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Published on November 13, 2007

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  Lesson 5 :    Lesson 5 Speech on Hitler's Invasion of the U.S.S.R Background Information :  Background Information U.S.S.R.: the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics World War II: (1937 / 1939 -1945) The conflict resulted from the rise of totalitarian, fascism in German, Japan and Italy Background Information::  Background Information: July 7. 1937 Japan invaded Central China. Sep. 1938 Munich Pact, which sacrificed much of Czechoslovakia to Germany Background Information::  Background Information: Aug. 1939 Russia-Germany non-aggression pact Sept. 1, 1939 German invasion of Poland Sept. 3, 1939 France and Britain declared war on Germany, officially beginning World War II Background Information::  Background Information: June 22, 1940 France surrendered. Aug-Oct. 1940 The Battle of Britain (2,300 to 900) Jun 22. 1941 German invasion of the Soviet Union. I. Background Information: :  I. Background Information: Dec. 7, 1941 Pearl Harbour Sept. 1943 the Allies conquered Sicily and South Italy. Italy surrendered. May 7. 1945 Germany surrendered unconditionally. Aug. 14, 1945 Japan announced its surrender. Background Information::  Background Information: Adolph Hitler, (1889 - 1945) founder and leader of the National Socialist German Workers‘ Party, was born an Austrian. *image –1*(希特勒当年形象一张) 1920 the Nazi Party 1933 Chancellor Background Information::  Background Information: 1934 the union of the presidency and chancellorship in Hitler's person, the Führer THE THIRD REICH Background Information::  Background Information: 1944 an assassination attempt April 29, 1945 married his long-time mistress, Eva Braun April 30, 1945 committed suicide Background Information::  Background Information: MEIN KAMPT - My Struggle Aryan's Superiority Nazi: National sozialist the National Socialist German Workers' Party Elite Corps, black guards 党卫军、黑衫党 Background Information::  Background Information: GESTAPO: secret state police BLITZ: lightning war Swastika Background Information::  Background Information: CHURCHILL Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill (Nov. 30, 1874 - Jan. 24, 1965)(*image –2* 邱吉尔形象一张) May 1940 - May 1945 first tenure as P.M. Oct. 1951 - Jan. 1955 second tenure as P.M. Background Information::  Background Information: 1953 knighted Sir Winston Churchill 1953 the Nobel Prize in Literature 1955 refusing the title of duke Style:  Style masterpieces of oration highly persuasive and convincing eloquent: forceful expressions, structure, words with abstract meaning emotional: language to arouse sympathy, hatred and passion Rhetorical devices:  :  Rhetorical devices:   Parallelism Repetition Periodic sentence It is a truth universally acknowledged that a single man in possession of a fortune must be in want of a wife.  Rhetorical devices:  Rhetorical devices Noun phrases: with great rapidity and violence Imperative sentences:let us…, let us… Inverted sentences: News was brought to me… Structural Analysis:  Structural Analysis Part I: a piece of narration Background of the speech Part II. the speech proper an argument or persuasion Section 1: The Nazi regime… horrors upon mankind… Scenario on both sides of the border. To arouse emotion. IV. Structural Analysis:  IV. Structural Analysis Section 2: I have to declare the…in determination and in resources. What we should do. Section 3: This is no time…life and power remain. Further persuasion, to convince the audience of the justification of the decision. Detailed Study of the Text:  Detailed Study of the Text 1. Speech, address, oration, lecture, talk speech: a public speech without regard to its quality, degree of preparation, the quality of its speaker or audience General word   Detailed Study of the Text:  Detailed Study of the Text address implies formality and careful preparation, and often gives emphasis to the importance of the speech. The president is scheduled to deliver three addresses on his trip. Detailed Study of the Text:  Detailed Study of the Text oration: formal and solemn public speech. It suggests eloquence, rhetorical style, and usu. a dignified but sometimes high-flown or long-winded appeal to the emotions of a large audience or assembly. Detailed Study of the Text:  Detailed Study of the Text lecture: It often implies reading. It commonly designates a carefully prepared speech on a special topic intended to give information and instruction to a group of students.   