12_03 HK RGS 1

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Information about 12_03 HK RGS 1
Science-Technology

Published on April 3, 2012

Author: Dr_Dave

Source: authorstream.com

PowerPoint Presentation: Institute of Hazard, Risk and Resilience The Hazards of Geography: Earthquakes, Floods and Landslides David Petley Email: d.n.petley@durham.ac.uk T witter: @ davepetley Blog: http ://blogs.agu.org/landslideblog / What this talk is about: What this talk is about What is the current understanding of the ways in which hazards affect people? What is likely to happen in the next decade or so? How can we reduce the burden that disasters impose upon people? Discussion Institute of Hazard, Risk and Resilience Durham University This talk is not about climate change, but it is important: This talk is not about climate change, but it is important Energy release from large earthquakes: Energy release from large earthquakes Chile 1960 Sumatra 2004 Taiwan 1999 Kashmir 2005 Japan 2010 Christchurch 2010 China 2008 Kobe 1995 Magnitude Earthquakes Energy equivalent kg TNT 56 trillion 1.8 trillion 56 billion 56 million 56,000 56 1.8 million 1.8 billion Krakatoa eruption World’s largest nuclear explosion Mount St Helen’s Hiroshima Large lightning bolt 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1,800 1 million 100,000 10,000 1,000 100 10 1 Number per year Total human global energy production PowerPoint Presentation: Impacts of natural disasters S moothed UN EM-DAT data Number of people killed by all natural disasters Number of natural disasters reported 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 0 500 400 300 200 100 0 Number of people killed Number of reported disasters Same data for landslides: Same data for landslides Number of people killed by landslides Number of recorded landslides Earthquakes: Earthquakes Simkin and Siebert (1994): number of active volcanoes: Simkin and Siebert (1994): number of active volcanoes Reported number of active volcanoes per year 80 60 40 20 0 1800 1850 1900 1950 1990 Year WW1 WW2 Case study – Beichuan Town: Case study – Beichuan Town Complex disasters – Beichuan in 2007 PowerPoint Presentation: 2008 Wenchuan (Sichuan) earthquake, China 14:28 12 th May 2008; M w = 7.9; Depth = 19 km PowerPoint Presentation: Densmore et al. 2007 Case study – Beichuan Town: Case study – Beichuan Town Beichuan Fault PowerPoint Presentation: Beichuan Middle School landslide Location of school PowerPoint Presentation: Old Town Landslide (10 mins after m ain shock) Tangjiashan landslide dam crisis: Tangjiashan landslide dam crisis Post-seismic debris flows: Post-seismic debris flows Disasters are not discrete events: Disasters are not discrete events Disaster cycle Darfield earthquake and aftershocks: Darfield earthquake and aftershocks Map: GNS Science, New Zealand Surface expression of the Darfield fault : Surface expression of the Darfield fault Impact: Impact February 2011 earthquake: February 2011 earthquake Aftershock of Darfield earthquake 12:51 on 22 nd Feb 2011 ML = 6.3 at 5 km depth 10 kilometres (6 mi) south-east of the centre of Christchurch 184 people killed PowerPoint Presentation: Photo: GNS Science PowerPoint Presentation: Map: GNS Science, New Zealand PowerPoint Presentation: 17 months (so far…) Graph: GNS Science, New Zealand September 2010 January 2011 May 2011 September 2011 January 2012 Number of aftershocks >3.0 3000 3500 2500 2000 1500 1000 5 00 0 Aftershock decay sequence, Christchurch PowerPoint Presentation: N But vulnerability is also very complex: Kashmir earthquake Pakistan Living with hazards in highly active areas – an example from Nepal: Living with hazards in highly active areas – an example from Nepal So why locate in a hazard-prone place?: So why locate in a hazard-prone place? Disadvantages: Landslide hazard (every year, but only in heavy rainfall) Earthquake hazard (once every 400 years) Advantages: Access to health services Access to water Access to a market / trade Access to employment More chance of electricity Etc. . Living here is a rational decision in the context of daily risk So how can we handle this threat to lives?: So how can we handle this threat to lives? Unfortunately, there are two competing approaches:: Unfortunately, there are two competing approaches: Engineering Livelihood A better approach: first, document impacts Global fatal landslides: A better approach: first, document impacts Global fatal landslides East Asia: East Asia Landslide occurrence through time: Landslide occurrence through time Second, use research in an appropriate manner: Second, use research in an appropriate manner Third, work with local people according to their needs: Third, work with local people according to their needs Fourth, don’t lose sight of the big picture Bilham (2002): Fourth, don’t lose sight of the big picture Bilham (2002) Fifth, use local and national approaches: Fifth, use local and n ational approaches The future: threatened cities from earthquakes: The future: threatened cities from earthquakes Map: University of Colorado and NYT Large-scale investment in research: Large-scale investment in research Physics: Large hadron collider: $9 billion Square kilometre array: $2 billion DUSEL: $500 million European Extremely Large Telescope: $1.5 billion Natural hazards: NERC-ESRC increasing resilience to natural hazards(earthquakes and volcanoes): $10 million over five years Average EU funding for earthquake engineering research: $4 million But small-scale capacity building can also be very effective and efficient: But small-scale capacity building can also be very effective and efficient Conclusions: Conclusions PowerPoint Presentation: Institute of Hazard, Risk and Resilience David Petley Email: d.n.petley@durham.ac.uk Twitter: @ davepetley Blog: http ://blogs.agu.org/landslideblog/

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