Published on February 28, 2014
Existing opportunities for germplasm in breeding Andreas Peil Frutibreedomics, Stakeholder Day, Zürich 11th February 2014
The history of preservation of fruit genetic resources Collections of fruit genetic resources belonging to different species exist as long as fruit growing The collection activities and the description of historical cultivars boomed at the 18th and 19th century Adrian Diel (1756-1839) was one of the pioneers, who prepared extensive descriptions of historical cultivars Systematic preservation in public collections starts at the beginning of the 20th century In parallel there were many activities done by NGOs
Fruit genetic resources management • • • • Germplasm assembly through donation and exchange from exsiting collections and through expeditions in the centres of origin Conservation of germplasm in ex-situ field collections and developing safety back-up collections by cryopreservation Characterization of morpho-agronomic traits and screening of germplasm against abiotic and biotic stresses Utilization of germplasm in breeding (including related species) Facing challenges of the future (climate changes, new diseases, new isolates, changing demands, novelties, enlarging genetic diversity) 3
Why germplasm is important for our work Alessandro Liverani, CRA Germplasm is a source of genetic diversity and a pre-requisite to ensure resilience of peach to biotic and abiotic threats in changing environments Locally adapted varieties (landraces) are an important source of favorable traits of robustness and adaption to local condition which can be exploited in breeding actions Wild relative are also an important source of resistance in peach, a species often lacking of resistance traits Germplasm can be also a source of innovative agronomical and pomological traits
What opportunities germplasm can offer to Robustness and resilience in a climatic change context peach Alessandro Liverani, CRA Double fruits Blind nodes Heterogeneous development of fruit • Low temperatures during bloom
What opportunities germplasm can offer to peach Alessandro Liverani, CRA Interesting traits as: Higher levels of antioxidant compounds Varietal Diversification The great taste of the old germplasm Bella di Cesena Extend life span of the fruit: the Stony hard trait
What opportunities germplasm can offer to peach Alessandro Liverani, CRA Tolerance to diseases Start F1 F2 Ex:Resistance to Powdery mildew in nectarines Ex:Resistance to Plum Pox Virus in peach Davidiana Almond F3
Comparability of descriptions: Apple descriptors Markus Kellerhals, Agroscope
Morphological description and variety identification Markus Kellerhals, Agroscope Morphological description • Phenology • Tree characters • Fruit characters Variety identification • Classical (pomological knowledge) • Molecular analysis (set of SSR markers)
Test of susceptibility to V. inaequalis, P. leucotricha and E. amylovora Markus Kellerhals, Agroscope Scab and powdery mildew 600 apple accessions 2 trees each 1 st leaf 2008 References: Jonathan, Boskoop, Bohnapfel, Berlepsch, Discovery, Berner Rosen, Sauergrauech, Goldparmäne Controls: Gravensteiner (P. leucotricha), Golden Del. (V. inaequalis) No fungicides from 2nd leaf onward Fire blight 114 apple and 20 pear accessions Around 10 trees per accession
Fruit Gene Bank Dresden-Pillnitz 2.569 cultivars / accessions in field collection Number of cultivars Apple 832 Pear 123 Sweet cherry 179 Tart cherry 102 Plum 42 Strawberry Sea buckthorn Total Wild species 286 27 1591 Number of accessions Malus sp. 507 Pyrus sp 63 Prunus sp 81 Sorbus sp 30 Other fruit species 33 Fragaria sp 264 Total 978
Evaluation of resistance to diseases Fire blight Apple scab Powdery mildew