Detailed Study of the Text:    Detailed Study of the Text talk stresses informality. It may be used to designate either a lecture or an address when the speaker wishes to emphasize his desire to speak directly and simply to his audience as individuals. Detailed Study of the Text:  Detailed Study of the Text 2. conviction: a very firm and sincere belief  Conviction usu. implies previous doubt or uncertainty. I speak in the full conviction that our cause is just. His political convictions are radical. Detailed Study of the Text:  Detailed Study of the Text 3. certainty: the state of being definite or having no doubts (here in the text) clearly established fact It's a certainty that this horse will win in the race. After three days, our victory became a certainty. Detailed Study of the Text:  Detailed Study of the Text 5. lie: exist, be found, reside 6. presently: before long, shortly, soon 7. hasten: move fast cf: hurry Hasten implies urgent quickness while Hurry carries a strong implication of confusion and agitation. Detailed Study of the Text:  Detailed Study of the Text 10. surprise: attack suddenly and without warning They surprised the enemy from the rear. 11. ground: (of pilot or plane) to stay on the ground The ship grounded on a hidden sandbank in the shallow water. grounded on the airfield: lying still on the airfield Detailed Study of the Text:  Detailed Study of the Text 14. round up: to gather together scattered animals, to collect together animals that are scattered A cowboy / dog rounds up the cattle / sheep.   Detailed Study of the Text:    Detailed Study of the Text 15. horde: a large number or crowd, throng a horde of locusts When a contemptuous term is desired, it is preferred to crowd and throng, esp, when implying rude, rough or savage character. Detailed Study of the Text:  Detailed Study of the Text 16. consult: to go to a person, a book for advice, information or opinion The Prime Minister consulted his Cabinet on a variety of questions. Have you consulted the doctor about your illness? to consult a dictionary Detailed Study of the Text:  Detailed Study of the Text 17. issue:the point at which an unsettled matter is ready for a decision major issues of principle the act of publishing or officially giving out or making available Have you seen the latest issue of the magazine? Detailed Study of the Text :  Detailed Study of the Text be at issue: of importance That is not the point at issue. v: to produce, to provide officially to issue an order / a statement to issue a set of stamps  Detailed Study of the Text:  Detailed Study of the Text 18. count on: depend on, expect, take into account If there is anything I can do, count on me. I think we can count on Mr White to support us. 19. enlist: win the support of, get the help or sympathy Can I enlist your help in collecting the money for victims of the tsunami? Detailed Study of the Text:  Detailed Study of the Text 20. sympathy: feeling of support, pity and tenderness 21. go all out: to spare no effort, to make one's utmost effort We will go all out to support the development of the west. Detailed Study of the Text:  Detailed Study of the Text 22. be true of: be the same case, be suitable to What he says of women is true of men. People in cities have larger houses now, and the same is true of the living condition in the countryside. Detailed Study of the Text:  Detailed Study of the Text 24. revert to: to go back to a former subject, talk about again The pressure made him revert to his old habit of smoking. Shall we revert to our previous topic? 25. arch: principal, chief arch- angel, bishop, criminal, enemy, rebel, rival, etc. Detailed Study of the Text:  Detailed Study of the Text 26. not bowing down in the House of Rimmon: Q: You are not doing sth. against your own beliefs, are you? A: No, not at all. Detailed Study of the Text:  Detailed Study of the Text Rimmon:a deity worshipped by Syrians of Damascus. Syrian Captain Naaman had leprosy. His Israeli servant told Elisha, a prophet God. Elisha told Naaman to wash in the Jordan River 7 times and thus he was cured. Detailed Study of the Text:  Detailed Study of the Text Naaman therefore had faith in God and convert to Christianity. But being a Syrian, he had to follow his King to worship in the House of Rimmon. Elisha granted him permission to do so. Detailed Study of the Text:  Detailed Study of the Text bow down in the house of Rimmon: you do sth. outwardly with mental reservation   Detailed Study of the Text :  Detailed Study of the Text 27. thereby: by that means, by doing or saying that Our body can sweat, thereby losing heat by evaporation. A firm might sometimes sell at a loss to drive a competitor out of business, and thereby increase its market power. Detailed Study of the Text:  Detailed Study of the Text cf: therefore: as a result; for that reason, so I have never been to Africa and therefore I don't know much about it. I think; therefore I am.(我思故我在) It rained; therefore the game was called off. Detailed Study of the Text :  Detailed Study of the Text 28. Devil - Satan, most powerful evil spirit, the source of evil in the world. 