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Information about 11Incineration

Published on February 11, 2008

Author: Savin

Source: authorstream.com

Environmentally Sound Destruction of POP’s – Incineration Kåre Helge Karstensen:  Environmentally Sound Destruction of POP’s – Incineration Kåre Helge Karstensen Technology description:  Technology description High temperature hazardous waste incinerators are available in a number of configurations and principles. Typically a process for treatment involves heating to a temperature greater than 850°C or, if the chlorine content is above 1 %, greater than 1,100 °C, with a residence time greater than 2 seconds, under conditions that assure appropriate mixing and subsequent destruction. Slide3:  Dedicated hazardous waste incinerator Temperature & residence time:  Temperature & residence time Combustion temperature and residence time needed for mixed hazardous wastes cannot be readily calculated and are often determined empirically. Some common solvents such as alcohols and toluene can easily be combusted at temperatures less than 1,000oC and less than one second residence time, while other more complex organic halogens require more stringent conditions. Slide5:  “...more complex organic halogens such as PCB requires 1200oC and 2 seconds residence time ” US EPA Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) PCB Incineration Criteria A DRE of 99.9999% is required by TSCA for the incineration of PCB’s Slide6:  “...if more than 1 % of halogenated organic substances, expressed as chlorine, are incinerated, the temperature has to be raised to minimum 1100°C during at least two seconds”. EU Directive 2000/76/EC on Incineration of Waste regulates Co-incineration of Hazardous Waste in Cement Kilns Technology description:  Technology description Hazardous waste is normally incinerated in two types of facilities: merchant plants who accept different types of waste for disposal; and dedicated incinerators that handle a particular waste stream. An example of the latter might be a chemical manufacturing plant treating chlorinated wastes to recover HCl. The most common combustion technology in hazardous waste incineration is the rotary kiln. Facilities in the merchant sector range in size from 30,000 to 100,000 tons/year throughput. Dedicated hazardous waste incinerators use a variety of incineration, pyrolysis, and plasma treatment techniques. Similar to the incineration of municipal solid waste, hazardous waste incineration offers the benefits of volume reduction and energy recovery. Slide8:  Dedicated hazardous waste incinerator for treating liquid and gaseous chlorinated wastes at a chlorinated chemical manufacturing facility Technology description:  Technology description In Rotary kilns solid, sludge, containerized or pumpable waste is introduced at the upper end of the inclined drum. Temperatures in the kiln usually range between 850 and 1300ºC. The slow rotation of the drum allows a residence time of 30-90 minutes. The secondary combustion chamber following the kiln completes the oxidation of the combustion gases. Liquid wastes and/or auxiliary fuels may be injected here along with secondary air to maintain a minimum residence time of two seconds and temperatures in the range of 900-1300ºC, effectively destroying any remaining organic compounds. Rotary kiln incinerator:  Rotary kiln incinerator Formation and Release of Unintentional POPs:  Formation and Release of Unintentional POPs Emission testing has confirmed that composition of the waste, furnace design, temperatures in the post-combustion zone, and the types of air pollution control devices (APCD) used to remove pollutants from the flue gases are important factors in determining the extent of POPs formation and release. Depending on the combination of these factors, POPs releases can vary over several orders of magnitude per ton of waste incinerated. Average 6 - 7 Nm3 of flue gas per kg waste:  Average 6 - 7 Nm3 of flue gas per kg waste Specific collection/treatment for: Dust - staged filters Chlorine - neutralised by scrubbing with lime Sulphur - washing stage Dioxins - combustion control, activated carbon Example of flue gas cleaning technology:  Example of flue gas cleaning technology Examples of APCD’s relevant to the prevention or reduction of unintentional POPs releases:  Examples of APCD’s relevant to the prevention or reduction of unintentional POPs releases Cyclones and multi-cyclones Electrostatic precipitators – wet, dry, or condensation Fabric filters – including catalytic bag filters Static Bed Filters Scrubbing systems - wet, spray dry, or ionization Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) Rapid Quenching Systems Carbon Adsorption Slide16:  Unintentional POPs formation can occur within the ESP at temperatures in the range of 200ºC to about 450ºC. Operating the ESP within this temperature range can lead to the formation of unintentional POPs in the combustion gases released from the stack. Slide17:  Fabric filters are also referred to as baghouses or dust filters. These particulate matter control devices can effectively remove unintentional POPs that may be associated with particles and any vapors that adsorb to the particles in the exhaust gas stream. Filters are usually 16 to 20 cm diameter bags, 10 m long, made from woven fiberglass material, and arranged in series. Fabric filters are sensitive to acids; therefore, they are usually operated in combination with spray dryer adsorption systems for upstream removal of acid gases. Slide18:  Fabric filters (bag filters) are widely applied in waste incineration and have the added advantage, when coupled with