14 Rail Farm Oil Film

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Information about 14 Rail Farm Oil Film

Published on January 21, 2008

Author: Valentina

Source: authorstream.com

Era Prior to Railroads:  Era Prior to Railroads Isolation was prime shaper of California. Routes were arduous and dangerous. Isthumus of Panama Wagon Train or Horses - Oregon Trail, Mountain Passes (you can follow the old trails today by following the discarded junk along route) Sail around Tierra del Fuego or through Straits of Magellen 1850-1860 Overland Stage: inefficient, unreliable Donner Party: Fall 1846 - Spring 1847 Building a Railroad:  Building a Railroad By 1855 local railroads under construction Fed. Government agreed to give 20 sections (section = 1 mi2) for every mile of track laid. They also provided loans. Union Pacific (built from East) and Central Pacific, later Southern Pacific (built from Sacramento) Theodore Judah, an engineer, crossed the Sierras 23 times on foot, horseback, and by wagon searching for a suitable route for a railroad. He found funding with 4 Sacramento shopkeepers. Judah never profited. He died trying to raise money to buy out the other four. Railroad Barons:  Railroad Barons 4 Railroad Barons (former Shopkeepers): Leland Stanford (Bay Area) Mark Hopkins (SF) Collins P. Huntington (LA) Charles Crocker They invested their combined assets, about $100,000. Eventually they would amass fortunes totaling $200,000,000. There was risk involved, but these men eventually used their power to control the economy of California. Slide4:  Laying the last rail and the Golden Spike at Promontory Point, Utah, May 19, 1869. 4 month trip now takes 4 days! Imagine setting out in March, 1869 and finding out later. Effects of the Transcontinental Railroad:  Effects of the Transcontinental Railroad San Francisco becomes a transshipment point for Asian goods. Prices drop over night. Trains that at first deadheaded back East started to take agricultural products back. Railroad was a monopoly. Prices were high. Resentment and sporadic violence from farmers and others broke out. Southern Pacific is the 3rd largest landholder in state after Feds and State. Influx of Asian, particularly Chinese, workers. Effects of the Transcontinental Railroad:  Effects of the Transcontinental Railroad Pluses: Connected Cali to East Increased trade Increased speed of communications Connected Pacific to Atlantic and Europe Minuses: Monopoly and Greed Unethical business practices Politicians controlled by Southern Pacific (Frank Norris, The Octopus) Violence against Asians:  Violence against Asians The Gold Rush brought many Chinese to California. Town of China Camp on Highway 49, for example. They were violently forced out by Mexicans, who were later violently forced out by Americans. All of this was repeated during the construction of the railroads. White men designed, engineered, supervised, and profited. Chinese “coolies” did the backbreaking labor. They worked right through the winters in snow tunnels. Many became lost and were found frozen during the spring thaw. Violence against Asians:  Violence against Asians Railroad laborers were mostly Chinese men. Smaller number from all over the world. As Chinese pushed out, Japanese (who often brought their families) replaced them. Differences led to tension: Immigrants from the Eastern U.S. often intended to become citizens. Chinese were here to make money and return to their families. They worked very hard. Migration issues: most migrants still move for money. Most are young men. Why learn English? Why mix socially? Why go slow? European Resentment:  European Resentment Why? Made them look lazy didn’t associate with Europeans (or was it other way around?) didn’t learn the language racism (Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882) Truckee at one point had 1,000 Chinese. In 1883, vigilante committee formed by local politician burned Chinese Truckee. Newspaper headline read: “Luckey Truckee - Chinatown Holocausted.” Farming Changes in California:  Farming Changes in California Little agriculture under Native Americans Spanish begin dry farming Mexicans focus instead on ranching cattle American’s changed things. Had to feed 49’s railroad made shipping products out of season practical Mormons, 1847-1850, in San Bernadino, introduced irrigation using local streams, just as they had in Utah with dams and storage areas to grow expensive fruits, grapes, nuts. Later they did this in San Joaquin, too. Petroleum:  Petroleum Oil first discovered in which state? 