Published on March 14, 2014
Vocabulary Academic convention; Bourgeois; Art critique Studio, Salon, Exhibition Complementary colour Optical mixing Spectrum colours Synthetic pigment
Vocabulary Shimmer, Open composition Instantaneity Cropping ‘En plein air’ Palette Atmosphere
Vocabulary Transitory effect Luminosity Mechanical grinding Co-operative
Emergence of Impressionist style 1860s artists’ cooperative formed Rejected academic convention of: 1.Deferring to the antique in subject matter 2 Priming the canvas with dark undertones 3 Painting in darkened studio, instead 1.Chose the modern era as subject matter 2.Painted directly onto unprimed canvas 3.Painted out of doors (en plein air)
Key Artists Claude Monet (1840-1926) Camille Pissarro (1830-1903) Edgar Degas (1843-1917) Berthe Morisot (1841-1895) August Renoir (1841-1919) Mary Cassatt (1844-1926) Alfred Sisley (1839-1899)
Sculpture Pierre Auguste Rodin 1840-1917 Danaid the source 1891 http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/toulouse-lautrec/
Toulouse Lautrec 1864-1901 1891 Moulin Rouge Lithographs
Pierre Auguste Rodin http://www.rodinmuseum.org/collections/permanent/103358.html?mulR=25374|105 Age of Bronze 1875-77 Modelled 1925 cast The Burghers of Calais 1874
Toulouse –Lautrec 1864 -1901 http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/toulouse-lautrec/ Ambassadeurs 1872 Lithograph Moulin Rouge two ladies 1892 oil on cardboard
Materials Un primed canvases Poppy seed oil instead of linseed oil Spectrum colours Synthetic pigments Square headed brushes Tubes of colour Pastels http://www.impressionism.org/atelier.htm
Techniques Only spectrum colours were used Paint was applied in looser distinct brush strokes rather than blending Uniform loading of the brush
Techniques Paint was applied on pale/white canvasses Out of doors rather than studio based Coloured shadows were created using complementary colours-no black
Historical context- Art and Power Rise of bourgeois society in Paris mid 18thC Role of the Academy and Salon Rise of art critiques
Historical context- Art and Power Influences from Japanese Art Forerunners: Eduard Manet, Gustave Courbet Napoleon III – the Salon des Refuses Baron Haussmann- city planner
Gustave Caillebotte ‘Rainy Day in Paris’1877 Social History http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/caillebotte/ What does this image reveal about the city?
Napoleon III – Salon des Refuses Googleimages
Influences of Japanese Art - Woodblocks Familiar scenes interiors, street views Dramatic cropping Unusual perspectives Areas of contrasting colours http://ahistoryofgraphicdesign.blogspot.ie/2011/03/art-nouveau.html
Gutave Courbet Burial at Ornans 1850 http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/courbet/ornans.jpg Why does this painting not represent the established canons of Academic art?
Eduard Manet ‘ Dejeuner sur L’herbe’1863 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Manet,_Edouard_Le_D%C3%A9jeuner_sur_l%27Herbe_(The_Picnic)_(1).jpg How does this painting not represent the established Academic canons?
Industrial / Scientific innovations Manufacture of tin for paint tubes rather than a pig’s bladder (see image A next slide) Mechanical grinding of pigments Expansion of the railways Expansion of trade with the East Scientific discoveries of colour mixing B Photography - Nadar’s studio C
Tube paint could be used outdoors… how would this affect artists? A http://0.tqn.com/d/painting/1/0/M/N/2/Winsor-Newton-tube-developm.jpg
Eugene Chevreul’s colour wheel B 1786-1889 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nadar_(photographer) Honoré Daumier C 1863
EXHIBITIONS 1874- 1st exhibition held in studio of the photographer Nadar Claude Monet, Berthe Morisot, August Renoir, Alfred Sisley ….. this was where an art critic called Monet’s work ‘Sunrise’ oh no merely an “impression” 7 more exhibitions occurred where the other members exhibited
Claude Monet (1840-1926) ‘Impression- Sunrise’ 1872 How is complementary colour used here? http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/glo/impressionism/
Different strokes used to paint ‘Impression sunrise’ http://painting.about.com/od/famouspainters/ss/monet-impression-sunrise-painting_2.htm
Aerial Perspective- note how the 3 boats become lighter in tone
Claude Monet 1840-1926 What is the dominant theme? What type of brushstroke is used? How is the light captured? http://www.artic.edu/aic/collections/artwork/16564?search_no=11&index=27 Stacks of Wheat 1890 courtesy Chicago Institute of Art Water lily Pond 1900 Branch of the Seine 1897
Camille Pissarro (1830-1903) http://www.artic.edu/aic/collections/citi/images/standard/WebLarge/WebImg_000129/44322_1320173.jpg How is the countryside portrayed?