semi-dry sorbent injection (spray drying), of providing additional filtration and reactive surface on the filter cake. Pressure drop across fabric filters should be monitored to ensure filter cake is in place and bags are not leaking. Fabric filters are subject to water damage and corrosion and are best suited for dry gas streams with upstream removal of acid gases. Some filter materials are more resistant to these effects. Carbon Adsorption :  Carbon Adsorption Activated carbon is injected into the flue gas prior to the gas reaching the spray dryer-fabric filter/ESP combination. PCDD/PCDF (and mercury) are absorbed onto the activated carbon, which is then captured by the fabric filter or ESP. The carbon injection technology improves capture of the unintentional POPs in the combustion gases by an additional 75% and is commonly referred to as flue gas polishing. Many APCDs have been retrofitted to include carbon injection. Slide20:  Spray dry scrubbing, also called spray dryer adsorption, removes both acid gas and particulate matter from the post-combustion gases. The spray drying technology is often used in combination with ESPs and fabric filters. Spray drying reduces ESP inlet temperatures to create a cold-side ESP. Slide21:  Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is a secondary control measure primarily designed to reduce NOx emissions. The process also destroys unintentional POPs via catalytic oxidation. SCR is a catalytic process in which an air-ammonia mix is injected into the flue gas stream and passed over a mesh catalyst. The ammonia and NOx react to form water and N2. SCR units are usually placed in the clean gas area after acid gas and particulate matter removal. Efficient operation of the SCR process requires maintenance of the catalyst between 130 and 400ºC. For this reason, SCR units are often placed after ESPs to avoid the need for reheating of the flue gases. Caution must be exercised in such placement to avoid additional unintentional POPs formation in the ESP. Wastewater from incineration:  Wastewater from incineration Controls vary from country to country Quantity: influenced by gas scrubbing technology chosen i.e. wet, semi-dry, dry Treatment: in aerated lagoons / widely used / low cost / may not meet required standard physico-chemical treatment may also be needed Best Environmental Practices for Waste Incineration :  Best Environmental Practices for Waste Incineration Well-maintained facilities, well-trained operators, a well-informed public, and constant attention to the process are all important factors in minimizing the formation and release of the unintentional POPs from the incineration of waste. In addition, effective waste management strategies (e.g., waste minimization, source separation, and recycling), by altering the volume and character of the incoming waste, can also significantly impact releases. Slide24:  Waste Inspection and Characterization Slide25:  Proper Handling, Storage, and Pre-Treatment Storage areas must be properly sealed with controlled drainage and weatherproofing. Fire detection and control systems for these areas should also be considered. Storage and handling areas should be designed to prevent contamination of environmental media and to facilitate clean up in the event of spills or leakage. Odors can be minimized by using bunker air for the combustion process. Slide26:  Proper Handling, Storage, and Pre-Treatment Slide27:  Minimizing Storage Times Minimizing the storage period will help prevent putrefaction and unwanted reactions, as well as the deterioration of containers and labeling. Managing deliveries and communicating with suppliers will help ensure that reasonable storage times are not exceeded. Slide28:  Establishing Quality Requirements for Waste Fed Facilities must be able to accurately predict the heating value and other attributes of the waste being combusted in order to ensure that the design parameters of the incinerator are being met. Slide30:  Incinerator Operating and Management Practices Ensuring Good Combustion Optimal burn conditions involve: mixing of fuel and air to minimize the existence of long-lived, fuel rich pockets of combustion products, attainment of sufficiently high temperatures in the presence of oxygen for the destruction of hydrocarbon species, and prevention of quench zones or low temperature pathways that will allow partially reacted fuel to exit the combustion chamber. Slide31:  Circulating fluidised bed Slide32:  Proper management of time, temperature, and turbulence as well as oxygen (air flow), by means of incinerator design and operation will help to ensure the above conditions. The recommended residence time of waste in the primary furnace is 2 seconds. Temperatures at or above 850°C are required for complete combustion in most technologies. Turbulence, through the mixing of fuel and air, helps prevent cold spots in the burn chamber and the buildup of carbon which can reduce combustion efficiency. Oxygen levels in the final combustion zone must be maintained above those necessary for complete oxidation. Incinerator Operating and Management Practices Ensuring Good Combustion cont. Slide33:  Bubbling fluidised bed Slide34:  Monitoring In addition to carbon monoxide, oxygen in the flue gas, air flows and temperatures, pressure drops, and pH in the flue gas can be routinely monitored at reasonable cost. While these measurements represent reasonably good surrogates for the potential for unintentional POPs formation and release, periodic measurement of PCDD/F’s in the flue gas will aid in ensuring that releases are minimized and the incinerator is operating properly. Slide35:  Operator