29. reference: a piece of written information about sb.'s character, ability, esp. when he is looking for employment Detailed Study of the Text :  Detailed Study of the Text cf: A testimonial is kinder than a reference because it is shown to the person it describes while a reference is truer because it is not shown to him. A recommendation is a letter or statement that speaks in favour or praise of sb. esp, when he is looking for a job. Detailed Study of the Text:  Detailed Study of the Text 31. to the effect: with the information that, meaning that He had a telegram to the effect that his mother is dead. A rumour was in the air to the effect that the firm was in financial difficulties. Detailed Study of the Text  :  Detailed Study of the Text   32. comment: remark expressing an opinion, judgement (written or spoken) 33. regime: a type or form of government, often derog. a corrupt regime He was tortured under the Saddam regime. Under the old regime women could not vote. Detailed Study of the Text:  Detailed Study of the Text 34. feature: quality, characteristic, sth. that set apart one thing / person from others Monopoly is the key feature of imperialism. The dominant feature on his face is the brandy nose. Detailed Study of the Text:  Detailed Study of the Text 35. devoid of: (fml) lacking in, complete without, empty of He is complete devoid of human feelings. The word “vacuum” refers to space entirely devoid of matter. 36. theme: (Here in the text) basic good value, virtue, ideal, unifying idea  Detailed Study of the Text :  Detailed Study of the Text 37. appetite: a strong desire to conquer 38. racial domination: the state of having controlling power over the other races by the Aryan nation Aryan’s superiority racial equality / discrimination racism / racist Detailed Study of the Text:  Detailed Study of the Text dominate: have controlling influence or power over, have the most important place or position She completely dominates the family and makes all the decisions. The dominant political party of the country is socialist. Detailed Study of the Text  :  Detailed Study of the Text   39. excel: surpass, be superior to, outdo, exceed He excels in music and art / courage / at football. 40. wickedness: badness, evil 41. efficient: working well, quick and without waste 42. ferocious: fierce, cruel, and violent Detailed Study of the Text:  Detailed Study of the Text The Nazi regime is extremely cruel. It has invaded other countries in the most savage way. The invasions are so effective that they surpass all other kind of human cruelty. The Nazi regime is very effective in cruel suppression of and savage attack on other countries, in this respect it is worse than any other known form of evil. Detailed Study of the Text :  Detailed Study of the Text 42. consistent: constant, faithful, continually keeping to the same principles When you make a sentence, the subject and the verb should be consistent. He reaffirmed the government's consistent policy of opposing racial discrimination. Detailed Study of the Text:  Detailed Study of the Text 43. opponent: one who is on the opposite side in a contest or in a conflict 44. unfold: (lit.) to become clear, more fully known He gradually unfolded her plan to them. As the investigation goes on, the intrigue behind the dirty deal slowly unfold. Detailed Study of the Text:  Detailed Study of the Text 47. folly: (fml) foolishness, unwise act The old man smiled sadly as he remembered the follies of his youth. 50. immemorial: going beck beyond the reach of memory 51. champion: person who fights for, supports strongly, or defends a principle, a movement, person, etc.  Detailed Study of the Text  :  Detailed Study of the Text   52. means of existence: (Here) food and clothing to keep people alive, things for people to survive 53. wring (wrung): to press hard on, squeeze, to twist, to get by force to wring water from the wet clothes His sad story wrung our hearts. Detailed Study of the Text :  Detailed Study of the Text 54. hardly: (rare) with effort or difficulty, with force, in a severe manner 55. primordial: fundamental and primitive, basic primordial joys: pleasures shared commonly by all human beings Detailed Study of the Text  :  Detailed Study of the Text   57. hideous: ugly, morally offensive, very wicked a hideous crime / criminal 58. clank: metallic sound made by the swords and sabres (军刀) The prisoner’s ankle chains clanked. clicking: the sound of spurs (马剌) and the metal piece underneath the soles Detailed Study of the Text:  Detailed Study of the Text 59. dandy: a person who gives too much attention to dress cf: playboy: a person who devotes his life in pursuit of pleasure dandified: dressed like a dandy Here: German officers in uniforms with shoulder boards, insignias (勋章) and decorations Detailed Study of the Text:  Detailed Study of the Text 60. crafty: cleverly deceitful, cunning, foxy craft: skill in deceiving people for a bad purpose a man full of craft Detailed Study of the Text:  Detailed Study of the Text 61. fresh from: recently arrived, returned They are mostly young people fresh from school. 