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Business-Finance

Published on January 15, 2009

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Chapter 13Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems : Management Information Systems, 3rd Edition Effy Oz 1 Chapter 13Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems Learning Objectives : Management Information Systems, 3rd Edition Effy Oz 2 Learning Objectives When you finish this chapter, you will: Know the basic concepts of artificial intelligence. Give examples of how technology has been used in business and other professional domains, and how it can be further used in the future. Understand expertise, the purpose of expert systems in business and other professional domains, and why expert systems are so helpful in solving unstructured problems. Learning Objectives : Management Information Systems, 3rd Edition Effy Oz 3 Learning Objectives Recognize the major methods of representing knowledge in software. Understand the challenges involved in garnering knowledge for the construction of knowledge bases. Be able to explain the concept of knowledge engineering. Artificial Intelligencein Business : Management Information Systems, 3rd Edition Effy Oz 4 Artificial Intelligencein Business Artificial Intelligencein Business : Management Information Systems, 3rd Edition Effy Oz 5 Artificial Intelligencein Business Artificial Intelligence Attempt to emulate the human mind in machines Robotics Robots used to replace human laborers Artificial Vision Allows robots that move in space sense obstacles Used in machines for sorting and identification Artificial Intelligencein Business : Management Information Systems, 3rd Edition Effy Oz 6 Artificial Intelligencein Business Natural Language Process Programs that recognize human commands Expert Systems Programs that simulate human expertise Neural Networks Programs built to solve problems while learning and refining their knowledge Artificial Intelligencein Business : Management Information Systems, 3rd Edition Effy Oz 7 Artificial Intelligencein Business Artificial Intelligencein Business : Management Information Systems, 3rd Edition Effy Oz 8 Artificial Intelligencein Business Fuzzy Logic Based on rules that have no discrete boundaries More closely mimics human problem solving Used in appliances, locomotives, managerial decision making Artificial Intelligencein Business : Management Information Systems, 3rd Edition Effy Oz 9 Artificial Intelligencein Business Artificial Intelligencein Business : Management Information Systems, 3rd Edition Effy Oz 10 Artificial Intelligencein Business Artificial Intelligencein Business : Management Information Systems, 3rd Edition Effy Oz 11 Artificial Intelligencein Business Genetic Algorithms Mathematical functions that use Darwinian principals to improve an application Intelligent Agents Automatically wade through massive amounts of data to select and deliver the most suitable information Artificial Intelligencein Business : Management Information Systems, 3rd Edition Effy Oz 12 Artificial Intelligencein Business Contribution of Expert Systems : Management Information Systems, 3rd Edition Effy Oz 13 Contribution of Expert Systems Areas where ESs can help in business Planning Decision making Monitoring Diagnosis Training Incidental learning Replication of expertise Timely response Consistent solutions Development of Expert Systems : Management Information Systems, 3rd Edition Effy Oz 14 Development of Expert Systems What is Expertise? Skill and knowledge whose input into a process results in performance high above the norm. Components of Expert Systems The interface or dialog The knowledge base The interface engine Development of Expert Systems : Management Information Systems, 3rd Edition Effy Oz 15 Development of Expert Systems Construction of Expert Systems : Management Information Systems, 3rd Edition Effy Oz 16 Construction of Expert Systems IF-THEN Rules Most popular method of knowledge representation Also called production rules Systems hold facts in the form of IF-THEN statements Construction of Expert Systems : Management Information Systems, 3rd Edition Effy Oz 17 Construction of Expert Systems Construction of Expert Systems : Management Information Systems, 3rd Edition Effy Oz 18 Construction of Expert Systems Frames Knowledge organized as facts in tables Semantic Nets Knowledge stored as objects and the relationships among them Construction of Expert Systems : Management Information Systems, 3rd Edition Effy Oz 19 Construction of Expert Systems A semantic net Construction of Expert Systems : Management Information Systems, 3rd Edition Effy Oz 20 Construction of Expert Systems Knowledge Engineering Asking experts appropriate questions and translating into a knowledge base Some ESs take years Knowledge engineer: programmer who specializes in developing ESs Construction of Expert Systems : Management Information Systems, 3rd Edition Effy Oz 21 Construction of Expert Systems Expert System Shells Expert System that has been emptied of its knowledge Used to build new ES Forward Chaining Result-driven process Backward Chaining Goal-driven process Construction of Expert Systems : Management Information Systems, 3rd Edition Effy Oz 22 Construction of Expert Systems Factors Justifying the Acquisition of Expert Systems Expert Systems in Action : Management Information Systems, 3rd Edition Effy Oz 23 Expert Systems in Action Business areas using ESs Telephone network maintenance Credit evaluation Tax planning Detection of insider securities trading Detection of Common Metals Mineral Exploration Expert Systems in Action : Management Information Systems, 3rd Edition Effy Oz 24 Expert Systems in Action Irrigation and pest management Predicting failure of diesel engines Medical Diagnosis Class Selection for Students Limitations of Expert Systems : Management Information Systems, 3rd Edition Effy Oz 25 Limitations of Expert Systems Three limitations of ESs Can handle only narrow domains Do not possess common sense Have a limited ability to learn Ethical and Societal IssuesToo Sophisticated Technology : Management Information Systems, 3rd Edition Effy Oz 26 Ethical and Societal IssuesToo Sophisticated Technology Increasing dependence on machine intelligence raises legal and ethical issues. Who is legally responsible for advice provided by a program? Is expert judgment needed to interpret program output? Does machine expertise replace or complement the ‘real thing’? How do we know if the experts behind expert systems are expert at all? Ethical and Societal IssuesToo Sophisticated Technology : Management Information Systems, 3rd Edition Effy Oz 27 Ethical and Societal IssuesToo Sophisticated Technology Malfunctions of an ES can be caused by anyone involved in the development. Experts who contribute knowledge Knowledge engineer who builds the system Professional who uses the ES The person who is affected by the decision

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