Published on February 28, 2014
System of Rice Intensification (SRI): Opportunities for Liberia Erika Styger, SRI-Rice, Cornell University Presentation to Agriculture Coordination Committee (ACC), Ministry of Agriculture February 27, Monrovia, Liberia Improving and Scaling Up SRI in West Africa Regional Project
Improving and Scaling Up SRI in West Africa • 1st Phase 3 year regional World Bank funded commissioned project to increase rice productivity in 13 ECOWAS countries, as part of the West Africa Agriculture Productivity Program (WAAPP), steered by CORAF/WECARD. • Regional coordination for implementation: – Institute Economie Rural (IER) National Center for Specialization on Rice (CNS-Rice), Mali; – SRI-Rice Center from Cornell University is principal technical partner • January 2014 – December 2016
Improving and Scaling Up SRI in West Africa • Project developed through participatory process with representatives from research, extension, farmers from 13 countries – First workshop in Ouagadougou July 2012 – Second workshop in Saly, Senegal, July 2013 – Launching of project Porto Novo, Benin, February 2014 • Each country has its own implementation plan. • Drivers of project: WAAPP coordination, designated focal points, SRI champions (farmers, technicians) and associated partners (open platform)
Country group and climate zones
Rice cropping systems integrated in SRI West Africa Project Source AfricaRice, 2010
What is SRI? • The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is an agro-ecological and climate-smart methodology – For increasing the productivity of rice and other crops – By changing the management of plants, soil, water and nutrients, while reducing external inputs • SRI provides principles, guidelines and ideas – to be adapted to local environment http://sririce.org
Main principles of SRI method 1. Healthy early crop establishment – Seed selection & treatment, raised bed nursery, transplanting at young age 1. Reduced competition between plants – – Increased spacing 1 plant / hill 1. Healthy soils, rich in organic matter – Add manure, compost, green manure, crop residues 1. Aerobic soil management – – Reduced water applications (Alternate wetting and drying irrigation management) Mechanical weeder use
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK System of Rice Intensification Early healthy crop establishment Leveled uniform soil Seed selection Seed treatment Careful uprooting Fast transport Careful planting Shallow planting Young plants Light irrigation Keep weed free Mechanical weeding PRACTICES Reduced competition Healthy soils, rich in organic matter Wide Spacing (25x25 or more)* Organic matter application before soil preparation 1 plant /hill Grid pattern Transplanting Raised-bed nursery Non-dense seeding 1-2x water/day METHODOLOGY Direct seeding Mechanical weeding • • • 1-2 seeds/hill Shallow seeding • Manure (decomposed) Compost Cover crops/ green manure Return crop residues PRINCIPLES Aerobic soil management Create aerobic soil conditions Mechanical weeding Irrigated rice Alternate wetting and drying (AWD), allow soil to dry, 7-10 d irrigation Rainfed Keep weed free Incorporation Surface mulching Bunding of fields, good field leveling Light irrigation Aerobic soil conditions High rainfall - Drainage Mechanical weeding Low rainfall • Surface mulch Single seedling * In red: most common SRI practices
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK System of Rice Intensification Healthy early Crop establishment Reduced competition Climate zones Arid Semi-arid Semi-humid Humid Upland systems Practices Lowland systems Practices Irrigated systems Practices Others: Mangroves, deep water rice etc. Practices Healthy soils, rich in organic matter METHODOLOGY PRINCIPLES PRACTICES Aerobic soil management
SRI practices for irrigated rice 1. Single plant /hill 2. Transplant young seedlings (2 leaf stage) 3. Adopt wide spacing planted in a grid 4. Minimum water application during vegetative growth 5. Use mechanical weeder 6. Use organic amendments as base fertilization
SRI practices induce a phenotypical change in rice SRI Conventional SRI Conventional SRI Conventional in IRAQ’s Al-Mishkhab Research Center, Najaf: SRI on left, Non-SRI on the right
Physiological and morphological changes of SRI plants Non-SRI SRI • • • • • SRI Tillers are thicker (+38%) Plants are higher (+24%) More tillers/hill (+100%) Similar/more # tillers/m2 Greater canopy angle (33° vs 18°) Non SRI Thakur, A.K et al (2011) Effects for rice plant morphology and physiology of water and associated mgt practices of SRI and their implications for crop performance, PAWE 9:13-24
• Roots are deeper, longer, double the volume and weight/ hill Non SRI - flooded conditions SRI – AWD Thiyagarajan et al. (2009) Principles and Practices of SRI in Tamil Nadu Thakur, A.K et al (2011) Effects for rice plant morphology and physiology of water and associated mgt practices of SRI and their implications for crop performance, PAWE 9:13-24
Yield performance • More/similar number of panicles/ m2 • Longer panicles (+20%) • More grains/panicle • Fewer empty grains • 1000 grain weight is heavier Non-SRI Non-SRI SRI SRI ----- Increased Yields (often >50%)
2014 2012: SRI benefits have now been seen in >50 countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America Before 1999: Madagascar 1999: China, Indonesia 2000-01: Bangladesh, Cuba, Laos, Cambodia, Gambia, India, Nepal, Myanmar, Philippines, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Thailand 2002-03: Benin, Guinea, Moz., Peru 2004-05: Senegal, Pakistan, Vietnam 2006: Burkina Faso, Bhutan, Iran, Iraq, Zambia 2007: Afghanistan, Brazil, Mali 2008: Rwanda, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Egypt, Ghana, Japan 2009: Malaysia, Timor Leste 2010: Kenya, DPRK, Panama, Haiti 2011: Colombia, Korea, Taiwan, Tanzania 2012: Burundi, Dominican Republic, Niger, Nigeria, Togo