62. cow: to bring under control by violence or threats The gang of pickpockets were cowed by the sight of a cop. The smaller boys were cowed by the class bully. Detailed Study of the Text :  Detailed Study of the Text 63. tie down: A person who ties you down restricts your freedom. (here) to enslave  64. dull: stupid, not clever A dull speech / city / person 65. docile: easily taught or led, obedient, easy to manage 66. brutish: brutal, beast-like Detailed Study of the Text:  Detailed Study of the Text 67. Hun: (derog. offensive) German soldier 68. plod: to continue to walk slowly along a road, with difficulty and great effort 69. swarm: a large group (of insects moving in a mass), throng Detailed Study of the Text:  Detailed Study of the Text 71. smart: feel painful in one part of the body The place where he had cut his knee was smarting. He was still smarting under / over her unkind words. 72. prey: victim, a person or animal killed or hunted  Detailed Study of the Text:  Detailed Study of the Text 74. villain: a mean person who is completely given to crime, evil, a thoroughly wicked man 75. cataract: large steep waterfall, overwhelming downpour cataract of horrors: unparalleled miseries Detailed Study of the Text:  Detailed Study of the Text 76. dominion: a self-governing nation of the British Commonwealth the Dominion of Canada 77. in due course: in due time, at the suitable / proper time I will answer all your questions in due course. After they were engaged, the wedding followed in due course. Detailed Study of the Text:  Detailed Study of the Text concur: 1) agree, express agreement She has expressed her opposition to the plan, and I fully concur with her in this matter. 2) (of events, etc) happen together; coincide Everything concurred to produce the desired result. Detailed Study of the Text:  Detailed Study of the Text 78. irrevocable: that cannot be changed once started The decision to close the business is irrevocable. revoke: (fml) withdraw or cancel to revoke orders, promises His driving license was revoked after the crash. Detailed Study of the Text:  Detailed Study of the Text 79. resolved: be firm and fixed in purpose She was resolved to become a ballet dancer. The government is resolved upon / on the 10-year programme. Detailed Study of the Text:  Detailed Study of the Text 80. vestige: trace, mark or sign of sth. that once existed but has passed away or disappeared After the flood, not a vestige of the buildings remained. Detailed Study of the Text:  Detailed Study of the Text 82. rid… of: make free from a burden or sth. Undesirable We wish to rid the country of corruption. How could we rid the house of mosquitoes / rats? Detailed Study of the Text:  Detailed Study of the Text 84. yoke: Here: power, control, crushing burden 86. appeal: 1) to make a strong request for help, support, etc. He appeals me for help. The government is appealing to the world to rescue its people from the disaster. Detailed Study of the Text:  Detailed Study of the Text 2) to please, attract, to move the feelings words appealing to the senses His oration does not appeal to the head so much as to the heart of the audience. Detailed Study of the Text:  Detailed Study of the Text 87. pursue: to follow closely The beggars pursued the travellers. The plainclothesmen are pursuing an escaped prisoner. Detailed Study of the Text:  Detailed Study of the Text 89. creed: religious belief 90. divergence: disagreement, difference, splitting diverge: to go out in different directions I'm afraid our opinions diverge from each other (from a common starting point). Detailed Study of the Text:  Detailed Study of the Text 91. slacken: to make or become weak, to reduce in activity, force, or in tightness Don't slacken your efforts till the work is done. 92. doom: terrible fate, unavoidable destruction or death to meet / to go to / to be sent to one's doom Detailed Study of the Text:  Detailed Study of the Text 94. fortify: to strengthen against possible attack, to strengthen mentally or morally to fortify a dam against flood to fortify one's theory with facts 95. rescue: to save from harm or danger Detailed Study of the Text:  Detailed Study of the Text 96. tyranny: oppressive power, the use of cruel or unjust power to rule a country tyrant: a ruler who rules cruelly and unjustly Detailed Study of the Text:  Detailed Study of the Text 98. moralize: to teach moral lessons Do stop moralizing! 101. lust: strong evil desire lust for gold lust for power lust for battle (穷兵黩武) Detailed Study of the Text:  Detailed Study of the Text 102. impel: force, drive, push 103. lure: to attract, tempt The cheap prices lured the passers-by. the lure of women / power / money Keep him away from the lure of alcohol.  Detailed Study of the Text:  Detailed Study of the Text 104. outrage: a very wrong or cruel act which causes great anger The use of H-bombs would be an outrage against humanity. 105. hurl: to throw with force, to throw out violently hurl a spear at the enemy hurl a brick through the window Detailed Study of the Text:  Detailed Study of the Text 106. penalty: punishment for breaking a law, rule, or agreement Fishing in this pond is forbidden, penalty $5. 