ေရႊ၀ါျပည္ (ရန္ကုန္ဘေဆြ)

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Information about ေရႊ၀ါျပည္ (ရန္ကုန္ဘေဆြ)
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Published on March 19, 2014

Author: satsaluu

Source: slideshare.net

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  • 2 rdrdAdkvf tMuyfwyfom;wdkU udkawGU&/ xdkUaemufb,fwkH;urQ rarQmfvifhcJUaom rdrdtm;&efjyKvmolwdkUudk awGU&/ AdkvfcsKyfBuD;oefrmyg;pyfonf [oGm;/ xdkUaemuf touf&SL&rnfudkarhavsmh ae/ xdkUaemuf [uf[ufyufyuf &,f/ AdkvfcsKyfBuD;oefrm&,farmjcif;udk ypfcwfwdkufcdkufaeMuolwkdUu tHUtm;oifh vsuf typftcwf&yfoGm;Mu/ aoewfBuD;awGvufuudkifvsuf rsufvkH;tjyL;om;ESifh 0dkif;MunfhMu/ a&S;OD;pGmowd&olum; AdkvfrSL;ausmufwdkUjzpfonf/ AdkvfrSL;ausmufwdkifonf AdkvfcsKyfBuD;oefrm a&SUajy;&yfvsuf tumuG,fay; vdkuf/ þokdUjyKvkyfrIaMumifhyifvQif wbufrS owd&vmMuum aoewfoHay:vm/ xdkaoewfoHESifhtwl AdkvfrSL;ausmufwdkifESifhwuG AdkvfcsKyfBuD;oefrmvnf; vJusoGm;/ (2) urÇmajrvkH;ay:ü ajrmufbuf aeoGm;vrf;aMumif;wnfhwnfhavmufwGif a&T0gjynf&Sd/ awmifwef;BuD;rsm;ESifh yifv,fjyifwdkU0dkif;&Humywfxm;aomaMumifh a&S;acwftcgu tjcm;aom wdkif;jynfwkdUrS vma&muf0ifxGuf&efcJ,Of;/ rkwfokHopfawmBuD;rsm; oH oGwf cJykwf aiG-ausmufpdrf; y,if;ESifh ausmufeD xGufaom awmifrsm;&Sd/ a&eHxGufaomajrrsm;ESifh oD;yifpm;yifpdkufysKd;&ef aumif;aom ajrMoZmjzifh pdrf;pdkaeonfh ajrjyefUvGifjyifrsm;&Sd/ ajrmufbufawmifwef;BuD;rsm;rS jzwfí taemufawmifbuf yifv,fjyiftxd tvsm;vdkufpD;qif;aom a&T0g0wdjrpfBuD; vnf;&Sd/ xdkjrpfBuD;urf;ab;wGif cdkif;EGm;rsm; uRJrsm;wkdUonf uGif;jyifzkH;rQaygjynfh/ ukef;wef;awmifurlwkdUürl jrif;rsm;ESifh tjcm;aom awmwd&pämefrsm; aysmfyg;jrL;wl;Mu/ þodkUaom t&yfwGifa&T0gvlrsKd;wkdUonf tcsif;csif;Adkvfvkvsuf jynfe,ftoD;oD; cJGa0í NrdKUjywnfaxmifaeMu/ vGefcJUaomESpfaygif; 1950-cefUu a&T0gjynfudka&mufbl;cJUaom tD&efukefonf BuD;wOD; rSwfwrf;wGif atmufygtwdkif; trSwftom;jyKcJU/ a&T0gjynfudk tpdk;&aomrif;onf xif&Sm;ausmfaZm/ olppfonf&Jrufrsm;onf uod®,? yvl0ESifh £E´Kjrpf0Srf;wavQmuf EdkifiH&Sd&Jruf Adkvfygrsm;xuf rsm;jym;onf ppfcsD wufwdkif; wdkufqifaygif; ig;aomif;ESifh csDwuf/ wyfrawmfBuD;wGif ppfonf&Jrufudk rqdkxm;bdt0wfavQmfaom c0gonfOD;a&yif waomif;ausmf/ xdka&T0gjynfü tjcm;b,fEdkifiHrQ r&ufwwfaom t0wftxnfrsKd;udkawGU&/ xdkt0wftxnfrsKd;wkdUudk 0wfqif&ef csKyfvkyfNyD;aomtcg tvGefEl;nHUajymhaysmif;aom aMumifh vufpGyfuGif;xJodkU xkwfaygufvQKdEdkif/ om;NrD;jzifh jyKaom,yfrsm;udkvnf;
  • 3 jrifbl;cJU&/ acgif;ay:ü OD;csKdwacsmif;wnf;om&Sdaom ¤if;wdkUtac:ESifh BuHUac:onfh taumifrsKd;udkvnf; awGUcJU/ uREkfyfwkdUonf xdka&T0gjynfüBuHUom;udk pm;cJUMu&/ a&T0gjynfopfawmwkdUü BuHUaumiftvGefaygrsm;/ tjcm;EdkifiHrsm;wGif BuHUaumifudk uREkfyfwkdU awGUbl;Muaomf vnf; a&T0gjynfwGifawGU&aom BuHUrsm;avmuf OD;csKdvSyonfh BuHUaumifwdkUudk rawGUbl; cJUMu&/ a&T0gjynfom;wkdUonf xdkBuHUaumifwkdU OD;csKdrsm;udk xGufukeftjzpf w&kyfjynfokdU wifydkUMu/ w&kyfwkdUonf BuHUcsKdrsm;udk cg;ywfjyKvkyf0wfqifMu/ wefbdk;BuD;pGmay;í 0,fMu/ BuHUcsKdykHyef;udkvdkufí vSyvGef;vQif aiGydócsdefokH;av;q,fay;í 0,f,lMu onf/ BuHUcsKdrsm;tjyif qifpG,fwkdUudkvnf; ta&mif;t0,fjyKMuao;/ a&T0gjynfom;wkdU onf qifudkzrf;&m arG;jrLMu&mü *kwåEdkifiHom;wkdUxuf ydkrdkuRrf;usifMuonf/ txufyg tD&efukefonfBuD; rSwfwrf;tjyif w&kyfjynfBuD; ordkif;üvnf; a&T0gjynftaMumif;udk a&;om;xm;aom rSwfpkrSwfwrf;tcsKdU&Sdao;onf/ xdkw&kyfjynfBuD;ordkif;ü a&T0gjynfBuD;taMumif;udk a&;om;&mwGif a&T0gjynf rif;BuD;onf wdkif;crf;vSnfhvnfaomtcg a&TBudK;rsm;jzifh qdkif;wyfaom ovGefanmif apmif;xufü vnf;avQmif;&if; xGufonf[kqdk/ c&D;a0;vHcsDvQif qifpD;íxGuf/ eef;wGif;üa&T0gjynf bk&ifrif;BuD;udk &maygif; rsm;pGmaom tysKdawmfwkdU0ef;&Hcpm;/ a&T0gjynfom;wkdUonf EdkifiHNrdKU&dk;BuD;rsm;udk pdrf;zefUzefUta&mif&Sdaom pOftkwf csyfrsm;jzifh aqmufvkyf/ NrdKUrsm;onf NrdKU0dkif;rsm;jzpfMuvsuf us,f0ef;vSy/ NrdKU&dk;wHcg; 12-ayguf&Sd/ NrdKUav;rsufESmbuf apwDwqlMupDwnfxm;/ EdkifiHolEdkifiHom;wkdUonf NrdKUwGif;üomaeMu/ NrdKUol-NrdKUom;rsm;onf tdrfudkow¦Krsm;oGyfrsm;jzifh jyKvkyfxm;aom tkwf<uyfjzifh rdk;Mu/ ydawmufom;? uRef;om;? ysOf;uwdk;om;wdkUjzifh tdrfudkaqmufvkyfMu/ EdkifiHolEdkifiHom;rsm;onf owå0gwkdUtoufudk owfjzwfjcif;rS wwftm;oa&TU a&SmifMuOfMu/ wOD;ESifhwOD;awGUaomtcg wOD;vufarmif;ESpfbufudk wOD;u vufESpfzufjzifhqkyfvsuf EIwfqufMu/ vlwdkif;vlwdkif; eu©wfaA'ifa[mwwfMujcif;? ,kHMunfwwfjcif;rSm a&T0gjynfxl;jcm;csufw&yfjzpf/ a&T0gjynfom;wdkUonf Ak'´omoem0ifrsm; jzpfMuí... r[m,eESifh [dem,e Ak'´bmomESpfckvkH;udk a&,Sufudk;uG,fMu/ ewfudkvnf; udk;uG,fMu/ bkef;BuD;rsm; onf 'um'umrwdkUtay:ü MoZm&Sdvsuf vlUudpöwdkUudk qkH;rnTefMum;Mu&/ xdkUaMumifh vnf; 'um'umrwkdUu bkef;BuD;ausmif;aygif;ajrmufrsm;pGm aqmufvkyfudk;uG,fxm;Mu onf/
  • 4 bkef;BuD;ausmif;rsm;udkvnf; rSefa&mif awmufaomtkwfcsyfjzifh aqmufvkyfMu/ rSefa&mifawmufaomtkwfcsyfudk [oFmjy'g;okwfum a&TaiGwdkUjzifhpDcs,f/ vSyaom aq;a&mifrsm;jzifhvnf;okwf/ ausmif;rsm;Murf;jyifudkvnf; aq;okwfí ta&mifwif xm;Mu/ xdkMurf;ay:ü tqef;wus,fjyKvkyfaom aumfaZmBuD;rsm; cif;xm;Muukef/ bk&ifheef;awmfudkvnf; bkef;BuD;ausmif;rsm;uJUodkU vSypGmaqmufvkyf/ bk&ifh eef;awmfudk bkef;BuD;ausmif;uJUodkU twkjyKí aqmufoavm? bkef;BuD;ausmif;udk bk&ifheef;awmfuJUokdU twkjyKíaqmufoavm uREkfyfwdkUrodcJU&ay/ uREkfyfwkdUodcJU&onfum; a,musfm;uav;rsm;onf ckESpfESpfom;t&G,fodkUa&muf vQif acgif;wkH;&dwfNyD;ouFef;pnf;Mu&/ toufESpfq,f t&G,fxdatmif udk&if0wfNyD;rS avmukwå&mpmayudk rwwfuRrf;vQif vl0wfjyefjyKMu&onf/ xdkudk&ifvlxGufwkdUonf qHyifr&SnfrSDumvtwGif; a&TjzihfjyKvkyfaom yef;EG,fyef; cufrsm; wyfqifxm;onfh OD;xkyfrsKd; ykHvfrsm;tbdk;wefaom ausmufrsm; pDcs,fxm;onfh OD;xkyfrsKd;wkdUudk aqmif;Mu/ <u,f0csrf;omvsuf trsKd;jrwfaomolwkdUonf BuHUOD;csKd ESifhwlaom OD;xkyfrsKd;wkdUudkjyKvkyfí aqmif;Mu/ qHyif&Snfvmaom tcsdefwGif OD;&pf acgif;aygif;rsm;udk aygif;Muonf/ OD;&pfacgif;aygif;rsm;onf yg;íacsmaom csnfrQifwkdU jzifh yef;yGifhyef;cufay:atmifjyKvkyfxm;aom yk0grsm;jzpfMu/ rsm;aomtm;jzifh udk&ifvl xGufrsm; r[kwfMuvQif ppfcsDwufaomtcgrS OD;xkyfrsm;udk aqmif;wwfMuonf/ bk&ifheef;awmfBuD;wGif a&TjzifhoGef;vkyfxm;aomacgif;avmif;jym;wck? aiGjzifhoGef; vkyfxm;aom acgif;avmif;jym;wck? opf,m;jzifh jyKvkyfxm;aom BuD;rm;vSonfh AkHBuD; wpfck&Sdonf/ xdkt&mwkdUudktrSwftom; trsKd;rsKd;jzifh aeUpOfwD;cwfay;&/ a&T0gjynf om;wkdUonf xdkwD;cwfoHudkMum;&ojzifh þum; tcsdefrnfrQ&SdNyD? þum;... bk&ifrIcif; ppfNyD? þum;tjypf&SdolwkdUudktjypfay;NyD? þum; &efolwdkU EdkifiHteD;tyg;odkU csOf;uyf vmNyDpojzifh odMu/ ppfjzpfrnfqdkvQif u&ufeuf eHUomwkH;rsm;udk rD;&IHUum ppfEdkifrnf&IH;rnfudk edrdwf aumufMu/ aA'ifwGufMu/ ewfudkylaZmfyoMu/ a&T0gjynfwGif ayw&mrQjrifhaom ewf&kyfBuD;wck&Sd/ trItcif;jzpfyGm;olrsm;onf xdkewf&kyfBuD;a&SUwGif eHUomwkH;rsm;udk rD;&IdHUvdkuf 'l;wkyf0yfwGm;um trI&IH;rnf Edkifrnfudk t"dXmefjyKMu/ EdkifiHwGif;ü uyfa&m*gqdkufa&mufvQif¤if;? &moDOwkazgufjyefjcif;? a&BuD;jcif;? oD;ESHysufpD;jcif; ponfwkdUjzpfyGm;vQif¤if;? a&T0gjynfbk&ifonf xdkewf&kyfBuD;a&SUodkU oGm;a&muf'l;wkyfum rif;usifhw&m;ESifhtnD usifhygrnf[k... awmif;yeft"dXmefjyK/ &mZ0wfaumifrsm;udk a&T0gom;wkdUonf taESmiftzGJUrjyKay/ BuD;av;aom &mZ0wfrIusL;vGefolrsm;udk ig;vkH;yl;xm;aomBudrfjzifh ausmjyifudk ig;csuf&dkufESuf/