Training Regular training of personnel is essential for proper operation of waste incinerators Maintaining Public Awareness and Communication :  Maintaining Public Awareness and Communication Successful incineration projects have been characterized by: holding regular meetings with concerned citizens; providing days for public visitation; posting release and operational data to the Internet; and displaying real time data on operations and releases at the facility site. BAT - General Combustion Techniques :  BAT - General Combustion Techniques Ensure design of furnace is appropriately matched to characteristics of the waste to be processed. Maintain temperatures in the gas phase combustion zones in the optimal range for completing oxidation of the waste. Provide for sufficient residence time (e.g., 2 seconds) and turbulent mixing in the combustion chamber(s) to complete incineration. Pre-heat primary and secondary air to assist combustion. Use continuous rather than batch processing wherever possible to minimize start-up and shut-down releases. Establish systems to monitor critical combustion parameters including grate speed and temperature, pressure drop, and levels of CO, CO2, O2. Provide for control interventions to adjust waste feed, grate speed, and temperature, volume, and distribution of primary and secondary air. Install automatic auxiliary burners to maintain optimal temperatures in the combustion chamber(s). BAT - Hazardous Waste Incineration Techniques :  BAT - Hazardous Waste Incineration Techniques Rotary kilns are well demonstrated for the incineration of hazardous waste and can accept liquids and pastes as well as solids. Water-cooled kilns can be operated at higher temperatures and allow acceptance of wastes with higher energy values. Waste consistency (and combustion) can be improved by shredding drums and other packaged hazardous wastes. A feed equalization system e.g., screw conveyors that can crush and provide a constant amount of solid hazardous waste to the furnace, will ensure smooth feeding. Slide39:  Condensation electrostatic precipitator BAT – Flue Gas Treatment:  BAT – Flue Gas Treatment The type and order of treatment processes applied to the flue gases once they leave the incineration chamber is important, both for optimal operation of the devices as well as for the overall cost effectiveness of the installation. Waste incineration parameters that affect the selection of techniques include: waste type, composition, and variability; type of combustion process; flue gas flow and temperature; and the need for, and availability of, wastewater treatment. Destruction efficiency:  Destruction efficiency DRE’s of greater than 99.9999 percent have been reported for treatment of wastes consisting of, containing or contaminated with POPs. BAT - Residue Management Techniques :  BAT - Residue Management Techniques Unlike bottom ash, APCD residuals including fly ash and scrubber sludges may contain relatively high concentrations of heavy metals, organic pollutants (including PCDD/F), chlorides and sulfides. Mixing fly ash and FGT residues with bottom ash should be avoided since this will limit the subsequent use and disposal options for the bottom ash. Treatment techniques for these residues include: Cement solidification. Residues are mixed with mineral and hydraulic binders and additives to reduce leaching potential. Product is landfilled. Vitrification . Residues are heated in electrical melting or blast furnaces to immobilize pollutants of concern. Organics, including PCDD/F are typically destroyed in the process. Catalytic treatment of fabric filter dusts under conditions of low temperatures and lack of oxygen; The application of plasma or similar high temperature technologies. Fly ash and scrubber sludges are normally disposed of in landfills set aside for this purpose. Some countries include ash content limits for PCDD/F in their incinerator standards. If the content exceeds the limit, the ash must be re-incinerated. Costs and Economic Considerations :  Costs and Economic Considerations The construction of large state-of -the-art incinerators requires major capital investment, often approaching hundreds of millions USD. Installations recover capital and operating costs through treatment fees and, in the case of waste-to-energy facilities, through the sale of steam or electricity to other industries and utilities. The ability to fully recover the costs of construction and operation is dependent on a number of factors including: the relative cost of alternative disposal methods; the availability of sufficient waste within the local area; provisions for disposal of residues; and proper staffing, operation, and maintenance to maintain peak efficiency and minimize downtime. Costs:  Costs Related to site-specific and country-specific factors High level of sophistication & control = high construction costs Air pollution control costs = 30-40% of total Slide46:  Capital and operating costs for an average 70,000 tpy HWI facility Costs and Economic Considerations :  Costs and Economic Considerations Throughput:  Throughput Hazardous waste incinerators have a capacity from a few hundred tons to >100,000 tons per year Availability:  Availability Dedicated incinerators are available in many countries Hazardous waste incineration:  Hazardous waste incineration are in principle capable to treat POP’s and POP’s waste in an environmentally sound way and can meet stringent ELV’s are highly regulated need skilled personnel require high operating and safety standards require high capital investment have medium to high operating costs

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