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102G 3 14 06

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Information about 102G 3 14 06
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Published on January 11, 2008

Author: Maria

Source: authorstream.com

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Conclusions: Voice, Equality, and Bias in Political Participation:  Conclusions: Voice, Equality, and Bias in Political Participation March 14 Public Opinion and Political Participation Solving the Puzzle of Participation in Electoral Politics (Rosenstone and Hansen):  Solving the Puzzle of Participation in Electoral Politics (Rosenstone and Hansen) Both resources and mobilization affect people’s participation in politics This chapter examines the size of the role of each in solving the puzzle of declining participation in American elections Solving the Puzzle of Participation in Electoral Politics (Rosenstone and Hansen):  Solving the Puzzle of Participation in Electoral Politics (Rosenstone and Hansen) Their findings: “In every case the changing pattern of mobilization by parties, campaigns, and social movements accounts for at least half of the decline in electoral participation since the 1960s. Explanations of political involvement that have focused exclusively on the personal attributes of individual citizens – their demographic characteristics and political beliefs – have missed at least half the story.” Solving the Puzzle of Participation in Electoral Politics (Rosenstone and Hansen):  Solving the Puzzle of Participation in Electoral Politics (Rosenstone and Hansen) Conclusions: “Citizens did not fail the political system; if anything, the political system failed them.” “The level of electoral participation in the United States waxes and wanes in response to political mobilization.” The Scope and Bias of Political Participation (Rosenstone and Hansen):  The Scope and Bias of Political Participation (Rosenstone and Hansen) If mobilization matters, then so do decisions about who to mobilize Bias may be both introduced and exacerbated through unequal mobilization of different groups The Scope and Bias of Political Participation (Rosenstone and Hansen):  The Scope and Bias of Political Participation (Rosenstone and Hansen) They devote the chapter, though, to showing some of the extent of the bias in participation, not in mobilization… Slide12:  <1=underrepresentation of group; >1=overrepresentation of group Slide13:  <1=underrepresentation of group; >1=overrepresentation of group The Scope and Bias of Political Participation (Rosenstone and Hansen):  The Scope and Bias of Political Participation (Rosenstone and Hansen) “The resource demands of political participation skew the activist community toward the most advantaged.” Class biases in mobilization make this worse “the pressures that political leaders face to use their own resources most efficiently build a class bias into their efforts to mobilize” Focus on those easiest to reach and most likely to (effectively) respond The Scope and Bias of Political Participation (Rosenstone and Hansen):  The Scope and Bias of Political Participation (Rosenstone and Hansen) But it doesn’t always have to be this way… “Given the right set of incentives, political mobilizers expand their efforts, extend public involvement, and ameliorate inequality.” Political mobilization extends political participation As more people participate, inequalities in participation shrink. The Scope and Bias of Political Participation (Rosenstone and Hansen):  The Scope and Bias of Political Participation (Rosenstone and Hansen) “democratic government provides few incentives for leaders to attend to the needs of people who neither affect the achievements of their policy goals nor influence the perpetuation of their tenure in office. Politicians can serve either the active or the inactive. The active contribute directly to their goals: They pressure, they contribute, they vote. The inactive offer only potential, the possibility that they might someday rise up against rulers who neglect them. Only the rare politician would pass up the blandishments of the active to champion the cause of those who never take part.” The Scope and Bias of Political Participation (Rosenstone and Hansen):  The Scope and Bias of Political Participation (Rosenstone and Hansen) Even if politicians desire to represent the inactive as well, there is still the question of figuring out what they want. The Participatory Process and the Sources of Representational Distortion (Verba, Schlozman, and Brady):  The Participatory Process and the Sources of Representational Distortion (Verba, Schlozman, and Brady) They’ve already shown that those who participate are unrepresentative of those who do not on a number of different