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11 Andrew Jones

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Published on January 22, 2008

Author: Toni

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Urban regeneration:  Urban regeneration Urban Regeneration in Europe Presentation to the CATCH Final Event, Liverpool, June 2005 :  Urban Regeneration in Europe Presentation to the CATCH Final Event, Liverpool, June 2005 Dr Andrew Jones Birkbeck College, University of London 020 7631 6471 a.jones@bbk.ac.uk 1) Introduction:  1) Introduction Urban regeneration & ways in which European governments have used it to tackle social deprivation & urban decline Urban regeneration argued to be ‘a widely experienced but little understood phenomenon’ Most towns & cities in Europe have engaged with the idea somehow - a policy panacea A long history to urban regeneration policy: wide variety of ideas, policies & projects Recently: key impacts on debate around sustainability & ramifications for environmental quality (energy efficiency, air quality, CO2 emissions) Slide6:  This talk: tackles definition of urban regeneration Then examines principles of urban regeneration Provides wider context across Europe & differences from UK Role of transport & degree to which that has been absorbed into regeneration policy Examines how that relates to environmental sustainability Considers two European examples: Bilbao, northern Spain & Rotterdam in the Netherlands 2) What is Urban Regeneration?:  2) What is Urban Regeneration? Simple definitions: (1) “comprehensive and integrated vision and action which leads to the resolution of urban problems and which seeks to bring about a lasting improvement in the economic, physical, social and environmental condition of an area that has been subject to change.” (Lichfield 1992) (2) “the regeneration of urban areas to stem processes of economic, environmental, social & cultural decline that bring with them accompanying decay of the physical built environment.” (Roberts 1999) Principles of 21st Century Urban Regeneration (Roberts 1999):  Principles of 21st Century Urban Regeneration (Roberts 1999) 1) detailed analysis of the urban fabric 2) simultaneous adaptation of physical, social, economic & environmental realms 3) integrated & comprehensive strategy 4) sustainability 5) clear operation objectives 6) make best use of resources 7) include ‘stakeholders’ 8) recognise the importance of measuring progress 9) flexibility & ability to revise programmes 10) recognise that different elements progress at different speeds 3) Re-generating European Cities:  3) Re-generating European Cities Roberts & Sykes (2000) in their Handbook argue 4 major aspects of the need for regeneration: 1) Economic Transition & Employment Change (deindustrialization, inappropriate labour market skills) 2) Social & Community Issues (counterurbanization, migration, community decline) 3) Physical obsolescence (obsolescence of buildings, dereliction, contamination, outdated infrastructure) 4) Environmental Quality & Sustainability Many of the above factors degrade urban environments, ‘unsustainable urbanization’ Slide10:  EU has no specific urban regeneration mandate, but sought to tackle through various policies From 1990s, specific policies (Urban Pilot Projects & Urban Initiative) Sustainable urban regeneration through wide variety of different policy tools (structural funds, social policy grants, links to voluntary organizations) Place-marketing & culture-led regeneration become the dominant overall paradigm for achieving regeneration Aim: attract mobile international capital investment, new industries (tourism, services) & specialized personnel Draws on US lead in 1980s e.g. waterfront developments in Baltimore, Boston, New Orleans ‘Sustainable regeneration’ (as with S. development) mixture of meanings: environment only one factor & often secondary consideration 4) Transport & Sustainable Regeneration :  4) Transport & Sustainable Regeneration Transport policy often cited in regeneration plans BUT multiple goals & usually driven by economic not environmental aims European cities embraced less US-style car-oriented post-war urban development than in UK Also historical preservation an earlier priority than UK Left legacy of less car-centred transport systems (e.g. retention of trams in Vienna, Amsterdam; car-usage controls in Rome) As env. agenda absorbed, already an existing preference & track record of public transport infrastructure investment BUT conflicting dimensions to role of transport in EU urban regeneration in relation to env. sustainability e.g . key role of cheap air travel linkages important ‘Car-free’ cities Consider 2 cases: Rotterdam & Bilbao Rotterdam, Netherlands:  Rotterdam, Netherlands City-region of 1 million, used cultural strategies from late 1980s Several major investments in ‘Waterstad’ area Festival (1988), theatre, maritime museum, leisure complex, reconstruction of harbour, offices By mid 1990s, perceived as major success: 1000 direct new jobs, 2000 housing units, 100 000 square metres of office space Followed by removal of an urban motorway & its replacement with pedestrian area Significant pedestrianisation of Waterstad & areas Use of space for craft markets & street theatre Development of tram metro system, & mixed transport usage (tram, peds, cycles, buses) Erasmus Bridge, Rotterdam:  Erasmus Bridge, Rotterdam Rotterdam: mixed transport :  Rotterdam: mixed transport Bilbao, northern Spain:  Bilbao, northern Spain Bilbao is the core of a metropolitan area of more than 1 million people Suffered major deindustrialization since 1970s Poor external image & losing out to neighbouring Santander & San Sebastian 1980s: City Council & Basque regional govt began culturally-centred programme of urban regeneration Spending more than £10m per annum mid late 1980s Key elements Change the image of the city Transform economic base Environmental improvements Flagship: Frank Gehry’s Guggenheim museum in old dockland area Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao:  Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao Slide17:  Role of strong local political leadership Key aspects of transport: new airport, new metro (2 phases), new roads, new pedestrian routes inc. bridge Transport: 2nd phase of new metro tram system (Dec 2002) attempting to mitigate car usage Env. goals mixed in & integrated at early stage of planning Transport shift away from private car (better public transport, encourage peds / cycles) BUT air travel connection key to international linkage & ‘fly-drive’ key component of that Sustainable transport not an explicit goal in projects & only applied where fitted wider regeneration vision Tram, Bilbao:  Tram, Bilbao 5) Conclusion & Lessons:  5) Conclusion & Lessons Wide degree of sustainable urban regeneration policy experience across Europe Significant success across economic, social & environmental goals Culture-led strategies key as in UK Suggest: in Europe transportation historically more focused on alternatives to car From political leadership & planning phase, greater priority (e.g. membership of carfree networks) European cities offer regeneration example on mixed use transport, innovation and integrated approach BUT not all env. sustainable (ie. Budget airline connections, car-oriented developments) Scope for radical thought about env. Impacts of current ‘sustainable’ regeneration practice Slide20:  Key requirements for applying to UK: Integrated approach to planning & local leadership Involvement & agreement of private sector partners Sufficient planning powers: e.g. need for land purchase and closure / access for construction Incorporation of env. sustainability at early planning / project conception stage

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