107. prelude : Here, an event that serves as an introduction, that paves the way for his planned invasion. Detailed Study of the Text:  Detailed Study of the Text 108. accomplish: to fulfil, to succeed in reaching a stage in a progression 109. intervene: to come in between, to step in so as to halt or settle a quarrel or conflict The argument between the two boys became so fierce that Dad had to intervene. Detailed Study of the Text:  Detailed Study of the Text an armed intervention (武装干预) cf: interfere: come into opposition, get in the way to interfere in other country's internal affairs an armed interference (武装干涉) Detailed Study of the Text:  Detailed Study of the Text 110. thrive and prosper: thrive: to succeed, to grow strong and healthy Children thrive on milk / in the country air. His business is thriving. prosper: to succeed, to do well success prosperous economy Detailed Study of the Text:  Detailed Study of the Text 111. conquer: take possession of (sth) by force The Normans conquered England in 1066. defeat (an enemy, a rival, etc) Chinese women’s volleyball team conquered its main rivals in the first round of the competition. Detailed Study of the Text:  Detailed Study of the Text (fig) overcome (an obstacle) The mountain was not conquered until 1953. Smallpox has finally been conquered. conqueror: William the Conqueror, ie. King William I of England conquest:the Norman Conquest, ie. of England by the Normans Detailed Study of the Text:  Detailed Study of the Text 112. subjugate: to bring under control, She dominated him and subjugated his will completely. subjugate the opposition subjugation: the state of being conquered, the act of taking power over The villain cowed the poor man into subjugation. Detailed Study of the Text:  Detailed Study of the Text 113. hearth: the area around the fire in one's home hearth and home: (poetic) home and its comforts Detailed Study of the Text :  Detailed Study of the Text 114. exertion: effort, the active use of physical or mental power to produce a desired result The doctor says he must avoid all exertion. In spite of all his exertion, he failed to penetrate his way into the bus. Structural Analysis:  Structural Analysis Part I: a piece of narration Background of the speech Part II. the speech proper an argument or persuasion Section 1: The Nazi regime… horrors upon mankind… Scenario on both sides of the border. To arouse emotion. IV. Structural Analysis:  IV. Structural Analysis Section 2: I have to declare the…in determination and in resources. What we should do. Section 3: This is no time…life and power remain. Further persuasion, to convince the audience of the justification of the decision. Rhetoric:  Rhetoric Simile: a comparison between two unlike things having at least one quality or characteristic in common. tenor: the subject of the comparison Vehicle: the image of which this idea is conveyed The vehicle is almost always introduced by the word "like" or "as". Rhetoric:  Rhetoric The bus (tenor) went as slowly similarity as a snail (vehicle). The water lay grey and wrinkled like an elephant's skin. Her eyes were jet black, and her hair was like a waterfall. Rhetoric:  Rhetoric Metaphor: a comparison between two unlike things, but the comparison is implied rather than stated. Contrary to a simile in which the resemblance between two unlike things is clearly stated, in a metaphor nothing is mentioned. The essential form of a metaphor is X is Y, and all forms of metaphor can be condensed into this form. Rhetoric:  Rhetoric Snow clothes the ground. Snow (X---tenor) is clothe (Y---vehicle). Boys and girls, tumbling in the streets and playing, were moving jewels. Boy (X---tenor) is jewel (Y---vehicle) . The ship ploughed the sea. Ship (X --- tenor) is plough (Y ---vehicle) Rhetoric :  Rhetoric Metaphor: They will be rounded up in hordes. I see Russian soldiers standing on the threshold... Means of existence is wrung from the soil... Rhetoric :  Rhetoric Metaphor: cataract of horrors rid the earth of his shadow...liberate people from his yoke The scene will be clear for the final act. Rhetoric :  Rhetoric Alliteration: dull, drilled, docile... for his hearth and home with its clanking, heel-clicking... Rhetoric :  Rhetoric Assonance: the use of the same or related, vowel sounds in successive words clanking, heel-clicking,… cowing and tying ...plodding on like crawling locusts, ...smarting from many a British whipping... easier and safer prey Rhetoric :  Rhetoric Repetition: We have but one aim and one single purpose nothing will turn us---nothing We will never parley, we will never negotiate... This is our policy and this is our declaration as we shall faithfully and steadfastly Rhetoric:  Rhetoric Parallelism: The past, with its crimes, its follies, and its tragedies... I see,...I see... the return of the bread-winner, of their champion, of their protector Rhetoric:  Rhetoric We shall fight him by land, we shall fight him by sea, we shall fight him in the air Any man or state... Any man or state... Let us... Let us... Rhetoric :  Rhetoric Noun phrases: I had not the slightest doubt where ... With great rapidity and violence Periodic sentences: When I awoke on...invasion of Russia. If Hitler imagines that... woefully mistaken. Slide105:     

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