criteria This chapter examines “how the process by which people come to participate affects the substance of what is communicated through that participation.” The Participatory Process and the Sources of Representational Distortion (Verba, Schlozman, and Brady):  The Participatory Process and the Sources of Representational Distortion (Verba, Schlozman, and Brady) They model participatory distortion based on: Politically relevant characteristics Modes of political activity Participation factors Resources Engagement Recruitment networks The Participatory Process and the Sources of Representational Distortion (Verba, Schlozman, and Brady):  The Participatory Process and the Sources of Representational Distortion (Verba, Schlozman, and Brady) The most disadvantaged in society participate less and are underrepresented Those who participate more are more informed about politics. There is also some increase in participation with tolerance for the views of those who disagree Conclusion: Voice and Equality in Democratic Participation (Verba, Schlozman, and Brady):  Conclusion: Voice and Equality in Democratic Participation (Verba, Schlozman, and Brady) “meaningful democratic participation requires that the voices of citizens in politics be clear, loud, and equal” Clear so public officials know what people need and want Loud so public officials have an incentive to pay attention Equal so that the democratic ideal of equal responsiveness is not violated Their conclusion: “The public’s voice is often loud, sometimes clear, but rarely equal.” Conclusion: Voice and Equality in Democratic Participation (Verba, Schlozman, and Brady):  Conclusion: Voice and Equality in Democratic Participation (Verba, Schlozman, and Brady) The extent of participatory distortion depends on the form of participation It also depends on the politically relevant characteristic of concern In general, the voices of the wealthy and well-educated are loudest Conclusion: Voice and Equality in Democratic Participation (Verba, Schlozman, and Brady):  Conclusion: Voice and Equality in Democratic Participation (Verba, Schlozman, and Brady) Several factors help lessen participatory distortion Long roots in a community Involvement in religious institutions The wild card: issue engagement Conclusion: Voice and Equality in Democratic Participation (Verba, Schlozman, and Brady):  Conclusion: Voice and Equality in Democratic Participation (Verba, Schlozman, and Brady) Participation may be biased but politicians have other ways of learning what the public wants Public opinion polls Conclusion: Voice and Equality in Democratic Participation (Verba, Schlozman, and Brady):  Conclusion: Voice and Equality in Democratic Participation (Verba, Schlozman, and Brady) Participation matters so unequal participation matters Conclusion: Voice and Equality in Democratic Participation (Verba, Schlozman, and Brady):  Conclusion: Voice and Equality in Democratic Participation (Verba, Schlozman, and Brady) Uninterested or unable? The answer to that carries consequences for democracy… Final Exam:  Final Exam The final exam will be held IN CLASS on the LAST REGULARLY SCHEDULED DAY OF CLASS, MARCH 16 You will have 1 hour and 20 minutes to complete the exam. Final Exam:  Final Exam The final will consist of two parts, plus an extra credit question. Final Exam: Part I:  Final Exam: Part I Part I will consist of identifications. I will choose 6 of the following terms and ask you to explain what they mean (examples are helpful) and why they are important or significant. Potential Part I Terms:  Potential Part I Terms Descriptive representation (2/28) Substantive representation (2/28) Politically relevant characteristics (2/28) Proxy representation (2/28) Participatory distortion (2/28) Selective material benefits (3/2) Selective social gratifications (3/2) Selective civic gratifications (3/2) Collective outcomes (3/2) Insider strategies (3/2) Outsider strategies (3/2) Material benefits (3/7) Solidary benefits (3/7) Purposive benefits (3/7) Collective rewards (3/7) Selective rewards (3/7) Internal efficacy (3/7) External efficacy (3/7) Issue engagement (3/9) Part II: Essay Question:  Part II: Essay Question Why do some people participate in politics while others do not? What do Rosenstone and Hansen and Verba, Schlozman, and Brady have to say in response to this question? In your essay, compare and contrast their data, approaches, theories, and findings regarding this question. How do they agree with each other and how do they offer unique contributions to understanding political participation? Together, what do their findings about who participates and who does not mean for the state of American democracy? Should we be concerned? Why or why not?

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