1876 First commercial oil well in Pico Canyon, Santa Clarita, CA 1895 1,000,000+ barrels 1920s Second boom in Huntington, Torrance, Dominguez. SoCal (and Henry Ford) has enough oil to ensure success of automobile. 1955 The Tidelands Act allows offshore drilling. 1968 Santa Barbara Channel oil spill. Demise of public transit (L.A.’s Red Line) Tarmac - made of waste product from oil refineries. Slide12:  La Brea Tar Pits, discovered by Gaspar de Portola in 1769 Huntington Beach Film Industry:  Film Industry 1900 Hollywood was sleepy little town. Reasons to locate in Los Angeles: East coast patents on moviemaking equipment Avoid royalties Escape to Mexico if legal heat comes down By 1915 Hollywood is self-proclaimed capital of filmaking. Benefits of the Film Industry:  Benefits of the Film Industry 1) Free advertising for California Hollywood comes to = California for the world. Tourism results 2) Employment generation carpenters, electricians, computer programmers, tons of other union and non-union jobs sets, extras, hairdressers 3) Control of much of the world’s media. This is a kind of power. We export culture and get paid for it. Television:  Television Arrival was feared at first, but the infrastructure was here. California became THE place to film television shows (New York is second). The Depression and Dust Bowl:  The Depression and Dust Bowl Stock Market Crash of 1929 Dust Bowl droughts in Midwest and 1930s depression send thousands of unemployed migrants to an already depressed California. “Okies” John Steinbeck, Grapes of Wrath California’s depression didn’t really end until build-up for WWII. Dust Bowl Migrations:  Dust Bowl Migrations Causes: improper farming techniques - no fallow period, no turning in of crops drought handbills advertising work for pickers in CA So many came that wages for pickers plummeted. Living conditions were terrible. At one point Gov. of CA called out state troopers to block newcomers! Feds quickly put an end to that. World War II:  World War II 1941-1945 WWII Military build-up included explosive growth for fledgling aircraft industry in Southern California Douglas, Northrop, Lockheed, Hughes Defense contractors quickly become base of SoCal economy, providing many high-paying union jobs. Immigration flows, following economic opportunity and “California Dream,” begin in this period. Slide20:  1939-> Lend/Lease Oakland - Liberty Ships By the end of the war, California was an urban, industrial society. World War II:  World War II 1941-1945 WWII Feb. 1942 Roosevelt authorized military control of “enemy aliens” Japanese-Americans and Japanese aliens placed in concentration camps and stripped of their land: Manzanar in the Owens Valley Tule Lake near Oregon Border in the Modoc Plateau. Still a Japanese ag. community today. Economic losses of at least $365,000,000 for the Japanese. Slide22:  Manzanar Internment Camp, 1943 Manzanar Memorial, 1999 No redress until 1988 Civil Liberties Act which paid each survivor $20,000. (65,000 of 120,000) Italians and Germans were never subjected to this treatment. Many Japanese still served in military. Postwar Boom:  Postwar Boom Southern California becomes a military stronghold. Soldiers passing through for training often return to settle. Population growth soars ahead of other states. “Ranch” houses and sprawl begin. Economic growth: assembly line style housing developments consumer goods, including automobiles defense industry continues to thrive on Cold War money: nuclear power, missile systems, aerospace, electronic weaponry, planes. By 1960, CA gets 25% of federal defense money 1969, CA gets 33% + of federal defense money California as Trendsetter:  California as Trendsetter Fashion, Style, and Music Youth subculture: surfing, skateboards, fashion, rock ‘n’ roll, Razor scooters Prop. 13, 1978 - brought property tax hikes to screeching halt. Taxes only set at time of sale. Dramatically decreased ability of governments to provide services. Now homeowners may pay 20 times the tax of their neighbors! “Los Angelization of Places” - suburban sprawl, over-development, and Spanish Mediterranean style architecture are all now ubiquitous.

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