Published on July 22, 2018
Asia, Colonialism & Independence: Asia, Colonialism & Independence 1700 – 1920s Critical THinking: Critical THinking Why did affluent societies become so vulnerable? How are people from the region portrayed in books, film, television set in the period? “History doesn’t repeat itself, but it often rhymes” – Anonymous TERMS!: TERMS! CLOSED SOCIETY : A society which attempts to wall itself off from the outside world through high import tariffs, restriction of foreigner access/movement, and other reactionary policies that place security and stability over all other considerations COLONIALISM : The process of one country exerting direct or near-direct control over every aspect of another country; laws/judicial system, economy, military, etc. NATIONALIM : The emergence of an identity tied to a geographic boundary which provides a sense of unity amongst otherwise disparate people; ex: being “American” over being Kentuckian or ‘from Florence” ANTI-COLONIALISM : A movement in the 19 th through 20 th centuries to re-assert local control over a country, often by ejecting – either peacefully or through war – foreign powers. The old powers: The old powers CHINA : Trade beneficial to China’s economy Much of New World silver (and some foods) find their way to China Trade imbalance between Europe and China China a closed society India : Trade also beneficial to India’s economy Unlike China, India has no long-standing Dynastic/imperial tradition* Trade imbalance between Europe and India India an open society Ottoman Empire : Trade balance dwindling, foreign dominance of economy hurting Ottomans Ottomans first ‘victims’ of Colonization through “capitulations” and other interference by Europe Ottomans respond by trying to make society a closed society Ottomans (1500 – 1700): Ottomans (1500 – 1700) At its height, the Ottoman Empire dominated the Mediterranean Twice invaded Europe (Siege of Vienna 1529 & Battle of Vienna 1683) Wealthy & Multicultural Ottomans (1700 – 1910): Ottomans (1700 – 1910) Divided into “spheres of influence” by European powers “Sick old man of Europe” unable to put down rebellions, control territory Society becomes Xenophobic & ‘closed’ culture HOW?: HOW? Not-so-simple answer: Not-so-simple answer 1) Status Quo v. Change Denigrated innovations as “foreign” and thus less-than-worthy Trade, law, innovation and economy 2) Late to the game Industrial revolution, colonization Playing catch-up 3) Exploitation by Europeans Unfair terms, ‘protectorate people’ Debt begets debt 4) Reactionary populism Religious movements preach abandonment by God for heresy, “Liberalism” Wahhabism, Salafism Ottoman Reforms: Ottoman Reforms Military : Create modern, professional army through education and modern weaponry Education : Establish Western-style schools dedicated to engineering, mathematics, medicine, law, liberal arts, etc. Economy : Top-down reforms of economic practices, policies International Relations : Embrace ‘New’ European powers (Germany) and Anti-Colonial Western Powers (USA) over ‘Old’ Europeans (Russia, England, France) Young turks/Committee of Union and Progress: Young turks /Committee of Union and Progress Popularist , Secularist, Westernizing, Constitutional Monarchy Strong position v. Old Europe Rhetoric tested by external events Rebellions in Balkans WWI & Armenian Genocide Dissolution of Ottoman Empire 1922 European demand Rise of modern Turkish state The shame of turkey: The shame of turkey C.U.P. – LED TURKEY pressed on all sides during WWI Losses to Russia, England, Italy Armenians ‘Protectorate People’ of Russia accused of disloyalty* ~1,000,000 Armenians killed “an orgy of violence” – Armin t. Wegner, German photographer* Touchy subject today Turkey is Born: Turkey is Born Modern Turkish state created in aftermath of WWI Mustafa Kemal Ataturk “Six Arrows of Kemalism ” Republicanism, Nationalism, Populism, State Capitalism, Secularism, Reformism NATIONALISM in the face of religious, regional identity Only defeated power of WWI to dictate terms to Victors Ejection, rejection of Colonial Rule INDIA: INDIA Trade always benefitted India, historically Spices, clothing, dyes, etc. Purple & Royalty French, English, Portuguese establish trading ‘enclaves’ on the cost of India Seven Years’ War = power imbalance between Europeans France out, Portugal reduced East India Company & Colonialism: