies CSS is a global solution

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