Camille Pissarro 1830-1903 1. How does Pissarro treat the weather conditions? 2. Discuss his use of perspective 3. How are the figures portrayed? http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/pissarro/hoarfrost.jpg Stage Coach 1870 Orchard 1872 Hoarfrost 1873
Edgar Degas 1843-1917 http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/degas/ballet/degas.ballet-rehearsal.jpg ‘The Rehearsal’1875 Why did Degas chose to paint dancers so
Edgar Degas 1843-1917 1. What lifestyle is portrayed here? 2. What is common in all the compositions? http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/degas/ Absinthe Miss La La At the Races 1872
Berthe Morisot 1841-1895 List 3 features that indicate this is an Impressionist work
http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/morisot/ 1. What is the common theme? 2. Describe her use of brushstroke 3. Is there an emotional quality to these paintings? What is it? Berthe Morisot 1841-1895 On the Balcony The Cradle In a Park 1874
August Renoir 1841-1919 The Umbrellas 1861-68 Two types of brushstroke appear here, explain Discuss the use of complementary colour http://www.nationalgalleryimages.co.uk/Imagedetails.aspx?q=NG326
August Renoir 1841-1919 http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/renoir/land/dejeuner-canotiers/renoir.dejeuner-canotiers.jpg 1.These paintings have leisure for a theme how does Renoir convey this? 2.How does he create light in these images 3 Discuss his treatment of the face Luncheon of the Boating Party 1881 La Loge 1874 The Swing 1886
Mary Cassatt 1844-1926 ‘Summertime’ 1893-94 Describe how the artist rendered the waves and the shadow cast by the boat? http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Mary_Cassatt_002.jpg
Mary Cassatt 1844-1926 http://arthistory.about.com/od/from_exhibitions/ig/chester_dale_collection/cdc_nga_2010-11_25.htm http://article.wn.com/view/2010/05/07/Mary_Cassatts_impressive_work_as_printmaker_on_display/ 1. What is the common theme? 2. Discuss the use of colour? La Loge 1882 ’The Bath’ 1893
Alfred Sisley 1839-1899 ’The Flood at Port Malay’ 1886 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_Sisley This artist is famous for landscapes what do think is the appeal of landscapes?
Alfred Sisley 1839-1899 http://www.michaelarnoldart.com/Alfred_Sisley.htm http://entertainment.howstuffworks.com/rtas/artwork/paintings-by-alfred-sisley1.htm 1.How does the artist use colour to convey the Seasons? 2.These paintings are called………… Autumn Banks of the Seine 1863
...take 1 Impressionist painting Common factors Everyday scene Loose open brushwork Pale ground Captures the play of sun light through the steam Use of complementary colours i.e. blue/orange Gare St. Lazare By Monet
….take 1 Impressionist painting Light and Figures Dappled light created by Pale ground (canvas) Loose open brushstroke The shadows are reflected light greens/ blues The figures are at leisure, a common theme among the Impressionists A momentary glimpse. figures are not posing ‘The Swing’ 1886 Renoir
…take 1 Impressionist painting Female artists Mary Cassatt and Berthe Morisot Themes were of intimate family /friendship moments Figures were not idealised but contemporarily represented Similar technique for colour and brushwork ‘The Bath’ 1893 Mary Cassatt
…..take 1 impressionist painting Composition and colour Unusual perspective cropped scene diagonal focus - energy Costume is pale blue against the orange interior i.e. use of complementary colours green interior architecture against the red-use of contrasting colours Miss La La Degas
... take the WORD Impressionism Industrial revolution ,instantaneous light Monet, Eduard Manet, Modern era of 1860s, 70s 80s Photography, Paris ,Pleasure seeking, Poppy seed oil Rendering sunlight and shadow, rebelling conventions ,railways Exhibitions 1874, eight (8) in total Salon des Refuses Spectrum colours Invention of metal tube for carrying paint Optical mixing New subjects-Boating, Dancing, Night club (Moulin Rouge) Interest in Complementary colours Square headed brush, Shadows of coloured light Mechanised grinding of colour
Resources http://www.nga.gov/education/classroom/france/picfrance_1.pdf http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/ http://www.musee-orsay.fr/en/home.html http://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/search?q=IMPRESSIONIST+ PAINTINGS&filter=paintings excellent zoomable imageshttp: //www.rodinmuseum.org/ ‘A Guide to Art’ ed Sandro Sproccati ( Little Brown and Co.) ‘Techniques of the Impressionists’ Anthea Callan (Tiger Books)
Acknowledgements Art Associates Maria Moore Margaret O’Shea Local Facilitator Team Aine Andrews Joe Caslin Jane Campbell Siobhan Campbell Niamh O’Donoghue Niamh O’Neill Keith O’Rahilly Sheena McKeon Tony Morrissey Monica White Many thanks to the following for their invaluable contribution to the European Art History and Appreciation series of workshops and resource materials. PDST Professional Development Service for Teachers
PDST Professional Development Service for Teachers The PDST is funded by the Department of Education and Skills under the National Development Plan 2007 - 2013 Cultural & Environmental Education Professional Development Service for Teachers (PDST) Dublin West Education Centre, Old Blessington Road, Tallaght, Dublin 24 National Co-ordinator Conor Harrison Mobile: 087 240 5710 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Administrator Angie Grogan Tel: 014528018 Fax: 014528010 E-mail: email@example.com.
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