  • 5 jypfrIao;i,fusL;vGefolrsm;udk ig;vkH;yl;Budrfjzifh okH;csuf&dkufESuf/ ckd;rIusL;vGefolrsm; onf BuD;av;aomjypfrIudk tpjyKí usL;vGefvmoljzpfaomaMumifh ao'Pftjypfay;/ a&T0gjynfwGif yJ? pyg;? ajymif;rsm;udk pdkufysKd;Mu/ BuHyifrsm;vnf; vlUajcovkH; cefUxGm;/ *sKHESifh ydkufqHyifrsm;raygufacs? pdkufysKd;jcif;vnf; r&SdMuacs/ a&TESifhaiGrsm;udkvnf; v0ef;ae0ef;ESifh vjcrf;o@mef jyKvkyfokH;pJGMu/ a&T0gjynf om;wkdUonf ntcsdefwGif tvif;a&mif&&efa&eHrsm; tjcm;aom wd&pämeftqDrsm;ESifh za,mif;rsm;udkcGufodkUxnfhvsuf xrif;ajcmufrsm; eHUomwkH;rsm;jzifh a&mxnfhrD;&IdUxGef;nSd Mu/ EdkifiHeD;jcif;rsm;ESifh ukefcsif;zvS,fMuaomtcg zGwfa&? 0g*Grf;? ovif;ausmuf/ ajra&waumif;rsm;jzifh zvS,fMu/ a&T0gjynfolrsm;onf qHyif&Snfxm;um qHxkH;-xkH;Muvsuf ykvJoG,frsm;.... ausmufrsuf&JwkdUjzifhpDjc,ftyfonfh a&TBudK;rsm;udkyefqifMu/ ta&miftrsKd;rsKd; qdk;xm;aom xrDudk0wfMu/ tusøay:wGifvnf; yg;vTmaomydk;wbufudk NcKHvTrf;xm; / vrf;xGufaomtcg ,yfawmifrsm;udk udkifaqmifMuonf/ rif;rIxrf;uawmfwkdU aemufü ,yfawmifudkif tajrmuftrsm;vdkufygMu&/ þonfum; vGefcJUonfhESpfaygif; waxmifausmfu a&T0gjynfudk a&mufbl;vmMuonfh w&kyftrsKd;om;wkdUrSwfwrf;jzpf/ txufygrSwfwrf;udk bwfNyD;Muaom &mZ0if0goemxkHolwdkif; a&T0gjynf taMumif;udk ydkípdwf0ifpm;apEdkifaom rSwfwrf;wck&Sdao;onf/ xdkrSwfwrf;udk vGefcJU onfh&Spfq,fhig;ESpfu zdkufcsftrnf&Sdaom t*FvdyfvlrsKd;wOD;ua&;/ a&S;tcg a&T0gjynfodkUa&mufbl;Muaom tD&efukefonfBuD;rsm; w&kyftrskd;om;rsm; rSwfwrf;ESifh t*FvdyfvlrsKd; ]zdkufcsf}rSwfwrf;onf ESpfaygif;udk;&mausmfuGmjcm;/ zdkufcsfuqdkavonf a&T0gjynfom;wkdUonf rGef*dktEG,fjzpfaMumif; odomxif&Sm; / vkH;aomOau©mif; usOf;aomezl;&Sd/ rsufaphae&mü txufrSatmufodkUoG,fusOf; us,fíjym;aom rsufBuD;aomyg;&dk;&Sd/ ar;&dk;BuD;xGm;[efr&Sd/ EIwfcrf;xla,mifESifh wif;wif;aph/ ar;wdk? ESmacgif;0us,f/ jym;/ rkwfqdwfarG; yg;odkif;arG;r&SdMu/ EIwfcrf;arG;oufouf BudK;usJ&Sd/ t&yf 5ay-cJGywfvnfü&SdMuí udk,fayguf vufa&muftcsKd;us/ ajcwHvufwH rQw/ wnfhrwfaomOau©mif; ajzmifhwef;aom yckH;vufjyif? us,fum;aom&iftkyf? odrfaomcg;&Sd/ <uufom;BuD;rsm;pkxGufaeaom ajcaxmufrsm;&Sd/ usef;cefoefpGrf; aom vlrsKd;jzpfaomaMumifh pdwfrESHUoludk,ft*FgcsKd,Gif;olenf;/

    6 rdrdudk,frdrd ,kHMunfpdwfcsjcif;udk rsufESmuaz:jyí usef;rmoefpGrf;aMumif;udk oGufvufaom ajcvSrf;uaz:jy/ qHyifudk xyfay:wGifwkH; qHxkH;udk ydwfacsm odkUr[kwf ydk;y0gjzifh &pfywfxm;/ &moDudkvkdufí csDxnfodkUr[kwf ouúvyftusøudk cg;txd zm;vsm;usapvsuf0wf/ cg;üajcovkH;txdzkH;tkyfaom csnfodkUr[kwf ydk;ycuf ac:onfht&mudk0wf/ wcgw&Hxdkykqdk; tpwzuf yckH;ay:üuydku&dkwifxm;/ tom;ndK/ tcsKdU0if;0g/ a&T0gjynftrsKd;orD;wkdUonf trsKd;om;rsm;xuf tom;0if;/ odrfarGUaom &kyf&nf&SdMu/ udk,fvkH;vSyajyjypfaMumh&Sif;/ oG,fvsaysmhaysmif;aomajcvuf&Sd/ xl;qef;onfum; a&T0gjynfolwkdUonf arT;aomopfacgufwrsKd;udk vSypGmjyKvkyf xm;onfh ausmufcyfxufwGif a&jzifhaoG;í rsufESmESifh udk,fvkH;udkvdrf;vl; rsufESmay: wGif pdwf&oavmuf vSypGmjc,fvl;/ xdkopfacguf ta&mifonf 0gazsmhvsuf vSy/ xdkopfacgufteHYUonf tvGef,Ofaus;pGmoif;ysHUysHU waiGUaiGUarT;/ rsufESmudk tvStyjyKjyif&mü a&T0gjynfolwkdUonf tjcm;aomvlrsKd;rsm;toD;oD; wkdUxuf xl;jcm;/ pm;&efjyKvkyfxm;onfh vbuf&Gufudk rsufckH;arT;qJG&mü tokH;jyK/ xdkt&Gufonf tom;jzL0if;olwkdU twGufndKarmif;armif;ta&mifjzifhap/ rJeufjywf xifjcif;r&Sd ajyjypf/ EIwfcrf;eDap&eftyifrSjzpfaom uGrf;&Guf? uGrf;oD;? &Sm;ap;ESifh ajrrSxGufaomxkH; wkdUudk a&mpyfpm;/ xdkodkUpm;jcif;onf EIwfcrf;wGif oif;ysHUaomteHUwrsKd; tvGefEl; nHUpGmpJGNrJusefaponfhtjyif EIwfcrf;udk pum;eDa&mifjzpfap/ uGrf;&GufESifhxkH;wkdUonf tom;taoG;wkdUykyfpyfaom teHUudktxl;Edkifeif;/ þodkUjzifh a&T0gjynfolwkdU tvStyvdrf;jc,frIonf jywfjywfxifxifr&SdapbJ tEkynmajrmuf/ urÇmay:wGif rnfonfhrdef;rrsKd;wkdUrS r&&SdEdkifaomtoif;ysHysHU&eHUydkif&Sifrsm;ESifh *kPf,lavmufaom trsKd;om;vdrf;jc,frIudk ydkifqdkifxm;olrsm;jzpfMu/ a&T0gjynfolwkdUqHyifonf &Snfvsm;rJeuf/ xdkqHyifudk *efUa*:0wfrIHESifh a'ge tyifajcmufwkdUygaom yef;owfonfhqDarG;jzifh aooyfpGmvdrf;usHí aemufodkUusvsuf xkH;/ xkdqHxkH;udk opfcGyef; py,fyef; pum;yef;wkdUjzifh vSypGm&pfukef;yefqifMu/ a&T0gjynfolwkdUonf jynfwGif;jzpftcsdwfydk;xrDudk0wfqifMu/ xrDudkcg;üwif; MuyfpGmcsyfxm;/ xrDonfcg;rS ajcovkH;txdomvQif &Snfvsm;zkH;tkyf/ xrDatmuf em;wGif a&TcsnfaiGcsnfESifh teufuefUvefUpif;rsm; ygaom yef;Eka&mif atmufem;p oDxm;/ xdkatmufem;ponf ajcz0g;atmufMurf;jyifwGif waycefUykHae/ xdkatmufem;udk a&T0gjynfolwkdUonf vrf;avQmuf&mü¤if; vSyaysmhEGJUpGmESifhyif EdkifEdkifeif;eif; odrf;Edkif/

    7 cg;csyf0wfxm;aom xrDtxufwGif &ifom;udkzkH;tkyfpnf;aESmifonfh eDarmif; aomt0wfpwck udk,fwGifywfxm;/ xdkt0wf tqkH;towftpudk vuf0Jbuf csKdif;atmufwGif csKd;acgufxdk;nSyf/ udk,ftxufydkif;ü cgom ydk; okdUr[kwf zJtusø&ifcGJudk 0wfqifMu/ yckH;xufü yg;vTmaom wbufwxnfonf rygvQifrjzpfaom NcKHvTr;fonfh tokH;taqmifwckjzpf / xdkUaemufajcaxmufwGif ydk;uwåDyg? csnfuwåDygwkdUjzifhjyKvkyfaom eDvGifonfh bdeyfudkpD;vdkufvQifl a&T0gjynfolwkdU qif,ifrIrSm NyD;jynfhpkH/ odkUaomf &Sdygao;onfh a&T0gjynfolwkdUonf vnfqGJESifhvuf0wfwef;qmwkdUudk 0wfwwfMuao;/ xdkvuf0wfwef;qmtm;vkH;udk a&TpifwGif ywåjrm;ESifh tjcm;tbdk; wefausmufrsuf&TJrsm;udk pDjc,fxm;Mu/ vnfqGJonfa&TpifESifh tbdk;wefvSaom ausmufrsuf&GJudkwukH; okdUr[kwf okH;ukH;rQjzpfí &ifvTrf;wef;qmonfa&Tpifü ausmuf rsuf&GJtrsm;tjym; pDjc,fxm;aom &ifwckvkH;tay:wGif? zkH;vTrf;Edkifonfh tvTm tcsyfBuD;jzpf/ vufaumufudk tcsKdUuwawmifqpfodkU wdkifatmif a&Ttwd0wfqifMu/ tcsKdUurl ywåjrm;ausmufrsuf&GJwkdUpDjc,fonfh tbdk;xdkufwefvGef;vSaom w&Hwnf; aomvufaumufudkom 0wfqifMu/ a&T0gjynfolwkdUonf urÇmü vGwfvyfcGifh tjynfh&&Sdaom trsKd;orD;rsm;jzpfMu/ a,mufsm;udkcspfcif&dkaoMuaomfvnf; a,mufsm;wkdUESifh xyfwlxyfrQmrqdkjyKvkyf/ wef;wlvnf; tvkyfvkyfMu/ xGef,ufpdkufysKd;jcif; jrif;pD;jcif;ESifh tjcm;Murf;wrf;aom tvkyftm;vkH;wkdUudk vkyfMuavonf/ odkUaomf.....a&T0gjynfolwdkUonf tvkyfrvkyfaom tvGwftcsdefwGif oGm;vmae xdkif&mü ,Ofaus;odrfarTUjcif;udk *kPf,lMu/ xdkUaMumifh a&T0gjynfolwkdUcg;úywfxm; aomxrDonf ajrjyifay:ü wayrQydkusaeaom tem;udkoDxyfxm;/ xdktem;onf 'l;qpfatmufajcrSpwifvsuf a&TcsnfaiGcsnf tpif;rsm;jzifh vSypGmcsKyfvkyfxm;/ &Snfvsm;aom xrDtem;ygonfh xrDudk0wfqifvsuf a&T0gjynfolwdkif; vQifjref jzwfvyfpGm tvkyfvkyfEdkif/ vrf;oGm;Edkif/ uckefEdkif/ odkUaomf....vrf;oGm;vQif ,Ofaus;zG,f&m&Sdonf/ þodkU,Ofaus;zG,f&mjyKEdkifjcif; udkvnf; wefbdk;xm;/ ajcwvSrf;vQif uka#woef;wefaom trsKd;orD;rsm;jzpfMuonf [k a&T0gjynfoljynfom;wkdUu rdrdwkdUtrsKd;orD;rsm;twGuf *kPf,lwwfMu/