CON 3.6 t/ha SRI 9.5 t/ha CON 5.6 t/ha CON 6.5 t/ha SRI 9.5 t/ha Tropical Climate, Medium Altitude: Bhutan Tropical Savanna Climate, Cuba CON: 1.8 t/ha CON: 5.5 t/ha SRI 4.0 t/ha SRI 9.1 t/ha Arid Climate, Mali Tropical Climate, Low Altitude Cambodia – Rainfed SRI SRI 9.3 t/ha High Altitude, semi-arid climate (1700m) Afghanistan
Summary of Benefits • • • • Yield Increase: often >50% Water savings: 30-50% Seed reduction: > 90% Chemical fertilizer reduction: 20-40% (to 100% = organic SRI) • Improved tolerance towards pests and diseases Mali – Pesticide reduction http://sririce.org Sheath blight disease
Summary of Benefits • Shorter crop cycle (1-2 weeks) • Improved drought tolerance • Improve resistance to strong winds • Costs/ha (reduction by 30%) • Income increase/ha: +30-100% http://sririce.org After typhoon in Vietnam SRI Non-SRI Improved drought resistance, India
System of Rice Intensification in Liberia CHAP farm, 0.3 ha SRI, 39 days after transplanting, Nerica L19, Feb 2014
First SRI plot in Liberia, Dec 2012 by Community of Hope Agriculture Project (CHAP) Paynesville, Monrovia First SRI test by Robert Bimba
Start up of SRI WAAPP Liberia Program • First training of trainers (TOT) in December 2013, with 77 trainees • Focal point: CHAP, Robert Bimba • Workplan for 2014 approved • Champions establish trial plots (at least 5 so far) • Integration of SRI into current rice initiatives • CHAP to pilot SRI in River Gee, Grand Gedeh • Technical capacity development: TOTs
Press coverage of TOT
SRI in Liberia 2014 SRI Fields (1/3 ha) at CHAP, Paynesville Feb 24, 2014 Samuel Bimba, CHAPS 39 days after transplanting (rows are closing) - - Nerica L19 1 seedling/hill, 2 leave stage 25cm x 25cm spacing No fertilization (rich soil) Hand weeding, rotary weeder Alternate wetting and drying
SRI in Liberia 2014 1st SRI Trial at CARI Research Station, Suakoko, Bong County Feb 25, 2014 Trial management: Amis Cecilia Merchant, Rennie Kollieyoun (left) - Nerica L19 - Tillering per hill ~ doubled (20) - Panicles longer - Plants more vigorous - 7kg seed/ha • 1 seedling/hill, 10 days old • 30cm x 40 cm spacing • 1.25t/ha manure, 12 kg/ha urea • Alternate wetting & drying • Hand weeding
SRI Opportunities for Liberia • SRI methodology can improve rice productivity for any variety (traditional and improved) and with locally available resources • SRI is farmer-driven and knowledge-based approach – SRI was introduced to Liberia through farmers – SRI can be directly applied with farmers – Immediate learning with and from farmers creates fast and relevant results! – Good technical training needed
SRI Opportunities for Liberia High quality seed production by farmers • 1 plant/hill eliminates danger of mixing varieties • Purification of seeds /reconstruction of varieties • Best plants selected by farmers for seeds Individual mother plants Cambodia Individual panicle harvest and selection for seed • Only 6kg/ha of seeds required • Multiplication factor for seed production: SRI x 1000 (6kg seeds - 6t/ha yield)Example: 1kg seed, in Year 3: 167,000 ha Traditional x 100 (30kg/ha seeds - 3t/ha yield), Example: 1kg seed, in Year 3: 333 ha Cambodia
SRI Opportunities for Liberia Reduced water application to rice – Creating aerobic soil conditions • Rice grows better in non-flooded conditions, alternate wetting and drying – Roots can breath and develop, support plant growth and grain filling ( higher yields) – Diminishes iron-toxicity – Hypothesis: Reduction of vector breeding for Schistosomiasis through periodic drying of fields and canals • Irrigation infrastructure to be designed for adding water when needed and for drainage, not for flooding
SRI Opportunities for Liberia Improved soil and water management • For water-logged soils – Improve drainage – Create permanent raised beds • Create year-round water availability – Plant rice in dry season – Apply new techniques like lock-lodge ratooning • Avoid heavy soil preparation – – – – Move towards conservation agriculture practices Improve soil through organic matter addition Save on expensive mechanization costs Allow for crop rotation
Thank You! Contact Erika Styger: firstname.lastname@example.org http://sririce.org SRI Liberia Focal Point: Robert Bimba +231-886543735 email@example.com SRI Trial at CARI Research Station, Suakoko, Bong County, Feb 25 2014
Lock-Lodge Rice Ratooning Lock Lodging Line-planted Stubble (15-20 mandays / ha) Example of soil too wet. Ethylene not absorbed. Very poor re-growth 1st Ratoon Crop 10 Days Re-growth This photo shows soil too dry & crop too mature for good ratooning) 2nd Ratoon Crop... Yield for Ratoon is 60-120 % of 1st Crop NOTES: • When ratooning the soil should be damp to allow moisture for re-growth, but avoid dry cracked soil, or standing water. Correct moisture content allows ethylene (produced at lodging) to maximise basal tillering & the plant to re-grow. Level Fields are important. • Flood as normal once ratoon shoots appear after 6-10 days • Apply 2 split Nitrogen top-dressings, less P/K • Harvest at 80% maturity, • Can repeat ratoon several times 30 Days Regrowth (Harvest 76 Days after Ratooning) Details at PRASAC-Takeo Tel: 032 931 241 Less Labour, No Seed, No Replanting, 80-90 Days to
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