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Published on November 20, 2008

Author: Carrie.Heninger

Source: slideshare.net

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Industrial Revolution

INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 12-1

Industrial Revolution The IR is when people stopped making stuff at home and started making stuff in factories. Began – 1780’s in GB Took – decades to spread Why Great Britain? Circle the advantages on this map and explain your answer.

The IR is when people stopped making stuff at home and started making stuff in factories.

Began – 1780’s in GB

Took – decades to spread

Why GB? Ag practices change (wealthy landowners experimented with new farming techniques in order to increase their harvest) Inc food supply b/c new tech., good weather, new crops, inc transportation Parl passed laws allowing large landowners to fence off common lands B/c enclosure mov’t – many ppl were forced to move to town in search of work Ready supply of $ capital to invest (wealthy class of ship owners and merchants that were able to further industrial growth with their extra profits) Natural Resources plentiful in BR Rivers – provided water to power factories Also – coal & iron ore Supply of markets (colonial empire)

Why GB?

Ag practices change (wealthy landowners experimented with new farming techniques in order to increase their harvest)

Inc food supply b/c new tech., good weather, new crops, inc transportation

Parl passed laws allowing large landowners to fence off common lands

B/c enclosure mov’t – many ppl were forced to move to town in search of work

Ready supply of $ capital to invest (wealthy class of ship owners and merchants that were able to further industrial growth with their extra profits)

Natural Resources plentiful in BR

Rivers – provided water to power factories

Also – coal & iron ore

Supply of markets (colonial empire)

Cotton Production Pre-Indust Rev (2 step process) 1. spinners make thread 2. weavers – wove Known as cottage industry Tech adv made cottage industry inefficient

Pre-Indust Rev (2 step process)

1. spinners make thread

2. weavers – wove

Known as cottage industry

Tech adv made cottage industry inefficient

Necessity, is the mother of invention. -Plato What does that mean to you?

Necessity, is the mother of invention.

-Plato

What does that mean to you?

1 st – Flying shuttle made weaving faster (John Kay) 1764 – J. Hargreaves invents spinning jenny Edmund Cartwright – inv. Water powered loom became more efficient to build factories Streams & rivers powered early machines James Watt – improved steam engine Steam power spun & wove cotton Did not need to be near a river 1760- 2.5 million lbs 1787- 22 million lbs 1840- 366 million lbs $$$$ GB most valuable export

1 st – Flying shuttle made weaving faster (John Kay)

1764 – J. Hargreaves invents spinning jenny

Edmund Cartwright – inv. Water powered loom became more efficient to build factories

Streams & rivers powered early machines

James Watt – improved steam engine

Steam power spun & wove cotton

Did not need to be near a river

Cotton gin - 1794 His cotton gin removed the seeds out of raw cotton.

His cotton gin removed the seeds out of raw cotton.

 

Steam engine Do you know what this is?

Coal & Iron Industries

Steam Engine The steam engine was not just a transportation device. It ran entire factories the way rivers used to. Success of steam engine crucial to BR’s IR, needed coal Led to exp. in coal production *remember the map?

The steam engine was not just a transportation device. It ran entire factories the way rivers used to.

Success of steam engine crucial to BR’s IR, needed coal

Led to exp. in coal production

*remember the map?

Henry Cort developed puddling process Produced better quality iron ore Coke used to burn away impurities in ore Produced high quality iron (stronger and cheaper than importing from Swedes)

Henry Cort developed puddling process

Produced better quality iron ore

Coke used to burn away impurities in ore

Produced high quality iron (stronger and cheaper than importing from Swedes)

BR Iron Industry 1740 – 17,000 tons 1780s – 70,000 tons 1852 – 3 million tons Used to build new machines, esp transportation

1740 – 17,000 tons

1780s – 70,000 tons

1852 – 3 million tons

Used to build new machines, esp transportation

Railroads 1804 – 1 st steam powered train in BR Pulled 10 tons of ore & 70 ppl At 5 mph Rocket – 1 st public rail line Sped 16 mph W/in 20 yrs – trains @ 50 mph 1840 BR – 2,000 miles of track By 1850 – 6000 miles of track Building RRs created – new jobs Lower prices Meant owners reinvested profits & grow

