1311 theories

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Information about 1311 theories
Education

Published on January 28, 2008

Author: Perrin

Source: authorstream.com

1335: Theories of Development:  1335: Theories of Development In each domain influences and is influenced by development in other domains.:  In each domain influences and is influenced by development in other domains. Growth and Development… Chapter 3 Exploring Your Role, Jalongo & Isenberg, Pearson Education, Inc., 2004. Growth and Development…:  Growth and Development… Occurs in an orderly and predictable sequence. Chapter 3 Exploring Your Role, Jalongo & Isenberg, Pearson Education, Inc., 2004. Growth and Development…:  Growth and Development… Proceeds at different rates within each individual and within each developmental area. Chapter 3 Exploring Your Role, Jalongo & Isenberg, Pearson Education, Inc., 2004. Growth and Development…:  Growth and Development… Is greatly affected by the kinds of experiences children have. Chapter 3 Exploring Your Role, Jalongo & Isenberg, Pearson Education, Inc., 2004. Growth and Development…:  Growth and Development… Results from the interaction of each child’s biological, physical, and cultural environments. Chapter 3 Exploring Your Role, Jalongo & Isenberg, Pearson Education, Inc., 2004. Views of Child Development:  Views of Child Development Original sin view Tabla rasa view Innate goodness view Children born into world corrupted with inclination toward evil Children born as “blank slates” and acquire characteristics through experience (Locke) Children born inherently good (Rousseau) The Life-Span Perspective Processes in Development:  Processes in Development The Nature of Development Periods of Development:  Periods of Development Prenatal Infancy Early childhood Middle and late childhood Adolescence Early adulthood Middle adulthood Late adulthood The Nature of Development Domains of Development :  Domains of Development Physical Social Emotional Intellectual Cognitive Theories What do theories do?:  Theories What do theories do? Offer insight and guidance Provide framework for acquiring new knowledge Enhance communication of new knowledge Chapter 2 Theories of How Children Develop?:  Theories of How Children Develop? Developmental: Jean Piaget Psychoanalytic: Sigmund Freud Psychsocial: Eric Ericson Systems: Urie Bronfenbrenner Piaget:  Piaget Children think and process information from the general to specific. Children are egocentric. Young children think concretely. Development occurs in a series of stages and one stage must be completed in order to move on to the next stage. Stages of Cognitive Development:  Psychology Applied to Teaching. Snowman/Biehler. Copyright©Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Stages of Cognitive Development Piaget’s Basic Principles:  Psychology Applied to Teaching. Snowman/Biehler. Copyright©Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Piaget’s Basic Principles SCHEMES: organized pattern of behavior or thought ORGANIZATION: tendency to coherently systematize and combine processes ADAPTATION: tendency to adjust to environment EQUILIBRATION: self-regulation used to ring coherence and stability Vygotsky:  Vygotsky Learning leads development. Language is central to learning. Cultures emphasize different types of skills that are important and, therefore, children develop the skills that are most valued by their culture. The learning of language is central to developing abilities and activities. Pretend play is crucial to a child's learning. Freud’s Psychosexual Stages:  Freud’s Psychosexual Stages Oral: Birth to 1 Sucking needs must be met or child will develop oral fixation (pencil chewing, nail biting, overeating, smoking. Anal: 1-3 Child controls toileting. If parents make too few or too many demands child develops conflict about anal control and may develop excessive need to control or develop no self-control Phallic: 3-6 years Id impulses center on genitals. Children develop an attraction to same-sex parent and this creates conflict for them. To resolve they adopt the same-sex parent’s characteristics and values. If not they develop confusion or frustration about their sexuality Latency: 6-11 Superego develops further; Sexual impulses recede; New social values from peers and society develops Genital: Adolescence: Sexual impulses reappear Freud’s Psychosexual Theory:  Freud’s Psychosexual Theory Id Ego Superego Theories of Development Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory:  Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory Eight stages of development Unique development task confronts individuals with crisis that must be resolved Positive resolution builds foundation for healthy development Theories of Development Erikson’s Life-Span Stages:  Industry vs. inferiority Erikson’s Life-Span Stages Generativity vs. stagnation Middle\late childhood Integrity vs. despair Intimacy vs. isolation Identity vs. identity confusion Initiative vs. guilt Autonomy vs. shame and doubt Trust vs. mistrust Infancy/Early childhood Middle adulthood Late adulthood Adolescence Early adulthood Theories of Development Ericson’s Stages of Man:  Ericson’s Stages of Man STAGE I--Trust vs. Mistrust: Hope (0-1 year) STAGE 2--Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt: Will (2 years). STAGE 3--Initiative vs. Guilt: sense of Purpose (3-5 years) STAGE 4--Industry vs. Inferiority: Competence (6-11) STAGE 5--Identity vs. Identity Confusion: Fidelity (13-19) Evaluating the Psychoanalytic Theories:  Evaluating the Psychoanalytic Theories Contributions Early experiences Family relationships Unconscious Adult changes Criticisms Difficult to test Emphasis on sexual underpinnings Unconscious too important Negative Culture and gender bias Theories of Development Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs:  Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Abraham Maslow:  Abraham Maslow Physiological Desire Needs. Biological needs such as oxygen, food, water, warmth/coolness, protection from storms and so forth. These needs are the strongest because if deprived, the person could or would die. Safety and Stability Needs. Felt by adults during emergencies, periods of disorganisation in the social structure (such as widespread rioting). Felt more frequently by children who often display signs of insecurity and their need to be safe. Social Desire Needs. (Love, Affection and Belongingness Needs) The needs to escape loneliness and alienation and give (and receive) love, affection and the sense of belonging. Self Esteem Needs. Needs for a stable, firmly based, high level of self-respect, and respect from others in order to feel satisfied, self confident and valuable. If these needs are not met, the person feels inferior, weak, helpless and worthless. Self-realisation Needs. Maslow describes self-realisation as an ongoing process. Self-realising people are involved in a cause outside their own skin. They are devoted, work at something, something very precious to them - some calling or vocation, in the old sense, the priestly sense. When you select, out of careful study, very fine and healthy people, strong people, creative people, saintly people, sagacious people, you get a different view of mankind. You ask how tall can people grow, what can a human being become? Man has a calling to be or do that which he is born to do Urie Bronfenbrenner believes that the developing child is embedded in a series of complex and interactive systems:  Urie Bronfenbrenner believes that the developing child is embedded in a series of complex and interactive systems Behaviorism and Social Learning Theory:  Behaviorism and Social Learning Theory John Watson: All behavior is learned and can be created by stimuli and responses Skinner: Behavior can be increased through the use of reinforcers and extinguished through the use of punishment Classical conditioning: stimulus + response Little Albert and the rat Bandura: Social-cognitive theory: Children become increasingly selective about what they imitate; they observe others and develop personal standards for behavior.

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