    8 xdkUxufydkí ESpfoufzG,faumif;onfum; a&T0gjynfolkwdkUonf bmoma&; tBuD; tuJwdkU taESmiftzGJUrS¤if; ZmwftedrfhtjrifhwkdU tqD;twm;wdkUrS¤if;? uif;vGwfMu í wbufom;tay:ü [dE´LESifh r[mar'ifwkdUuJUodkUvnf; r,kHrMunf oHo,yGm;rsm; wwfjcif;r&Sd? Oa&mywdkufom;rsm;ay:ü [efBuD;yefBuD;jyKvkyfavhr&Sd? tjcm;aom bmom "avhxkH;pHrsm;udkvnf; &IHUcs&GHUrkef;avhr&Sd? tvGefaz:a&Tvsuf vlrSeforQtm;vkH;wkdUudk &dkaoudkif;&Idif;pGm av;av;pm;pm;qufqHwwf/ a&T0gjynfom; a,mufsm;rdef;rwdkif; wbufom;tm; &dkaoudkif;&Idif;rI vGwfvyfpGm aexdkifajymqdkrI ESpfvdkbG,f&m az:a&GrIwkdU&SdMu/ tqif;&JqkH; tEGrf;yg;qkH; jzpfaom olrsm;üyif &dk;om; rGefa&/ £ajE´&Sd/ auR;csifarG;csif/ &ufa&mpGm ay;urf;wwf / &Tif&Tifjyjyaexdkifwwf/ Muifemcifrifwf/ xdkvlrsKd;wkdU [moESifha&mifh&Jwif;wdrf rIudk jrif&olwdkif;tHMoMu&/ vltm;vkH;yifwifhawmifhwifhw,f&Sd/ tvGef<u,f0csrf; omvGef;aom olr&SdouJUodkU tvGefqif;&JvGef;olrsm;vnf; r&SdMu/ vlwa,muf tvkyfvkyfvQif wtdrfaxmifvkH; Nidrf;csrf;pGmxdkifpm;Edkif/ w&uf tvkyfvkyfvQif ig;&ufcefUtvkyfvkyfbJ xdkifpm;Edkif/ xdkUaMumifh a&T0gjynfoljynfom; taygif;wkdUonf yGJvrf;obifodkU twloGm;&mü jzpfap? c&D;twloGm;&müjzpfap? tm;vkH;twGuf ukefus&rnfhpm;&dwfudk olUxufigOD; atmif tvkt,ufjyKMuvsuf wa,mufwnf;u wm0ef,líxkwfay;/ a&T0gjynfü qif;&Jaomtdrfwtdrfjzpfapumrl rdrdwkdUtdrfokdU0ifa&mufwnf;cdkvm vQif vludkjzpfap w&dpämefudkjzpfap? trsKd;trnfrcGJjcm;bJ? tzdk;tcr,lbJ? tqifhtwef; tedrfhtjrifhra&G;bJ tpm;tpmauR; tdyf&mae&may;/ tdrfom;rsm;rpm;rD OD;pGmauR; jcif;vnf; jzpf/ tdrfom;rsm;rtdyfaom tdrfOD;cef;ü odyfjcif;vnf;jzpf/ xdkwnf;cdk aomtdrfrS {nfhonfjzpfol xGufroGm;rjcif; auR;xm;wwfMuonfvnf;jzpf/ udk{nfhonfonf rdrdþodkU wnf;cdkae&onfhtwGuf tvkyfvkyfay;&efvnf;rvdk? tbdk;tc ay;&efvnf;rvdk/ pm;NyD;tdyf tdyfNyD;pm;vsuf Nidrf;csrf;pGm rylryifaeEdkif/ tdrf&Sifonf udk{nfhonftm; rdrdtdrfOD;üwifí ocifwqlobG,f vkyfauR;jyKpkaevdrfh rnfjzpf/ tcsdefMumvmaomaMumifh tdrf&Sif cspfbG,faumif;aom orD;ysKdESifh eD;pyfvm vQif udk{nfhonfonf cspfa&;iifEdkifygao;/
  • 9 tdrf&SifodoGm;vQif rSm;aMumif; 0efcHvdkufygbd/ xdkUaemuftcspf wkwfaESmifcH& aomrdrdonf rdrd ESvkH;oD;yGwfudk þtdrfwGifxm;cJUí [if;vif;yGifhaom&if? trSwf onmuif;rJUaomudk,fjzifh þt&yfrSxGufcGmoGm;ygawmhrnf? rdrdusL;vGefrdonfhtjypf 'Pfudk þtdrfom;wkdUrsufuG,ft&yfü woufywfvkH; usdwfrSdwfcHpm;oGm;ygawmhrnf[k rsuf&nfcHxdk;íajymvdkufyg/ þodkUjyKvkyfjyvdkufrnfqdkygvQif udk{nfhonfonf rnfonfhvlrsKd;yifjzpfygap pdwfcs-vufcs xdktdrfxufwGif.....om;ruftjzpfESifhaeoGm;Edkif/ tu,fí xdktdrfu vufrcHbl;jzpfapOD; udk{nfhonftbdkUbmrSpdwfrylygESifh tjcm;a&T0golrsm;u udk{nfhonftm; tvGefMuifemoem;Muvsuf qGJac:oGm;Muvdrfhrnf jzpf/ pdwfcsygav... okdUaomf xl;jcm;csufwck&Sdonf/ a&T0gjynfolwdkif;onf tdrfaxmifa&; pD;yGm;a&; wdkUü vifjzpfolESifhwef;wltcGifhta&;&Sd/ vifwdkif;u r,m;wdkif;udk pD;yGm;buf[k todtrSwfjyK/ tdrfaxmifwGif;ypönf;udk vifr,m;ESpfOD;ydkifqdkif/ oabmcsif;rwdkuf qdkifvQif vifr,m;uGJMuvQif &Sdypönf;udk vifESifhr,m; o&ufaphxufjcrf;uJGcGJa0,lMu& / a&T0gjynfür,m;onf aomhudkifypönf;xdef;jzpf/ a&T0gjynfwGif a&T0gjynfoljynfom;wkdU vdkufemusifhokH;Mu&aom pnf;urf;owf rSwfcsufawG&Sd/ xdkpnf;urf;owfrSwfcsufwkdUü... vifonfr,m;udkrdrdESifh xyfwlxm;&/ Opömtyf&/ rdrdr,m;rSwyg; tjcm; rdef;rrsm;udk rjypfrSm;& 0wfpm;wefqmqif&/ jrwfEdk;Muifem&[laomtcsufrsm;&Sd/ xdkUtwlr,m;wkdUuvnf;.... tdrfwGif;trIvkyfaqmif&/ vif&SmazGaomypönf;udk pepfwusodrf;qnf;&/ rdrdvifrSwyg; tjcm;aoma,mufsm;rsm;ESifh razmufjyef&/ rdrdwkdUpD;yGm;ypönf;udk oifhavsmf pGmokH;pJG&/ ysif;&djcif;r&Sdap&[laom pnf;urf;csufwkdU&Sd/ xdkpnf;urf;csufwkdUt& a&T0gjynfolkwdkUonf urÇmürnfonfhlvrsKd;ESifhrQ EIdif;,SOf r&aom a,mufsm;ESifhwef;wltusKd;cHpm;cGifh/ &ifabmifwef;EdkifcGifh&&SdaeMu/ urÇmhtrsKd; orD;tm;vkH;wkdUtxJü tvGwfvyfqkH;aom trsKd;orD;rsm;jzpfMu/ okdUaomf a&T0gjynfoludk vdkcsifaom udk{nfhonftbdkUbmrQ rpdk;&drfygESifh oabm aumif;í usifemvdkufavsmvG,faom a&T0gjynfolwkdUonf
  • 10 rdrdwkdU,lrdaomvifu rdrdwkdU tay:ü a&T0gjynfom;vifwkdUuJUodkU rusifhokH;apumrl...... a&T0gjynfolwdkif;onf rdrdwkdU,lxm;onfh vifhtay:ü rdrdwkdUjyKvkyf&rnfh 0wå&m; rysufuGuf,kHrQru udk{nfhonfwkdUbmom"avhudkvnf; tvG,fwul vdkufavsm vufcHMuvdrfhrnfjzpf/ bmoma&;ESifh ywfoufí a&T0gjynfoljynfom;wkdUonf xdkif;vif;jynfom;? avmjynfom;? uarÁm'D;,m;jynfom;? jrefrmjynfom;wkdUESifh xyfwljzpf/ [dE´LjA[®PwdkUt,ltq [if;av;tdk;tESpfwGif a*gwrAk'¨qm;jrufjrufjzifh cyfay;xm;aom ax&m0g't,ludk ,lMu/ xdkUaMumifhtrsKd;rsm;? Zmwfrsm;udk cGJjcm;rI &Sdaomfvnf; jyif;xefrIr&Sd? rsm;jym;aom bmoma&;pnf;urf;csufrsm;&Sdaomfvnf; xdkpnf;urf;csufwkdUudk þodkUusL;vGefvQif aemifwrvGefü þykHcH&rnf? þokdUjyKvkyfvQif aemifwrvGefü þES,fcH&rnf[laom ,kHMunfaprIjzifh xdef;odrf;ay;/ a&T0gjynfom;bkef;awmfBuD;wkdUonf þtvGefMuifemwwf tvGef,kHMunfwwf? tvGefvdkufavQmwwf? tvGefaysmf&Tifwwfaom &dk;om;onfh a&T0gjynfom;wdkUtm; aemifwrvGefücH&pH&rnfh taMumif;rsm;udk wzGJUwEGJUajymMu/ rdrdwkdUudk,fwdkif wu,f a&mufvmodvm jrifvmouJUodkUvnf;ajym/ rdrdudk,fwdkif jyif;jyif;xefxef wu,f ,kHMunfMunfESifh ajymMujcif;vnf;jzpf/ þodkUjzifha&T0gjynfol jynfom;wkdUudk,fusifhw&m;rsm;udk aumif;rGefatmifxdef; odrf;vmcJUEdkifMuonf/ þonfwkdUum; vGefcJUaom&Spfq,fhig;ESpfcefUu a&T0gjynfudk t*FvdyfvlrsKd; wa,mufu jrif&aom tjrifwpdwfwa'ojzpf/ þrSwfwrf;awGtwdkif; [kwfonfqdkvQif a&T0gjynfonf vGefcJUonfh tESpfudk;&m ausmfu BuD;us,fcrf;em;vSaom wdk;wufonfhwdkif;jynfwjynfjzpfcJUí vGefcJUonfhtESpf udk;&maemufydkif;wGif ajymyavmufatmif wdk;wufrIr&Sd&yfwefUaeonf[k ,kHMunfEdkif / rSwfwrf; 2-rsKd;teuf yxrrSwfwrf; 2-ckü bk&iftaMumif;ESifh ppfwyfrsm; taMumif;yg/ tESpfudk;&mrQuGmjcm;NyD;aemuf a&T0gjynfokdUa&mufvmaom t*Fvdyf vlrsKd; ]zdkufcsf}a&;onfh 'kwd,rSwfwrf;wGif a&T0gjynfbk&ifESifh ppfwyfrsm;taMumif; ryg vmawmh/