Railroads

1804 – 1 st steam powered train in BR

Pulled 10 tons of ore & 70 ppl

At 5 mph

Rocket – 1 st public rail line

Sped 16 mph

W/in 20 yrs – trains @ 50 mph

1840 BR – 2,000 miles of track

By 1850 – 6000 miles of track

Building RRs created – new jobs

Lower prices

Meant owners reinvested profits & grow

New factories Workers forced – to work in shifts Factory owners created system – work discipline Example fines for being late, fired for bad behavior Child workers often beaten

Workers forced – to work in shifts

Factory owners created system – work discipline

Example fines for being late, fired for bad behavior

Child workers often beaten

Child labor Shoeshine boys

Shoeshine boys

Child labor Bowling pin boys

Bowling pin boys

Child labor Coal miner boys

Coal miner boys

Girls were preferred over boys. They were paid less, had smaller hands.

Girls were preferred over boys. They were paid less, had smaller hands.

Spread of Industrialization Mid 19 th C, GB- world’s 1 st & richest ind. nation Produced – ½ world’s coal & manuf. goods Gov’ts provided- $ to build RR, roads & canals By 1850 – network of RR through EU US pop 1800 – 5 mil Robert Fulton – built 1 st paddle wheel steam boat

Mid 19 th C, GB- world’s 1 st & richest ind. nation

Produced – ½ world’s coal & manuf. goods

Gov’ts provided- $ to build RR, roads & canals

By 1850 – network of RR through EU

US pop 1800 – 5 mil

Robert Fulton – built 1 st paddle wheel steam boat

Transcontinental RR *train clips RR turned US into 1 huge market for goods made in the NE The transcontinental railroad made travel across the country faster, cheaper and more efficient.

RR turned US into 1 huge market for goods made in the NE

The transcontinental railroad made travel across the country faster, cheaper and more efficient.

Women & girls – big part of work force 2 new social classes 1. IR Middle Class 2. IR Working Class EU pop 1750 – 140 mil 1850 – 266 mil Thomas Malthus argued – pop would out pace ability to feed ourselves Pop up b/c – death rate is down, wars down, less disease/ppl ate better & more resilient to diseases

Women & girls – big part of work force

2 new social classes 1. IR Middle Class

2. IR Working Class

EU pop 1750 – 140 mil

1850 – 266 mil

Thomas Malthus argued – pop would out pace ability to feed ourselves

Pop up b/c – death rate is down, wars down, less disease/ppl ate better & more resilient to diseases

Irish Potato Famine Irish depended on potato as staple food Crop ruined by fungus 1 million died 1 million moved to US Ppl moved from rural areas to cities Rapid inc in cities led to – bad living conditions Promoted – reforms to ask gov’t to improve things

Irish depended on potato as staple food

Crop ruined by fungus

1 million died

1 million moved to US

Ppl moved from rural areas to cities

Rapid inc in cities led to – bad living conditions

Promoted – reforms to ask gov’t to improve things

Irish Potato Famine

Many lived in tenements.

Many lived in tenements.

tenement

Industrial capitalism New Indust Middle Class made up of ppl who built factories, bought machines, found markets, etc. Indust Working class faced bad working conditions Hours 12-16 hours/day, 6 days/week No job security or minimum wage Factory Act of 1833 – 9 min age for employment Women paid ½ what men got Socialism – where society (gov’t) own factors of production Idea of – intellectuals that believe in equality of all Some slides from worldofteaching.com

New Indust Middle Class made up of ppl who built factories, bought machines, found markets, etc.

Indust Working class faced bad working conditions

Hours 12-16 hours/day, 6 days/week

No job security or minimum wage

Factory Act of 1833 – 9 min age for employment

Women paid ½ what men got

Socialism – where society (gov’t) own factors of production

Idea of – intellectuals that believe in equality of all

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