Fire blight resistance in apple Looking for new sources of resistance Malus × robusta 5 QTL on LG3 after shoot infection QTL on LG3 after flower infection Malus fusca QTL for resistance on LG10 Malus baccata QTL for resistance on LG12
Isolation of the fire blight resistance gene from M. x robusta 5 QTL-Mapping Population Idared and Malus × robusta 5 Chromosome Walking a resistance gene candidate was found and isolated Evaluation of the functionality of the candidate gene Transformation into the apple cultivar Gala and Pinova Chromosom 3 0.0 1.5 CH03E03 Fem18 7.9 PAGM48_77 12.8 16.2 18.1 18.6 21.0 23.3 24.9 27.6 28.6 30.2 CH03G07 PAGM38_374 P12M49_160 HI03D06 E33M32_304 GD12_L1 E40M33_376 PAGM42_166 PAGM32_217 PAGM38_356 36.2 AU223657 40.4 P12M40_271 46.6 47.8 49.5 MS14H03 PAGM32_228 P14M49_281 58.8 CH03G12B 14
Resistance to fire blight from Mr5 Resistance gene of Mr5 has been isolated and function proved in transgenic Gala Transgenic Gala lines Broggini et al. (2014) Engineering fire blight resistance into the apple cultivar 'Gala' using the FB_MR5 CC-NBS-LRR resistance gene of Malus × robusta 5. Plant Biotechnology Journal accepted
Characterization for future use Markus Kellerhals, Agroscope Fruit quality • Screening fruit quality with ‚Pimprenelle‘ robotic machine Juice • Production of true to type juices • Sensory scoring by experts • Analyses of the samples in the laboratory Brandy • Production of true to type brandies • Sensory scoring and description by experts
Old apple cultivars from the 15. and 18. century 17
Use of ‚old‘ varieties in ACW apple breeding (crosses 2006 and 2007) Markus Kellerhals, Agroscope Mother Father Seeds Nb in step 1 ACW 12556 Sternapi 468 10 Dülmener Rosenapfel ACW 12309 141 21 ACW 11309 Roter Herbstcalville 96 - Rucliva Gelber Bellefleur 644 370 Milwa Krimskoe 1167 50
Looking for new traits Material from collections examples:
Malus sieversii – Material from expeditions of US scientists to Central Asia • • • • 130.000 seeds from 892 trees collected Evaluation was realized in 25 institutions around the the world, the Fruit Gene bank DresdenPillnitz was involved 1.054 seedlings were evaluated A core-collection of the species was established with 94 genotypes. 20
Malus orientalis – Material from expeditions to Northern Caucasus, Russia in 2011 and 2012 7 8 7 1 3 9 8 8 10 6 2 1 4 3 6 2 5 9 4 5 1 Flachowsky H et al. (2011) Russisch Deutsche Kaukasusexpedition 2011. Obstbau 12, 652-656 Hanke M-V et al. (2012) Collecting fruit genetic resources in the North Caucasus region. J. f. Kulturpflanzen 64: 126-136. Höfer M et al. (2012) Russisch-Deutsche Kaukasusexpedition 2011. Julius-Kühn-Archiv 436: 92-96. Flachowsky H et al. (2013) Russisch-deutsche Kaukasusexpedition 2012. Obstbau 1, 52-56.
Malus orientalis – Material from expeditions to Northern Caucasus, Russia in 2011 and 2012 • 17.716 seeds from 171 trees collected • Pyrus caucasica • Prunus cerasifera
Evaluation of disease resistance of the Malus orientalis material from Northern Caucasus expeditions Aim: Utilization of resistant material in breeding • Inoculation of seedlings in greenhouse against scab • Inoculation of seedlings in greenhouse against mildew • Inoculation of seedlings in greenhouse against fireblight Results • 2011: 21 seedling without any symptoms of powdery mildew and apple scab • 2012: 31 seedling without any symptoms of powdery mildew and apple scab
Malus orientalis – the Caucasian applec Thanks for your attention
Malus species – Material from expeditions to China, province Sechuan M. kansuensis, M. toringoides, M. transitoria, M. sieboldii, M. prattii, M. hupehensis 6 Malus species represented by 618 seedlings from 47 accessions, under evaluation 26
Acknowledgements We acknowledge financial support for Swiss National Campaign Plants (NCP) by the Swiss Federal Office for Agriculture and the NGO Fructus
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