    11 þonfudkaxmufí a&T0gjynfüxdktcsdefwGif bk&ifESifhppfwyfwdkUr&SdMuNyD[kod&/ a&T0gjynfoljynfom;wkdUvlaerIpHepf? pdwfaepdwfxm;ESifh qif,ifxkH;zGJUrIwdkUum; tESpf udk;&mtwGif; xl;xl;jcm;jcm;rajymif;vJ/ tajccHtm;jzifh xyfwlxyfrQavmufjzpf/ þodkU0wfpm;qif,ifrIESifh "avhxkH;pHrsm; rajymif;vJMuygbJvsuf a&T0gjynfwGif bmaMumifh tpOftquftkyfpdk;vmcJUMuaom rif;qufrsm; jywfoGm;&ygoenf;/ tcsKdUu awG;xifaumif;awG;xifMuayrnf/ a&T0gjynf&Sd bk&ifwkdUonf ya'o&mzf pepftwdkif; oufOD;qHydkif tkyfpdk;vmMuaom bk&ifrsm;jzpfMuí acwfESifh twlt&if;&Sifpepf vTrf;rdk;rIudk cH&aomaMumifh aysmufokOf;oGm;&ygonf[k qdkaumif; qdkMuayrnf/ þodkUqdkvQifvnf; rSefoifhoavmufrSefygvdrfhrnf/ okdUaomf .... bk&ifpepfaMumifh csnf; r[kwfyg/ t*FvefjynfESifhwuG xdkif;vif;paom tjcm;aomwdkif;jynftcsKdUü ,ckxufwdkif bk&ifxm;aompepfjzifh tkyfpdk;aeMuygao;/ okdUaomf....a&T0gjynfuJUodkU rjzpfMu/ ppfppfum; a&T0gjynfrif;quf jywfoGm;&jcif;onf a&T0gjynfom;wkdUtm; tjcm; aom wdkif;wyg;om;wkdUu tEdkiftxuf vma&mufpdk;rdk;MuaomaMumifhjzpf/ a&T0gjynf BuD; xD;usKd;pnfayguf jzpfvdkuf&vsuf a&T0gjynfoljynfom;wdkU olUuReftjzpfcHMu&ykH tjcif;t&monf vlwkdUjzpf&yfudk avhvmvdkol 0goem&SifwkdUtwGuf tvGefpdwf0ifpm; bG,faumif;/ tMurf;tm;jzifh a&T0gjynfBuD;wjynfvkH; olUuRefjzpfoGm;Mu&jcif; vkd&if;udk tusOf;csKyfazmfjy&aomf..... 3/ a&T0gjynfBuD;wGif pdk;pHvmMuaom rif;tm;vkH;wkdUteuf ESpf&mhckESpfBudrfajrmuf b0&Sifrif;w&m;BuD;vufxufüjzpfavonf rif;BuD;wGif rdzk&m;-om;-orD;-ajr; a,mufsm; ajr;rdef;rtm;vkH;pkpkaygif; 248-a,muf&Sd/ xdkrif;BuD;onf emrusef;&Sdav aomf rif;BuD;uG,fvGefvQif wdkif;jynfudk qufvuftkyfcsKyfrif;vkyfEdkifrnfholudk a&G;cs,f&ef twGuf

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  • 15 ukvm;jzLtm;udk;&Sdaeaom uoJbk&ifu ukvm;jzLydkifeuf ucsme,fxJodkU 0ifa&muf cdkvIHjyef/ a&T0gjynfom;wkdUu twif;0ifa&muf usL;ausmfbrf;qD;jyef/ þwGif ukvm;jzLwkdUu wdkufa&;cdkufa&;ü ukvm;eufwdkUudk wdkufcdkuf&ouJUodkU a&T0gjynfom;wkdUudk rdrdwdkUwdkufcdkuf&ef rvG,f[kodvmMu/ b0*fxdaatmifjrifhaom rmejyif;jyaom ZmwdaoG;Zmwdrmef? jzwfvwfoGufvufaom udk,fvufvIyf&Sm;rI&Sdonfh a&T0gjynfom;wkdUonf tysif;xlaeonfhtcg tysif;xlaeMuvdrfhrnfjzpfaomfvnf; wdkufa&;cdkufa&;wkdUü &J&ifhjrefqefvdrfhrnf[k taMumif;&Sm tBuHjyKaeMuaom ukvm;jzL wkdUu BudKwifwGufMu/ ESpfESifhcsDítcsdef,lMu/ aps;a&mif;ovdk t&SLH;tjrwfxGuf/ wGufom; udkufaomtcsdefü a&T0gjynfom;wkdUydkifaom &u©dKufjynfESifh ukvm;jzL wkdUydkifaom ukvm;eufjynftMum; uRef;wckay:odkUvmí ukvm;jzLwkdUu ukvm;bk&if rif;jrwftvHudkpdkufxl/ þwGif a&T0gjynfESifhukvm;jzLwkdU xdkuRef;udk olydkifoifh igydkifoifh jiif;ckefMuí a&T0gjynfom;wkdUu ukvm;jzLwkdUudk wdkufcdkufzsufqD;vdkuf/ xdkESpfum;.....1824ckESpf jzpfavonf/ a&T0gjynfom;wkdUESifh ukvm;jzLwkdU 2-ESpf eD;yg;rQwdkufcdkufMu/ rdrdywf0ef;usife,fy,f w0dkufudkom AdkvfvkyfvmcJUbl;aom a&T0gjynfom;wkdUonf BuD;us,f&Snfvsm;aom pDrHudef;rsm; aumif;rGefaom vufeufrsm; pHepfusaom wdkufenf;cdkufenf;rsm;ESifh rwkdufcdkufwwfMu? &J&ifhrI? jzwfvwfrIwkdUudk tm;udk;vsuf wOD;csif;pD? wa,mufcsif;pD ol&Jaumif; qefqef wdkufenf;rsKd;om wdkufwwfolrsm;jzpfMu/ xkdUaMumifh 2-ESpfeD;yg;rQ Mumaomf....BudKwifpDrHwGufcsufxm;aom aps;onf ukvm;jzLwdkUudk a&T0gjynfom;wkdUu ppf&IH;/ &u©dKufjynfESifh yifv,furf;&dk;wef;e,f tjyif ppfp&dwf aiGwuka#udkvnf;vnf; a&T0gjynfom; wkdUu ukvm;jzLwkdUudk ay;vdkuf &/ a&T0gjynf okH;ykHwykHudkay;vdkuf&jcif;jzpfonf/ odkUaomf.....a&T0gjynfrif;ESifhwuG aom vlwkdUonfaemifw&ygoavm? rSefaomawG;ac:rIrsKd;udk awG;ac:wwfMuygNyDavm? aemifwvnf;r&Muao;yg/ tjzpfrSefudkvnf; rawG;ac:wwfMuao;yg/
  • 16 a&T0gjynfom;wkdUum; acgif;axmifNrJ b0ifcdkufrNrJ rdrdwkdUonf ukvm;jzLBuD;rsm; udkarhavsmhvmNyD; rdrdwkdUu oem;nSmwmojzifh rdrdwkdUa&T0gjynfü a&mif;0,fazmufum; cGifhay;xm;&onf[k xifrSwfaeMu/ rnfolrQtajctaerSefudk wu,fhjzpf&yftwdkif; rawG;awmMu/ xdkpOf a&T0gjynfom;wkdU &efatmifaejynftwGif;ü ukvm;jzL&SufyufESifh ukvm;jzLvl0pfwdkUudk a&T0gjynfom;jzpfaeMuaom a&T0gjynfbk&ifopömawmfcH ukvm;rJ ESpfa,mufwkdUu vlowfrI? vdrfvnfrI twif;t"r®vk,ufrIwkdUjzifh a&T0gjynfom; &efatmifaejynf NrdKUawmf0efxHokdUwdkif/ &efatmifaejynfawmf NrdKU0efu trIudkac:,lppfaq;NyD; rSefuefaomaMumifh ukvm;jzL&SufyufESihf ukvm;jzLvl0pfwkdUtay: 'PfaiGudk;axmifwyf&dkuf/ þwGif &efatmifaejynfjrpftwGif;ü ppfoabFmBuD;i,fwkdU &kwfw&ufa&mufvm Mu/ &efatmifaejynfNrdKU0efudk &mxl;rSjzKwfcsta&;,lay;&rnf[k ukvm;jzLaps;o,f wkdUuawmif;qdkvm/ a&T0gjynfbk&ifonf xdkawmif;qdkcsufudk vdkufavsmí &efatmifaejynf NrdKU0efudkjzKwfcsay;&/ xkdUaemufukvm;jzLaps;o,fwkdUESifh tqifajypGmqufqH&ef &efatmifaejynfawmfodkU NrdKUawmf0eftopf cefUtyfay;vdkuf/ xdktopfa&mufvmonfh NrdKUawmf0ef&Sd&mokdU &efatmifaejynfawmfjrpftwGif;ü ppfoabFmwkdUjzifh toifha&mufaeaom aps;o,fukvm;jzLppfAdkvf uGefrif'dkacG;bufu rdrdqDodkU vma&mufawGUqkH&ef tuf'Gyfac:onfh pum;jyefudkpmESifhvTwfvdkuf/ pum;jyeftuf'Gyfonf taz:ukvm;jzLppfom;rsm;ESifhtwl &efatmifaejynfawmf NrdKU0eftdrfodkU jrif;udk,fpDESifh apmfum;armfum; 0ifa&muf/ þwGif tdyfaysmfaeaom NrdKUawmf0eftopftdrfawmfapmifhwkdUu "m;ajrSmifjzifh axmufí xGufoGm;rvm; rxGufbl;vm;[kar;/ ukvm;jzLwkdUonf pDrHudef;ESifhom tEdkif,lvsufapmfum;armfum; jyKvkyf&Jolrsm; jzpfMu/ tu,fwOD;csif;wa,mufcsif; &ifqdkifMu&rnfqdkvQif rdrdwkdUu Edkifajcr&dSbJ owådESifh,SOfNydKif&Jol&Sm;yg;/ xdkUaMumifhvnf; rl;,pfvmaom tuf'GyfwkdUvlpkonf NrdKUawmf0ef tdrf0dkif; twGif; qJqJqdkqdk xGufajy;oGm;Mu/
  • 17 þwGif jrpfwGif;ü&SdaeMuaom ukvm;jzLppfoabFmwdkU AdkvfcsKyf uGefrif'dkacG; bufu &efatmifaejynfawmftvGefü qdkufuyfxm;aom a&T0gjynfbk&ifydkif a&eef; ,mOfomazmifpMum oabFmBuD;udk vk,loGm;/ xdkUaemufukvm;jzL&SufyufESifh ukvm;jzL vl0pfwkdUxHrS wyf&dkufaom 'PfaiGudk;axmifausmfudk jyefay;&rnf? NrdKUawmf0ef topfxHodkUpmvmydkUolwkdUudk tawGUrcH&kHru nSif;yef;vTwfvdkufaomaMumifh ppf&IH;pifu csKyfqdkxm;aom pmcsKyfygtwdkif; ppfEdkifaomukvm;jzLwkdUudk ppfEdkifaomolwkdU *kPfESifh tnD&efatmifaejynfawmfwGif vufcHqufqH&rnf/ þokH;csufudk a&T0gjynfom;wkdUu auseyfatmif jyKvkyfrSvk,loGm;aom a&T0gjynfbk&ifoabFmudk jyefay;NyD; rdrdwkdkU wdkufoabFmrsm;udkvnf; EIwfodrf;jyefoGm;rnfqkd/ þokH;csufpvkH;udk a&T0gjynfbk&ifESifh &efatmifaejynfawmf NrdKU0efwkdUu vdkufavsmjyefaomtcg ukvm;jzLwkdUu wqifhwufvmMuonf/ xdkwqifhwufí awmif;qdkcsufrsm;um; (1)rdrdwdkU wdkufoabFmawG &efatmif aejynfawmfjrpfwGif;odkU ta&mufcsDwufvmcJU&onfhtwGuf ukefusaomp&dwfwoef;udk ay;&ef/ (2) &efatmifaejynfawmfNrdKU0efopfu ukvm;jzLwdkU wdkufoabFm&Sd&m uGefrif'dk acG;bufxHodkU vma&mufOD;nTwfí taustvnfawmif;yefpum; ajym&ef[laom tcsuf 2 csufjzpf/ xdkESpfcsufteufwpftcsufonf ukvm;jzLwkdU aps;onfqefvSaom tokH;tEIH; jzpfí odyftaMumif;rxl;apumrl ESpftcsufonf a&T0gjynfom;wkdUrmeudk usL;vGef xdyg;vGef;vS/ xdkUaMumifh a&T0gjynfom;wkdUu vufeuftiftm;csif;rrQygbJESifh &IH;rnf[kodvsuf bk&ifESifhwuG wjynfawmifvkH;u xíwdkufMu/ xdkppfyGJwGif a&T0gjynfom;wkdU&SLH;í atmufa&T0gjynfwydkif;udk ukvm;jzLwkdUuodrf; ,l/ a&T0gjynfokH;ykHESpfykHonf ukvm;jzLwkdUvuf0,fodkU a&muf&SdavNyD/ ukvm;jzLESifh a&T0gjynfom;wkdU 'kwd,ppfyGJyifjzpfownf;/ a&T0gjynfBuD;udk pdk;pHvmcJUMuaom rif;tm;vkH;wkdUeuf ESpf&mhckESpfBudrfajrmuf pdk;pH& rnfh b0&Sifrif;w&m;BuD;onf rdrdpdk;rdk;tkyfcsKyfrif;vkyfaeaom a&T0gjynfum; wdkif;wyg; om; ukvm;jzLwdkUvufwGif;odkU okH;ykHESpfykHrQay;xm;&vsuf rdrdonf