East India Company & Colonialism E.I.C. a public-private jointly held company to exert control over trade & revenue between India and England (UK’s) Empire Unique relationship between crown & investors Redcoats secure trade EIC consolidates control over India for cash-crops Cotton Tea Opium (heroin) British India: British India Not-So-Simple Answer: Not-So-Simple Answer EIC reliance upon Redcoats, British Navy Bullied or invaded weaker small states Some principalities independent British encouraging of Racial, Religious division Favor Muslims over Hindus Favor light-skin over dark Exploitation and monopolies Cash-crops EIC/Crown-owned necessities Cash Crops & Famine: Cash Crops & Famine EIC/UK & Opium: EIC/UK & Opium Poppy-based medicines used in Asia for centuries Sedative, analgesic, anti-inflammatory Mixed with tobacco to create “Opium” Extreme lethargy, euphoric ‘high’, extremely addictive Opium & dependence Opium & the Empire One of the only products able to penetrate Chinese markets EIC/British crown demand growth of poppies 1800s From EIC to Direct Control: From EIC to Direct Control EIC use of low-paid, exploited Indians as backbone of military “Sepoys” drawn from poor Muslims, Hindus Mutiny over Munitions 1857 Rani Lakshmibai & The Mother of Independence British crown dissolves EIC, establishes direct control Some reforms: Legal, racist policies, military, traditions, etc. Wary of further mutiny Harsh reprisals Cusp of WWI & India: Cusp of WWI & India Indian Viewpoint Emerging Nationalism provides untiy Anti-colonial movement about justice, end oppression Mutiny seen as catalyst for change Still part of British Empire Benefits Proof India capable, desirous of self-determination British Viewpoint Indians ‘incapable’ of embracing Liberal ideas Racism “Sullen”, lethargic people incapable of efficient governance, use of land Merit in having Indians self-govern India providing materials, troops for Empire cannot be underestimated China: China QING DYNASTY indirect beneficiary of discovery of Americas Flow of silver into China double-edged sword Industrial Revolution products not desired in China Britain blames Chinese government China a closed society Foreigners can only trade in 1 port Must pay tribute to Empire for the right to trade Foreigners subject to Chinese laws while in China China on cusp of WWI: China on cusp of WWI By early 20 th century, China controlled by many international powers England, Japan, Russia, Germany, France US objects only because it was excluded Chinese power completely ruined by outside intervention Chinese disallowed to use foreign-laid train tracks, telegraph, port facilities, roads Ethnic, Religious division encouraged by foreign powers How?: How? Slightly-more-simple answer: Slightly-more-simple answer British trades used narcotics, drug smuggling to break into Chinese markets Epidemic of opium-related crime, deaths spur Chinese government into action Chinese reaction leads to British crown defending East India Company Two devastating wars : First Opium war 1839 – British gain control of Hong Kong & four other ports Force revocation of laws outlawing Opium Second Opium War 1859 – British have unfettered access to, control over Chinese markets Empire held hostage leads to “UNEQUAL TREATIES” by other foreign powers Carving up the Chinese like a pie Attempt at Reform, Revolution: Attempt at Reform, Revolution Attempts to reform Chinese military, Government actively blocked by foreign powers Exile, assassination Boxer Rebellion of 1900 (Righteous and Harmonious Fist) Popular uprising using martial arts to attack foreigners Portrayed in Euro- and American press as “attack upon freedom” Multi-national effort to put down poorly-armed rebellion Food for thought: Food for thought Traditionally affluent societies were unprepared, disinterested in changing with the times Ottomans India China Reactionary response to a changing world led to poor decisions, exploitation Colonialism, Repression, exacerbation of Racism/Religious intolerance Revolt against Colonial powers used their own rhetoric against them Woodrow Wilson 12 Points & Anti-colonial Movement Homework: Homework Chapters: Continuity and Change in East Asia; Asia and the Age of Imperialism; Decolonization, revolution, and the cold war Additional Resources VERY important Questions? 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