  • 18 okH;ykHwykHaom wdkif;jynfudkomvQif pdk;rdk;tkyfcsKyfrif;vkyfí ae&ygwum;[k pdwfraumif;r&SdcJUav? igwkdU wdkif;jynfudk wdkif;wyg;om; ukvm;jzLwkdUonf rw&m;ojzifh okH;ykHESpfykHrQodrf;ydkuf xm;NyD; igwkdUvGwfvyfrIudk Ncdrf;acsmuf aeusygyaum[k wcgrQ ESvkH;romr,mr&Sdav þum; a&TY0gjynfom;wkdUrsKd;&dk;p&dkufppfjzpf/ rif;w&m;BuD;onf tvGefvQifNidrf;Nidrf;csrf;csrf;jzifh aysmfaysmfyg;yg;aeEdkifwwfol jzpfonf/ þodkUrdrdwdkif;jynfudk okH;ykHESpfykHrQ olwyg;vufxJodkU ay;xm;ae&onfh txJuyif rdrdudk,frdrd aemifwrvGefaomb0ü ,ckxufomaom pMum0aw;rif;BuD; jzpfvm&ef omoema&;bufu usKd;yrf;tm;xkwfonf/ b0ul;aumif;rGefa&;twGuf jzLpifaompdwfxm;rsKd;udkxm;onf/ wbufuvnf; rdrdjzpfvm&aom rif;b0wGif wdkif;jynfokH;ykHwykHrQaom ajrBuD;udkom ydkifqdkifae&apumrl a&ajrUoeif; jynfh&Sifrif; [laom trnfESifhvdkufavsm&ef rsm;jym;aomrdzk&m;wkdUudk vuf0Jvuf,mywfywfvnf xm;vsuf tpGrf;ukefpnf;pdrf&pfvdkufao;onf/ þodkUjzifh rdzk&m; om;orD;ajr; pkpkaygif; 248 a,muf&Sdvmonf/ rif;w&m;BuD;onf igwdkUtm;wdkif;wyg;om;wdkUuteD;uyfvsuf <uufoli,fudk aMumiftdkacsmif;ouJUodkU acsmif;ajrmif;Ncdrf;ajcmufrIcHae&ygyaum[k owd&awmfrrl/ b0&Sifrif;w&m;BuD;onf rnfonfhukokdvf rnfonfhtvSL'gef;awGudk jyKvkyfoGm;onf [laom emrnfudkomcH,lvdkawmfrl/ xdkUaMumifhvnf; b0&Sifrif;w&m;BuD;onf rdrdrsm;jym;vSaom om;awGtxJü rnfolonf rdrdt&dyft&mudk wnfwefUpGmqufcHEdkifrnf[k ewf&Gmvm;onfhwdkifatmif vTJtyfay;jcif;jyKawmfrrlEdkifcJU/ þtjyKtrlrsm;onf tvGefa&T0gjynfom; NyDoaomtjyKtrlrsm;jzpf/ a&T0gjynfom;wpkHwa,muftdrfay:okdU {nfhonfhwOD;wa,mufvmonfqdkygpdkU xdka&T0gjynfom;onf tqdkyg{nfhonftm; 0rf;ajrmuf0rf;ompGm{nfhcHrnfjzpfonf/ xdkUaemuf {nfhonfonf tdrfay:urqif;bJ tdrfokH;ykHESpfykHcefUudk ae&mcsJUí ,lxm;onfqdkygpdkU/ tdrf&Sifa&T0gjynfom;onf acwåcPomvQif ndKjiifrI&SDNyD;aemuf? tcsdeftenf; i,ftwGif;ü arharhaysmufaysmufjzpfNyD;vQif rdrdae&aomtdrf okH;ykHwykHrQaom ae&m uav;üyif aysmfaysmf&Tif&TifaeoGm;vdrfhrnfjzpf/
  • 19 xdkaemuf rdrdonf t&G,fvGefvsuf om;orD;ESifhwuGtdk;tdrfwkdUudk pGefUypfaoqkH; &awmhrnfqdkygpdkU/ a&T0gjynfom;onf aoqkH;&efeD;uyfvmaomtcsdef odkUa&mufrS þtdrfü rdrdae& onfhtpdwftydkif;uav;udk rnfolUtm;tyfESHvQif oifhavQmfygvdrfhrnfvJ[k owd&vm vdrfhrnfjzpf/ xdkokdUowd&vmaomtcsdefü bmrQrjyKvkyfEdkifawmhNyD/ þonfudkvnf; a&T0gjynfom;wkdUü ajzazsmuf&efaq;enf;aumif;&Sd/ owå0gwkdUonf rBuHpnfbJESifhvnf; jzpfwwfMu/ BuHpnfygvsufESifhvnf; ysufwwfMu/ uHpDrH&m-uHypfcs&mudkomvQif cHMu&onf/ þw&m;onf a&T0gjynfom;wkdUtwGuf pdwfajyaysmuf&ef bmrqdkcGifhvTwfEdkif&ef &&Sdxm;aom aq;enf;aumif;vufokH;pum;BuD;yifjzpf/ a&T0gjynfom;wkdU ESpf&mhckESpfBudrfajrmuf b0&Sifrif;w&m;BuD;onf þw&m; awmfudk atmifharhESvkH;oGif;&if;Nidrf;csrf;pGm ewfxD;pH&eftwGuf a&S;&IawmfrlaeavNyD/ þwGif tv,feef;rawmf rdzk,m;BuD;ESifh trwfBuD;OD;zsif;wkdU acgif;&dkif;&dkufMu& onf/ xdktcsdefu tv,feef;rawmf rdzk,m;BuD;ESifh trwfBuD; OD;zsif;wkdUonf a&T0gjynf tm; ukvm;jzLwkdUNcdrf;acsmufvmaeNyDjzpfaMumif;udk 'kwd,owdxm;rdolrsm;jzpfMuonf? yxr owdxm;rdolu rdrdjyKvkyfcsifonfudk rjyKvkyfvdkuf&bJ uG,fvGefoGm;&Sm&aom rif;w&m;BuD;nD tdrfa&SUudk,fawmfBuD;jzpf/ tdrfa&SUudk,fawmfBuD;onf a&T0gjynfBuD; okH;ykHESpfykHcefUudk ukvm;jzLwkdUu vk,l xm;onfhtwGuf tcJraMujzpfae&Sm/ wOD;csif;wa,mufcsif; owådcsif; rnfolrQ,SOfNydKifír&onfh a&T0gjynfom;wkdUudk ukvm;jzLwkdUu bmhaMumifh apmfum;armfum; vma&muftEdkifusifh0efU tEdkifusifhEdkifMuyg oenf;[k ppfjrpfudk&Sm/ bmhaMumifh tEdkifusihfEdkifMu-usifh0efUMuonf[k &dyfpm;rdvmaomtcg ukvm;jzL wkdUuJUodkU pnf;pepfESifh avhusifhoifMum;aom a&T0gjynfom;ppfwyfBuD;zGJUpnf;/ t&nf wlwef;wlaom vufeufrsm;udk jyKvkyfEkdif&ef vufeuf&kHwnfaqmufzdkUjyK/ ukvm;jzL wdkUudk a&T0gjynfom;wkdUu
  • 20 t&SLH;ay;vmcJUMu&onfum; vufeuftiftm;csif; rrQaom aMumifh[k tdrfa&SUudk,fawmfBuD;uodvmonf/ rdrdwdkUonf aemufqkH;tajcü ukvm;jzLwkdUudk wdkufrxkwfEdkifao;onfhwdkifatmif rdrdwkdUtm; ukvm;jzLwkdUu qufvufNcdrf;acsmufrI rjyKvkyf0efUbJ &dkaocefUjim;vmMuap &ef[k &nf&G,f/ tdrfa&SUudk,fawmfBuD;usKd;yrf;csufudk olvQKdtaxmufwkdUjzifh tNrJwef; apmifhMunfhaeMuaom ukvm;jzLwkdUu Mum;odMu/ þwGif a&T0gjynfom;NyDopGm aoG;w<u<ujzifh b0ifjrifhvSaom rif;w&m;BuD; om;ESpfa,mufudk ukvm;jzLwkdUu wdwfwqdwf ajrSmufyifhtultnDay;Mu/ tdrfa&SUudk,fawmfBuD;onf rif;w&m;BuD;uG,fvGefvQif bk&ifwufjzpfvdrfhrnf/ xdktcsdefü rif;w&m;BuD; om;awmfwkdUonf xD;eef;udk qufcHpdk;pH&ef tdrfrufrQ ruf&vdrfhrnf[kwf? þtjzpfqdk;wkdUrS &kef;xGufvdkygvQif rdrdwkdUonf om;awmfwkdUtm; toufESifhvJí ulnDMuygrnf[k wdwfqdwfpGmuwday;Mu/ þwGif aoG;ajrmuf<uaeaom a&T0gjynfbk&ifom;awmfESpfa,mufwkdUonf OD;&D;awmf tdrfa&SUrif;om;ESifh zcifbk&ifudk vkyfBuHí eef;vk&ef wdkufcdkufykefuefMu/ xdkykefuefrIwGif wrsKd;om;vkH;udk u,fwif&ef tpDtpOfjyKNyD;jzpfaom tdrfa&SU udk,fawmfBuD; uG,fvGef&onf? rif;om;ESpfa,mufudk ukvm;jzLwkdUu xGufajy;Edkif&ef tultnDay;vdkufMuonf/ þokdUjzifhrif;om;ESpfa,muf wdkif;wyg;okdU vGifhxGufoGm;&NyD; vQif a&T0gjynftwGuf u,fwif&SifwOD; qkH;&IH;epfem&/ xdku,fwif&SifBuD;aemuf a&T0gjynfusa&mufvwHUaom tEå&m,fudk BudKwif odjrifMuolwkdUrSm trwfBuD;OD;zsif;ESifh tv,feef;rawmf rdzk,m;wdkUjzpfMuonf/ xdkolESpfa,mufwkdUonf rdrdwkdUa&T0gjynfu bmrQBudKwifjyifqifrI BudK;pm;rIrsm; r&SdMuygbJESifh ppfudkvdkvm;í"g;xufaomrif;om;wkdUudk eef;wifvQifa&T0gjynfESifhukvm; jzLwdkU ppfjzpfMuí okH;ykHwykHrQom usef&Sdawmhaom a&T0gjynfBuD; ukvm;jzLwkdU vufatmufwGif vkH;vkH;qkH;yg;&acsawmhrnf[k awG;/ xdkUaMumifh toufvnf;i,fí rdrdwdkUpDrHajymqdk&modkUvnf;ygrnfjzpfaom tqdwf tawmufuif;onfh rif;w&m;BuD;om;i,f udk&ifvlxGufuav;udk eef;wifMu&efpDrH onf/
  • 21 xdkodkUpDrH&mü tcuftcJwck&Sdonf/ xdktcuftcJum; "m;xufaoma&T0gjynfom; nDawmfaemifawmf rif;om;wkdU&SdaeMuygvsuf þodkUpDrHvQif rnfolurQ Nidrfoufat; csrf;pGm oD;cHaeMuvdrfhrnfr[kwf? xdkUaMumifh xdk"m;xufaom rif;om;wkdUaESmifh,SufrI rS uif;a0;&ef pDrHudef;topfwck xyfrHjyKMu&jyefonf/ xdkpDrHudef;topfrSm vG,fvS/ ewf&Gmrvm;ao;aom rif;w&m;BuD; trdefUESifh om;awmf ajr;awmftm;vkH;wkdUudk twGif;awmfodkU ac:,lpk&kH;vdkufonf/ xdkUaemuf rif;w&m;BuD;xGufrvmbJ eef;wGif;vufpGJawmfawGxGufvmí rif;w&m;BuD; om;-ajr;wkdUudk ajcusOf;pGJ&dkufvsuf ajrmufO,smOfawmf aMu;wkdufodkU ac:,lcsKyfaESmifvdkufonf/ a&T0gjynfBuD;tajctaeonf ukef;acgifacgifwGif jcpfjcpfylaeaomae&mif atmufü &Sdae&onfh a&tdkifi,f toGifjzifh&Sdaeavonf/ okdUaomf þodkU&Sdae&onfudk a&T0gjynfoljynfom;wkdUtxJü &dyfpm;rdol enf;yg; vS/ þtpDtpOfjzifh bk&ifrif;w&m;BuD; ewf&Gmvm;aomf.....om;awmf udk&ifvlxGuf uav;u a&T0gjynf bk&ifjzpfvm&onf/ tv,feef;rawmf rdzk&m;orD;udkvufqGJ vsuf eef;odrf;yGJcHvdkuf&onf/ þwGifbkrodbrod tdrfrufrufouJUodkU bk&ifwufjzpfvm&aom udk&ifvlxGuf uav;udk vufokH;awmfiwkwfu csufjcif;q&marG;ypfvdkuf/ bk&ifwa,mufvkH; udkykdifq&mwOD;tjzpf arG;xm;vdkufEdkifrnfqdkvQif rdrdtwGuf rnfrQwef;cdk;MoZmwdk;wufvmEdkifonfudk iwkwfonf a&T0gjynfom;NyDopGm yg;eyfod&Sd/ xdkMoZmtmPm&Sd&molwa,mufudk q&mtjzpf &atmifarG;&rnfqdkjcif;rSmvnf; vG,fulaomt&mr[kwf vkyf&nfBuH&nfESifh pGefUpm;0HUaomowåd&SdygrS wefcdk;MoZm&Sdaom q&mwa,mufudk &atmifarG;EdkifMuonf/ iwkwfonf vkyf&nfBuH&nfESifh pGefUpm;0HUaomowåd&Sdoljzpfonf/ xdkUaMumifh q&mbk&ifuav; tm;udk;cspfcifrI&atmif enf;vrf;&Smonf/ xdkpOfq&mbk&ifuav; jzpfoltNrJaMumuf&GHU xdwfvefUae&aom tcsufwcsufudkawGUonf/ xdktcsufum; ajrmufO,smOfaMu;wdkufü
  • 22 csKyfaESmifxm;Muaom bk&ifuav;aemifawmfyg;rsm; pkpkaygif; 40- ausmfwkdUjzpfonf/ xdkaemifawmftrawmf r,D;awmfwkdUonf bk&ifuav;ESifhEIdif;,SOfvdkufvQif a>ra[muf a>rayG;ESifh a&a>rjrufavQmwdkUwrQuGmjcm;onf/ udk&ifvlxGuf bk&ifuav; ua&a>rjrufvQm..... xdkUaMumifhvnf; bk&ifuav;onf aemifawmf trawmfESifhr,D;awmfwkdUudk xm;&eftwGuf eef;awmfBuD; taemufrsufESmwGif pnf&SnfwHcg;vrf;rawmfawmif buf? a&G;vuf 0JuGuftwGif; wm40-ausmf&Sdaom av;awmifh0if;&majrü tdrfawmfrsm; aqmufvkyfay;&efpDpOf/ xdktdrfawmfrsm;tjyifrS cdkifcefUvkHNcKHaom tkwf0if;tumum í tjyifodkUrxGufEdkif&ef tapmifhtxdef;ESifh xm;bkdU&nf&G,f/ þodkU&nf&G,faqmuf vkyfaeqJ vufokH;awmfudkif iwkwfwkdUu? eef;yg;r0 eef;a&rv,fao;aom.... udk&if vlxGufbk&ifuav;udk udpöwckvmajym/ bk&ifhr,fawmftwGuf aqmufvkyfNyD;pD;aom tdrfjzLawmfudk r,fawmfodkU tyf&ef tcrf;tem;eD;vmaomaMumifh? tdrfjzLawmf acgif;&ifü&Sdaom aMu;wdkufrS aemifawmf rif;om;wdkUudk r*FvmtcsdeftcgtwGif; axmifwGif;tusOf;wdkufodkU acwåajymif;a&TU csKyfaESmifcGifhay;ygrnfhtaMumif;jzpf/ udk&ifvlxGufbk&ifu tvG,fwulcGifhjyKvdkuf/ a&T0gjynfom;wdkUeef;wnf ouú&Zf 1240-jynfh wydkUwGJvqef; 10-&uf nae 6-em&DcefUwGif vufeufudkif 400ESifh Muyfrwfí axmifwGif;tusOf;wdkufodkU rif;om; rif;ajr; 40-ausmfwkdUudk ajymif;/ tpOftvm&Sdonfum; rif;ydkifpdk;ydkif;r[mqD r[maoG;jzpfvQif axmifwGif; tusOf;wdkufokdUrcs&? owfrnfholudkrS axmifwGif;tusOf;wdkufodkUydkU&/ xdkUaMumifh xdkaeUn 9em&dausmfwGif iwkwfESifh nDiajrmifwkdUu rif;om;? rif;ajr; 40ausmfwkdUudk azsmufzsufokwfoifypfvdkufMu/ udk&ifvlxGufbk&ifuav;u odíar;aomf þaxmifwGif;tusOf;wdkufonf azsmufzsuf&rnfh r[mqDr[maoG;wkdUudkrS? ydkU&onfhae&mjzpfaomaMumifh atmufvl &JrufwkdUyGJ&atmif jyKvkyfvdkufMuygonf[k avQmuf/ eef;&nfr0ao;aom udk&ifvlxGufi,fonf ESvkH;pdwfrcsrf;rajrU jzpfvdkuf&aomf vnf; iwkwfudkta&;r,l/ rdrdudkcspfí rrSm;oifh&mürSm;onf[k
  • 23 cGifhvTwf/ þonf vnf; a&T0gjynfom;q&mtjzpf tarGcHMu&olwdkU tpOftvm twdkif;jzpfí bk&ifuav; udktjypfqdkbG,f&mr&Sd/ þokdUjzifh iwkwfonf udk&ifvlxGuf bk&ifvli,fudkq&mtjzpf arG;vdkufonf/ þwGif i,fEkaoG;<uaom bk&ifuawmfav;u iwkwfudkrsufaphusvm/ bk&if uawmfrsufaphuscH&jcif;onf iwkwftwGuf bk&ifuav;udk q&mtjzpfarG;&onf xufydkíaumif;aom tcGifhta&;aumif;wckjzpf/ taMumif;rl bk&ifuawmfonf tppt&m&mwkdUü udk&ifvlxGuf bk&ifuav; xuf ydkíxufjruf/ a&T0gjynfolNyDo/ þokH;ykHwykHrQom&Sdaom a&T0gjynfü bk&if uawmfjzpfvm&jcif;udkyifvQif ZrÁL;'dwfuRef;tjyif0,f wOD;wnf;aom {u&mZf bk&if uawmfBuD;jzpfvm&ouJUodkU xifrswf/ þodkUaoG;<u xufjrufvSaom bk&ifuawmfuav;onf udk&ifvlxGufbk&if uav;udk &kyfao;uJUodkU oabmxm;NyD;vQif BudKufovdkBudK;qGJypf? rdrd,kHMunfolrSef orQudk &mxl;BuD;rsm;ay;ap/ eef;wGif;ü BuD;rm;aom tajymif;tvGJrsm;udk jyKvkyfypf / xdkokdUjyKvkyf&mwGif bk&ifuawmfuav;onf rdrdtudkawmf OD;&D;awmf 40ausmfudk owf&Jjzwf&Jaom iwkwftm; vufudkifxm;/ rdrdwdkUtm;uvefuqefvkyfrnfholrSef orQudkvnf; iwkwfvufodkUydkUtyf/ iwkwfudkvnf; bmrqdk0ifa&mufpGufzufEdkifonfh tcGifhxl;cH trIxrf;t&mxrf;tjzpfxm;/ þokdUiwkwfonf bk&ifuav;xufydkí "m;xufaom i,fEkaoG;<uonfh bk&if uawmf vufokH;jzpfvm&/ rif;aoG;rif;om;wa,mufuJUodkUjzpfvm&/ vuf&JZuf&J jyKvkyf0HUaomiwkwfonf "m;xufaom bk&ifuawmfav;udk ocifr tjzpf arG;vdkufEdkifjcif;um; a&T0gjynfBuD; ysufpD;&eftaMumif; t&if;tjrpfwck jzpfavonf/ a&T0gjynfrSL;BuD; rwfBuD;wkdUonf bk&ifuawmfu udk&ifvlxGufbk&ifuav; trdefUudk tokH;jyKvsuf aAgif;awmfNidrfh pdwfawmfodaom tdrfawmfygvlnHUrsm;udk &mxl; BuD; &mxl;cH ay;jcif;rsm;udk uefUuGufMu/ b@mwdkuf&Sd aiGaMu;rsm;udk bk&ifuawmfu xifovdkokH;pJGjcif;ESifh ywfoufí vnf; ajymqdkwm;jrpfMu/ iwkwfudkvufudkif&xm;aom bk&ifuawmfonf xdkokdUwm;jrpfajymqdkMuolrsm;udk csufjcif;ta&;,ljcif; zrf;qD;jcif;?
  • 24 &mxl;avQmcsypfjcif;wdkUudkjyK/ xdktxJwGif a&eHUom NrdKUpm; 0efBuD; zefcg; NrdKUpm;rif;BuD; jynfopfNrdKUpm; 0efBuD;paom olwdkUyifvQifygMu/ xdk yk*¾dKvfBuD;wkdUum;? ynmOpöm tacRt&HBuD;rm;aomolrsm;wdkUjzpfMu/ t&G,f a&mufp uwnf;u a&T0gjynf aumif;usKd;csrf;omudk aqmif7Gufvmolrsm;jzpfMu/ a&T0gjynfa&SUa&;udkawG;vsuf udk&ifvlxGuf i,fudkeef;wifay;cJUMuaom rif;BuD; OD;zsif;ESifh tv,feef;rawmfrdzk,m;BuD;wkdUonf rdrdwkdUajrSmfvifhrxm;onfh jzpf&yf rsm;ESifh &ifqdkifaeMu&/ tv,feef;rawmfrdzk,m;BuD;onf rdrdwkdUBudK;qGJ&muç&rnfh bk&ifudk oabm aumif;aom rdrdorD;BuD;ESifhay;jrm; rdzk,m;jyKap/ odkUaomf xufjrufaom rdrd orD;vwfonf i,fEdkif&D;pm;jzpfaom udk&ifvlxGuf bk&iftm; rdrdukdyg rdzk,m;jyK&rnf[k twif;tEdkifusifh/ ,cktcg udk&ifvlxGufbk&ifonf oabmaumif;aom rdrdorD;BuD;udk taqmif wckESifh oD;jcm;cGJxm;í rdrdorD;vwfESifhtwlaeMu/ xdkUxuf rif;BuD;OD;zsif;ESifh rdrdwkdUBudK;qGJwdkif;uçvdrfhrnf[k xifcJU&aom udk&if vlxGufbk&ifonf rdrdwdkUxufuyfí rdrdwdkUxuf ydkaMumufae&aom rdrdorD;vwf bk&ifuawmf BudK;qGJwdkif; uçae&&Sm/ þtaMumif;jzpf&yfonf a&T0gjynfBuD;twGuf Mur®mqdk;ESifh &ifqdkifMu&rnfh taMumif;jzpf&yfjzpf/ i,fEkaoG;<uaom bk&ifuawmfuav;onf oabmaumif; El;nHUvSaom udk&if vlxGufbk&ifi,ftm; tEdkifhxuftwif;,lvdkuf&kHrQru rif;BuD;OD;zsif;udkvnf; *&krpdkuf? rdciftv,feef;rawmf rdzk,m;BuD; pum;udkvnf; puwnf;u em;raxmifbJ iwkwf uJUodkUaom vufpGJawmfudkifrsKd;udk teD;üxm;í tokH;jyKvsuf rmewvlvlvTwfaxmifae / bk&ifuawmfuav;MoZmonf udk&ifvlxGuf bk&ifi,ftay:ü vTrf;rdk;xm; onfESifhtrQ bk&if teD;wGif aMumif;usKd;ajrSmfjrifwwfonfhyk*¾dKvfrsm; r&SdEdkifMuawmhbJ ta0;okdUvGifhyg;ukefMu&/ þonfvnf; a&T0gjynfom;wdkU &dk;&mtusifhjzpfí tjypf rqdkxdkuf? xdkaMumifh &SdaomolwkdUuajymqdkMuí bk&ifuem;axmifrnf jyKavwdkif; bk&if uawmfzsufvQif ysufMu&/ aemufqkH;übk&if teD;tyg;wdkUü bmrqdkacgif;NidwfMu rnfh yk*¾dKvfwkdUcsnf;
  • 25 0dkif;aeMu/ udk&ifvlxGufbk&iftay:ü MoZmay;EdkifolwkdUu bk&if uawmfESifh eD;pyfol todkif;t0dkif;awGcsnf; jzpfMu/ þeef;wGif;ta&;taMumif;jzpf&yfwkdUudk a&T0gjynfom;wdkUudk,fwdkif yCPe rod&Sd Mu&aomfvnf; teD;üuyfíapmifhaeaom ukvm;jzLaMumifyg;BuD;u tao;pdwfod/ ukvm;jzLolvQKd tufzf&pf'av 1897 ck {NyDv 19&ufaeUpGJESifh a&T0gjynfudk odrf;ydkuf xm;Muaom ukvm;jzLrsm;xHodkU tpD&ifcHpOf ____a&Teef;awmf wGif;üvnf; rnDrnGwfjzpfvsufyif&Sdao;/ bk&ifr,fawmfu ewf&GmpH rif;w&m;BuD; tv,f eef;rawmfrdzk,m;BuD;odkU om;awmfvrf;vGJvdkufonfudk u,fq,fawmfrl&ef awmif;yef/ eef;rawmfbk&m;uvnf; oGefoif&zefrsm;í NiD;aiGUawmfrlaMumif;trdefU&Sd/ udk&if vlxGufbk&ifuawmfuvnf; bk&ifhESrawmfESifh tcsif;rsm;Mu/ xdkbk&ifuawmfonf bk&ifhr,fawmfESifhvnf; oifhjrwf[efr&Sd rdrdr,fawmfESifh vnf;ausauseyfeyf&Sd[efrwl vufxufawmfa[mif;u rSL;BuD;rwfBuD;rsm;onf nHUzsif; vGef;aom udk&ifvlxGufbk&ifESifhbk&ifhtay:udk MoZmvTrf;rdk;íwuf<ub0ifajrmufvGef; aom bk&ifuawmfwkdUudk vkH;0aMueyfrIr&SdMuaomfvnf; rnfolrQ oGefoifowday;jcif; rjyK0HUMu/ ,cktcsdefü a&T0gbk&ifvufatmufwGif&Sdaom ppfwyftrsKd;rsKd;ESifh vlOD;a& pm&if;rSm atmufygtwdkif;jzpf/ eef;NrdKUtwGif;bufü rm&wifajcvQifwyf ajrmufbufü 850 awmifbufü 350tm;vkH;aygif; 1201...."g;0,fajcvQifwyf ajrmufbufwGif 600? awmifbufwGif 500-aygif; 1100/ &mhig;q,fajcvQifwyf -ajrmufbuf 700? awmifbuf 500-aygif; 1200/ a&TjynfrSefuif;ajcvQifwyf tm;vkH;aygif; 700/ ewf&Sifa&G; ajcvQifwyf tm;vkH;aygif; 700/ eef;NrdKUtjyifbufü/ aMumif;wyf-,mbuf 600 0Jbuf 700- tm;vkH;aygif; 1300/ &GJwyf ,mbuf 550? 0Jbuf 650 tm;vkH;aygif; 1200/
  • 26 ewfpkwyf ,mbuf 750? 0Jbuf 550 tm;vkH;aygif; 1300/ tjcm;aom aomif;ajrmif;wyfrsm;....a&GvSHwyf 350- uif;'g;wyf 350? a&Tjynf wyf 400? ol&JBuD;wyf 600? vif;Zif;wyf 350? ukvm;ysKdwyf (cefUrSef;) 400? 'dkif;wyf (cefUrSef;) 400? wHcg;eDwyf(cefUrSef;) 400? vS&JBuD;wyf (cefUrSef;) 700/ jrif;wyfrsm; teD;pyfqkH;cefUrSef;xm;onf/ a&TjynfwHcGefjrif;wyf 500? a&Tjynf&efatmifjrif;wyf 500? &Jbufjrif;wyf 500? uonf;jrif;wyf 500? a&T0gjynfausmfjrif;wyf 500/ tajrmufwyf.... r*Fvmtajrmuf 500 a&T0gjynfom;wkdUouf&Sdtiftm;onf þrQomjzpfMuonf/ okdUaomf taMumif; &Sdvmí a&T0gjynfom;wkdUxkH;pHtwdkif; "m;jym; &dkufac:rnfqdkvQift&G,f&Sdaom a,mufsm;wdkif; rdef;rwdkif;ppfom;jzpfEdkifonf/ a&T0gjynfü bk&iftusOf;om;rsm;txJü oHajcusOf;cwfí xm;&aom rdef;rrsm;&Sdaeonfudk axmufcsifhí a&T0gjynfrdef;rwkdUudk txifrao;tyf? ,ckyifvQif a&T0gjynfbk&ifudkBudK;udkifaeolrSm bk&ifuawmfjzpf/ okdUaomf uREkfyfwkdUonf a&T0gjynfom;wkdUESifh wdkufMu&rnfqdkvQif teD;uyfí wdkufMu&rnfudkom aMumuf&GHUbG,f&Sd/ ta0;rSaeí wdkuf&eftwGuf a&T0gjynfom;wkdU udk vkH;0aMumuf&efr&Sd? a&T0gjynfom;wkdU tokH;jyKaom aoewfrsm; tajrmufrsm;onf tvGefnHUzsif;vS/ ukvm;jzLwkdUonf a&T0gjynftajctaeudk þodkUvQif tao;pdyfod/ xdkUaMumifh a&T0gjynfom;wkdUudk wdkufavmufaom wdkufEdkifaom tiftm;pkNyD;vQif tiftm;&SdonfESifhwNydKifeuf wriftaMumif;&Smí a&T0gjynfudk vma&mufwdkufcdkuf/ xdkodkU rwdkufcdkufrDtcsdefuav;üyifvQif rif;BuD;OD;zsif;onf ukvm;jzLwkdU taMumif;&Smcsufudk vdkufavsmí ppfNydKifrIat;Nidrf;apNyD;vQif tiftm;jznfhwif;&ef rdrdwkdU bufrS ulnDrnfhEdkifiHrsm;&SmazG&ef tBuHOmPfay;ao;/ okdU&mwGif i,fEkaoG;<uaom bk&ifuawmfuav;onf rif;BuD;OD;zsif;tm; onfavmuf aMumufwwfvQif..... a,mufsm;vkyfraeygeJUawmh oDv&Sifom0wfvdkufyg awmh[kqdk/ xdkUaemufrif;BuD;OD;zsif;tdrfodkU xrD,yfawmifoeyfcg;wkH; ausmufjyif ponfwkdUudk ydkUvdkuf/
  • 27 aemufqkH; ppfjzpfMuaomtcg bk&ifuawmfuav; vuf&kH;ppfAdkvfwkdUonf a&T0g0wDjrpf&dk;wavQmufü tcsuftcsmae&mwdkif;wkdUwGif a&T0gjynfom;wkdUu ,rf;rIefU xdk;aoewfjzifh¤if;? ,rf;rIefUxdk; tajrmufjzifh¤if; ypfcwfwdkufcdkuf/ odkU&mwGif a&T0gjynfom;wkdUaoewfwcsufwGif ukvm;jzLwkdUu aoewfq,fcsuf cefUypfcwfEdkif/ ukvm;jzLwdkUaoewfum; ,rf;rIefUxdk;aoewfr[kwf? usnfxdk;aoewf rsm;csnf;jzpfMu/ xdkUtwl ukvm;jzLwkdU ppfoabFmtay:rS tajrmufrsm;onfvnf; usnfxdk;tajrmufawGcsnf;jzpfMu/ a&T0gjynfom;wkdUu tajrmufwcsufypfvQif ukvm;jzLwkdUu tajrmuftcsufESpfq,fcefU ypfcwfEdkif/ tajrmufqHwkdUuvnf; aygufuJGaom tajrmufqHrsm;jzpfMuvQif a&T0gjynfom;wkdUcHwyfywfywfvnfwGif 0dkif;&H aygufaeMuaom xef;yifrsm;onf wcetwGif; tydkif;ydkif;jywfusvsuf &Sif;vif;oGm;/ a&T0gjynfom;wkdUtjrifwGif a&T0gjynfom;wkdUaypmrsm;ü yg&SdMuaom odMum;rif; 0&Zdefvufeufudk rsufjrifawGUBuKH&bdouJUodkUjzpf/ onfawmhrSyifvQif a&T0gjynfom;wkdUonf ZrÁL'dwfuRef;tay:wGif {u&mZf bk&if rif;w&m;BuD; ewfppfonfwrQ xifrSwfcJUaom rdrdwkdUudk,fudk tajctaerSeftwdkif; odvmMu/ odkUaomf xdkodkUodvmMuonfhtcsdefum; aESmif;vGef;vSavNyD/ xD;usKd;pnfayguf? olUvufatmufü? uRefoaygufjzpfNyD; ESpf&Snfvçrsm;MumrS &aomtodjzpfownf;/ a&T0gjynfom;wkdUonf ukvm;jzLwkdU vufatmufüatmufydkif; 122 ESpf txuf ydkif; 63ESpfrQ uRefjzpfcJUMu&NyD;onfhaemuf tcsKyftjcmtmPmydkifonfh vGwfvyfaom a&t0gjynftjzpfodkU a&muf&SdvmMujyef/ olUuRefjzpfaeMu&onfhtcsdefumvtwGif; ZrÁL'dyfuRef;[lí igwdkUxifouJUodkU r[kwfygwum;[k odvmMu/ ork'´&mxJwGif t0DpdokdUa&mufatmifydkUaqmifwwfMu onfh Amv0grkc0JqdkonfrSm r&Sdygwum;[k odvmMu/ ork'´&mtwGif;&Sd uRef;rsm;udk vGefajrmufaomf aeUpHíncH&onfh tol&u,f ewforD;wkdU... ewfbkHewfeef;wkdUum; r&SdNyD xdkewforD;wkdUtoGifESifh qifqifwlaom w[DwDuRef; [ma0uRef;wdkUom &SdMu [kodvmMu/ jrifhrdk&fawmifudkvSnfhywfoGm;vsuf&Sdaom aeewf&xm;onf awmifuRef;üaexGuf vQif ajrmufuRef;ü ae0ifcsdefjzpfí ta&SUuRef;wGif aerTef;wnfhNyD; taemufuRef;ünoef; acgiftcsdefodkU a&mufonf[kod&SdcJUMu&mrS vnfaeaomurÇmajrBuD;onf wESpfvQif aeudkwywf&atmif ywfaejcif;ygwum;[k odvmMu/
  • 28 ZrÁL'dyfuRef;tvkH;udk tpdk;&aom pMum0aw;rif;BuD; [lonf aer0ifonfhtifyg ,mudk tkyfpdk;oGm;cJUaom t*Fvdyf0dwdk&d, bk&ifrBuD;avmufrQ rBuD;us,fygwum;[k od&SdvmMu/ taMumif;rla&S;tcgu ZrÁL'dyfuRef;[krSwfxifcJUaomt&monf tif'd,w jynfaxmifvkH;rQ rjynfhav/ oGm;vdk&mokdUtvG,fwula&mufEdkifaom pMum&wem[k wifpm;okH;xm;onfh bD;wyfvSnf;onf yefumwyf,mOf &[wfav,mOf *sufav,mOfwkdUudk rqdkxm;ESifh armfawmfum; armfawmfqdkifu,fwdkUavmufrQ r[kwfao;ygwum;[k odvmMu/ ta&SUtaemufESifh ajrmufbufjcrf;wkdUwGif ,lZemwpfaxmifpDtnDtrQ&Sdí awmifjcrf;rSmrl ,lZemav;axmif us,f0ef;vsuf vSnf;OD;ücif;tyfonfh vSnf;uyf o@mefuJUodkU wnf&Sdaom tcsif;,lZemwaomif; t0ef;,lZemokH;aomif;&Sdonfh ZAÁL'dyf uRef;[lonf tif'd,jynfuav;rQomjzpfygaomfaum[k ,cka&T0gjynfom;wkdUu odvmMu/ taMumif;rl ajcmufwdkifESifh wm-400 rQ&Sdaom w,lZemvQif t*Fvdyfrdkif 12 rdkif 5zmvkHESifh *dkufw&mh&Spfq,frQom&Sd/ ZAÁLuRef;tjyifwckvkH; t0ef;,lZemwpfaomif; &Sdonf t*Fvdyfrdkif okH;odef;&Spfaomif;waxmif&Spf&mhq,frdkif wzgvkHESifh *dkufw&mrQom &Sd/ ,cktif'd,jynftus,ft0ef;rdkifaygif;um; woef;ESpfodef; 6aomif; 5axmif ckESpf&m ajcmufq,fhokH;rdkif&Sdavonf/ xdkUaMumifh tif'd,wjynfvkH;ESifhwuG urÇmht&yf &yfwkdUudk aer0ifEdkifonfhtus,ft0ef;udk tkyfpdk;aecJUaom 0dwdk&d,bk&ifrBuD;onf pMum0aw;rif;qdkolwkdUxuf us,fjyefUaomajrBuD;udk ydkifpdk;oljzpfae/ þodkUvufawGUtodrsKd;wkdUaMumifh a&T0gjynfom;wkdUonf tif'd,rS&&Sdaom ygVd pmaywdkUüyg&Sdonfh pMum0VmrQomr[kwfyJ wu,fhpMum0Vm tppfuvnf;od&SdvmMu / pMum0VmqdkwmBuD;ü um&Hxm;aom wHwdkif;[lonfvnf;r&Sd pMum0VmwHwdkif; wGif oydwfvkH;cefU&Sdaom pmvkH;BuD;rsm;jzifh a&;om;xm;onfh ynm&yfwdkUqdkonfrSmvnf; wHwdkif;r&SdaomaMumifhr&Sd/ tu,fppfppfurÇmajrjyifBuD;ay:wGif wnfwefUaeaom ta&SUpl;pl;t&yfESifh wnfwefUaeaom taemufpl;pl;t&yfvnf;r&Sd aea&mif0ifvm&mbufESifh aea&mif uG,faysmuf&mbufom&Sd/ tcsdeftcg[lonfrSmvnf; tm;vkH;wnDwnf; wNydKifwnf;r&Sd aeudkywf&if; vnfae&aom urÇmajrBuD;ay:odkU aeusa&muf&mt&yfü aeusa&mufonfh tcsdefudk
  • 29 rSwfxm;&onfhtcsdefomvQif tcsdeftjzpfESifh&Sd/ xdkUaMumifh urÇmajrjyifay:ü aea&mif xdawGUrIonf wae&mESifhwae&mrwlnD&um; tcsdeftcgvnf; wae&mESifhwae&m rwl nDMu/ Ak'¨0g'DwkdU txG#ftjrwfaeUwckjzpfaom uqkefvjynfhaeUü a&T0gjynfom; wkdUonf xdkaeUaeUvnf 10em&DwGif qGrf;awmfwifjcif; oHCmawmfrsm;udk qGrf;a<u;jcif; jyKvkyfMurnfqdkygpdkU/ xdkUtwl a&T0gjynf ta&SUbuf 'D*&Dudkq,fuGmaom Ak'¨0g'Dwdkif;jynfwjynfu þtwdkif; a&T0gjynfESifhwcsdefwnf; wqufwnf; BudK;rJUaMu;eef;jzifh tcsdefnSdí jyKvkyf MurnfqdkvQif xdkwdkif;jynfrS qGrf;awmfwifí oHCmawmfwkdUudk qGrf;auR;aomtcsdefonf uqkefvjynfhaeUnae 4 em&Düjzpfayvdrfhrnf/ þodkUvQif urÇmajrjyifü aeudktrSwftom; jyKxm;onfhtcsdefonf ajrBuD; wae&mESifhwae&m q,fhig;'D*&DuGma0;wdkif; wem&DrQa&SUaemufuGmjcm;vQuf&SdaMumif; udk a&T0gjynfom;wkdUodvmMu/ xdkUaMumifhtif'd,rS ygVdpmaywkdUjzifh a&maESmygvmaomtcsdefudk rSefuefpGmrSwf om;pdwfydkif;vsuf vlwkdUuHMur®mudk BudKwifa[majym edrdwfbwfMuonfh twwfynm onf acwfopf a&T0gjynfom; vli,fwkdUtbdkU rrSwfEdkifawmh[kodvmMu/ taMumif;rl urÇmajrjyifwckvkH; rSefaomtcsdefr&Sd rdrdwkdUajrae&mESifh rdrdwkdUajr ae&modkU a&muf0ifvmonfhaea&mifusrItay:ü uefUowfxm;aomtcsdefwkdUudk rdrdwkdU twGuf tcsdeftrSef[k todtrSwfjyKaeMu&aomaMumifhjzpf/ a&T0gjynfom;wkdUtbdkU þodkUod&SdvmMujcif;onf a&T0gjynfBuD;wckvkH; olUuRef b0rS vGwfajrmufvmMu&rnfh edrdwfaumif;wckjzpfcJU&/ tu,fpifppf a&T0gjynfom;wkdUum; olUuRefcHvdkolrsm;vnf;r[kwfMu? usef;rmoef pGrf; jzwfvwfolrsm;jzpfMu/ okdUaomf...pm;aomuf&ef qHurylryifvkHavmufpGm&&Sd aeaomaMumifh qHaygaomaMumifh at;at;vllvlNidrf;Nidrf;csrf;csrf;aevdkolrsm;csnf;jzpfMu / tysif;xlMu/ tysif;xlaomol[lorQonf tyifyef;rcHvdkMu? tacsmifvdkufcsif tacsmifvdkcsif Mu/
  • 30 xdkodkUtacsmifvdkufcsif tacsmifvdkcsifaom olwdkif;odyfrBudK;pm;bJtaqmif uav;pç tif;uav;pç vufzGJUuav;p aqmifxm;&kHrQESifh tvdkvdkudpöNyD;Nidrf;atmifjrif Edkifonf[lonfh t&mrsKd;udk ,kHMunfvdkufpm;vdkvm;Mu/ rnfonfhtcsdeftcgü rnfodkUjyKvkyfvQif atmifjrifrnf[laomtcgay; ,Mwmay; wkdUudk ,kHMunfvdkufemMu/ rdrdwkdUNrdKU&GmaejynfwkdUudk umuG,fbdkU jyKvkyfusKd;pm;ae&ef rvdk&avatmif tcsdef tcgr*FvmwkdUESifhudkufnDpGm ae&ma&G;cs,frI ajrae&m&SmazGrI tpDt&iftif;tdkifrEåmef wkdUjzifh wcrf;wem;pD&ifrI ponfwkdUudk vkyfaqmifMuvsuf NrdKUjywnfjcif; xD;eef;pdkufxl jcif; ponfwkdUudk jyKvkyfMu/ a&T0gjynf&mZ0ifwavQmufvkH; xD;eef;a&; ppfrufa&; tm;vkH;wkdUü þtcgr*Fvm a&G;cs,frI edrdwfbwfMum;rI ponfwkdU zkH;vTrf;vmcJUMu/ bkef;vuf&kef;ESifh taqmif tzGJUwkdUudk ,kHMunfvGef;cJUMu/ bk&ifESifhwuG a&T0gjynfom;tm;vkH;wkdUonf usKd;pm;rI tyifyef;cHrIrsm; avQmhenf;vmMuvQuf bmrQrvkyfbJ bmrQr&SmazGbJ rdrdwkdUtajctae rSwyg; tjcm;olrsm;tajctaeudk ravhvmMubJ rdrdwkdUwkdif;jynf rdrdwkdUtiftm; csnf; txifBuD;aeMu/ xdkUaMumifhvnf; a&T0gjynfwjynfvkH; olUuRefjzpfcJUMu&jcif;jzpf / ,ckrl olUuRefjzpfvmcJUMu&aom a&T0gjynfom;wkdUonf urÇmudkvnf; odavNyD a&T0gudkvnf;odavNyD/ u0mhwdkif;jynfBuD;wkdU aMumufrufzG,faumif;aom ppfNydKifrIrsm; udkvnf;odavNyD/ udk,fwdkifyg0ifívnf; wdkufcdkufbl;avNyD/ xdkUaMumifh Oyg'gefawG tpGJawG rjyKvkyfbJ aqmifxm;&kHjzifh tvdktvdkatmifjrif onf[kqdkaom taqmiftzGJUawGudk pGefUvTwfMuvsuf rdrdwkdUudk,fwdkif acR;eJUaoG;eJU &if;vsuf wyifwyef; wdkufcdkufcJUBudK;pm;cJUMuvsuf acwfrSDaomvli,fwpkwkdUu a&T0g wjynfaxmifvkH;udk vIHUaqmfpnf;&kH;um olUuReftjzpfrSu,fwifvdkufEdkifcJU/ okdUaomfa&T0gjynfom;tm;vkH;vdkvdk wu,fvufawGUrsufjrifod&SdvmMu&aom trSefw&m;wkdUudk vufcHMuygNyDavm/ &mZ0iftp ESpfaygif;axmifhokH;&mausmfrQ t&dk;xJOd;aPSmufxJodkU pJG0ifvmcJUMu& aom awG;ac:pGJvef;rIrsKd;awGludk pGefUvTwfEdkifMuygNyDavm/ þonfwdkUudk a&T0gjynfBuD; ,ckrsufarSmuftjzpfwkdUu tajzay;aeMu/
  • 31 urÇmESifhcsDí jzpfvdkufMu&aom ppfyGJBuD;tNyD;ü olUuRefb0rSvGwfvyfvmMuukef aom a&T0gjynfom;wkdUonf xdkodkUvGwfvyfvm&onfudkyif aMumifawmifawmif? a,mif awmifawmifjzpfaeMu/ &GmvkH;uRwfrD;avmifcH&NyD;p vma&mufa0iSMuonfhqefqD tdk;cGuf txnft0wf wkdUudk pk&kH;pk&kH;Esifh wkdUa0SU,liifaeMuukefaom &Gmom;rsm;onf xdk&&Sdvmonfh qef qD tdk;cGuf t0wftxnfuav;wkdUudk 0rf;ajrmuf0rf;omqkyfudkif ayGUydkufvsuf rdrdwkdUonf a&SUtbdkUwGif rdrdwkdUaea&; pm;a&; &yfwnfEdkifa&;twGuf rnfuJUokdUpwifwnfaxmif &ygrnfenf;[k &ifxJü vIyf&Sm;&bdouJUodkU.... ppfBuD;twGif; wdkufcdkufMu& ysufpD;Mu&NyD;rS vGwfvyfa&;&vmMu&aom a&T0gjynfom;wkdUonfvnf;.... xdk&vmonfh vGwfvyfa&;uav;udk ydkufayGUMuvsuf rdrdwkdUonf rnfuJUodkU qufvufxlaxmifMu&ygrnfenf;[k &ifwckHckH&Sd&if; awG;awmMuukef/ odkUaomf xdkodkUawG;awmMuolrsm; xdkodkU&ifckefMuolrsm;um;? a&T0gjynfol jynfom;tm;vkH;r[kwfMu? tenf;tusOf;rQjzpfMu/ xdktenf;tusOf;üvnf; vlESpfrsKd;yg0if/ yxrtrsKd;onf vGwfvyfaoma&T0g jynfBuD;udk udk,fwdkif0ifa&mufxlaxmifay;Murnfholrsm;jzpfMuí? 'kwd,trsKd;tpm;onf a&T0gjynfBuD; vGwfvyfa&;&onfudkyif 0rf;ajrmufyDwdjzpf aevQuf xlaxmifay;&mwGifudk,fwdkifryg0ifbJ tjyifrSapmifhxdef;ay;vdkolrsm;jzpf/ xdkESpfrsKd;teuf yxrtrsKd;onf OD;a&tm;jzifh rsm;jym;í'kwd,trsKd;ta&twGuf onf OD;a&tvGefeJ/ usefaom a&T0gjynfol jynfom;wkdUum; a&T0gjynfom;wkdU"avhp&dkuftwdkif; vGwfvyfa&;twGufwdkufcdkufpOfu wjynfaxmifvkH; a&maESmyg0ifwdkufcdkufcJUMuaomf vnf; wdkufckdufNyD;aomtcg vGwfvyfa&;&vQifvnf; udpör&Sdrxl;jcm;? rdrdtwGuf xl;xl;jcm;jcm;vdktyfonfum; wyifwyef;tvkyfrvkyfMubJ vIyfcg a&GUumrQjzifh rylryif aumif;aumif;0wf aumif;aumif;pm; aumif;aumif;NzKH; aumif; aumif;aysmfEdkifbkdUjzpf/ xdkUaMumifh a&T0gjynfoljynfom;wkdUonf vGwfvyfa&;&&Sdjcif;aMumifhcHpm;&onfh &ifüvIyf&Sm;rIudk ajymjywwfolr&Sdoavmufenf;/ a&T0gjynfom;wpkHwa,mufonf pGyfpGJcHae&aom jypfrItwGuf w&m;&kH;wkdUrS uGif;vkH;uRwfvTwfvdkufNyD[kod&aomtcg &ifxJürnfodkUcHpm;Mu&onfudkod/ ajymjyEdkif pGrf;/ bkef;BuD;ausmif;ü vlBuD;rdbwkdU wdkufwGef;rIaMumifh w0gESpf0gMumonftxd &SifomraP0wfaeMu&&mrS bkef;awmfBuD;uxGufcGifhay;vdkufojzifh &SifvlxGuf&rnf[k od&aomolwkdUonf xdkodkUod&onfhtcsdefü &ifwGif;0,f rnfodkUvIyf&Sm;&onfudk &SifomraP0wfbl;aom a&T0gjynfom;wdkif;od/ ajymjyEdkifpGrf;/
  • 32 xdkUtwl rarQmfvifhbJaxmifrS tvTwfcH&olrsm; rdrdcspfolcGifhay;csuft& a&S;OD; tBudrfcspfolESifh awGUcGifh&olrsm; qdwfuG,f&mürawGUbl;Muao;aomcspfolcsif; rdb oabmwlnDcsufjzifh r*Fvmaqmif&onfh r*FvmOD;nudk BuKHawGU&bl;olrsm;? xDaygufol rsm;ESifh a&SUOD;pGm r*¾Zif;üpmrlygvmNyD[kod&aom pmay0goemygolrsm; ponfponfwkdU onf rdrdwkdU&ifürnfodkUvQif vIyf&Sm;onf rnfodkUcHpm;&onfudk ajymjyEdkifolcsnf;jzpf/ okdUaomf xdkvltm;vkH;wdkUonf rdrdwdkUa&T0gjynfBuD; vGwfvyfvmavNyD[k odNyD;onfholrsm;csnf;jzpfaomfvnf; xdkokdUvGwfvyfygNyD;[laom ausnmcsufudk Mum;Mu& pOfu &ifxJü rnfodkUvIyf&Sm;xdcdkufygovJ[kar;vQif rnfolrQaumif;pGm rajymwwfovdk &SdaeMu/ tvG

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