101_Early Humans and Pre History (Week 1 TRA)

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Information about 101_Early Humans and Pre History (Week 1 TRA)

Published on August 16, 2018

Author: VetMichael

Source: authorstream.com

Early Humans and their Civilizations: Early Humans and their Civilizations Neolithic Revolution to Early Kingdoms and City-States Neolithic = “New Stone Age”: Neolithic = “New Stone Age” So-called “Stone Age” divided into three rough periods: Paleolithic Mesolithic Neolithic Differentiated by advances in human tool use and activity Homo Sapiens Sapiens (Modern Humans) Contemporary to Neanderthal Competition & interbreeding A Word About Evolution: A Word About Evolution Neolithic Revolution = Beginning of Settled Societies: Neolithic Revolution = Beginning of Settled Societies Paleolithic Humans are food consumers Hunting Gathering Use of simple stone tools Hunting War Clothing Beginnings of mystical beliefs Cave paintings Neolithic Humans become food producers (Generally) Herding Farming Domestication More complex tools Harvesting Cultivation More defined mystical beliefs Specialized roles* Agriculture = Deliberate growing of plants for food: Agriculture = Deliberate growing of plants for food Some human groups settle down to grow crops ~4,000 BCE Water sources; lakes, rivers, oceans* Why would you, as an early human settler, want to found your community near a river or a lake? Why near an ocean? Agricultural products and their uses Theory: Humans settled to produce complex food regularly (beer, bread) Theory: Humans settled to feed non-roaming domestic herds Food for Thought: Food for Thought Change has, historically , been imperceptibly slow Hunter-Gatherers may settle in resource abundant areas and only limit their range to stay near crops Observation of natural world leads to improvements; domestication, agricultural improvement “Neolithic Revolution” was centuries long Dogs ~30,000 BCE (Mesolithic); Goats ~8,000 BCE; Chickens ~6,000 BCE; Cats ~5300 BCE Settled societies become increasingly specialized as new needs arise and surplus food allows for specialization Government, spiritual/medical, war, crafts, etc. Technology = creation & use of increasingly complex tools: Technology = creation & use of increasingly complex tools Technology is inherently iterative Natural Resource  rough tool  better tool  improved tool Experimentation, accidental discovery leads to new materials, ideas, opportunities Stone/Bone  Copper  Bronze  iron What are the benefits of transitioning to new materials? What disadvantages are there for these new materials? Spotlight: Otzi: Spotlight: Otzi European of the late Paleolithic & early Copper/Bronze age (3300 BCE) 46 years old Discovered in 1991 Well preserved Technologically sophisticated (for his time) Goat skin boots & grass cloak for insulation Copper-headed ax & stone arrows for hunting, protection Medical pouch & tattoos for pain relief Otzi: A Closer Look: Otzi : A Closer Look Otzi was dealing with many ailments Arthritis Parasites Lyme disease Otzi’s medicines reveal a lot about human adaptation Birch polypore fungus: antibiotic, antiparasitic Tattoes (right) correspond to areas of arthritis Correspond to acupuncture treatment sites Class Question: Class Question Otzi was dealing with a multitude of health issues What does Otzi reveal about human adaptation to the environment? What does the “first aid kit” found on him reveal about medical treatment in 3300 BCE? What do the tattoos reveal about chronic pain management in 3300 BCE? How do these discoveries challenge our concept of what a “Caveman” or stone age human society might have been like? Theories on Material Discovery: Theories on Material Discovery How did humans discover metals, medicines? Shamanism and Ancestor worship may have played a part Offering of unusual finds (shiny rocks) in ritual bonfires may have revealed metals’ utility Accidental discovery Omnivorous humans would have found relief from parasites, infections after eating certain foods (fungus) Experimentation and adaptation Once a discovery is made, it is never ‘unlearned’ though it may be superseded by later discoveries and “lost” Expansion & Consolidation: Expansion & Consolidation Agriculture relatively successful Settlement  Villages  towns  cities  kingdoms/City-States Not all peoples “settle down” into agricultural societies What hampers the expansion of agriculture? Some agricultural societies meet and interact with other societies (nomads, pastoralists, agricultural societies) Competition Trade War/Conquest What is important?: What is important? First rule of Real Estate: Location, location, location What is located nearby for most early settlements? Water Resources Native animals Comparing Civilizations: Comparing Civilizations Harappan Earliest known settled societies City-States? Early Kingdom? Indus river (m/d Pakistan) Specialization Wide trade network Vulnerable to outside forces No evidence of armies, war Shang “Dynasty” (slightly) Later adopter of agriculture City-States in loose association “Confederacy” Fertile river flooding (Yellow River) Vulnerable to outside, internal forces Evidence of civil war, invasion Nomads: Nomads Not all societies settled down Cultural resistance Difficult/marginal lands Berbers of North Africa Bedouin of Arabia Mongols, Tartars, Turks of Central Asia Scythians, Magyar of East Europe, Iran Plains Indians of North America Stalking herds (hunting) Shepherding Raiding & trading The Challenge: The Challenge Prior to 20 th century, most archeologists & historians believed nomads to be primitive, unsophisticated No Cities to excavate No written record of their own Rely upon settled enemies (Romans, Greek, etc.) “Barbarians” Scythians: Scythians “Barbarian” Scythians written of by Romans Vibrant culture based in m/d Ukraine & Russia Nomadic Herding Raiding trading Nomadic Lifestyle: Nomadic Lifestyle Well-known archers, horsemen Quick strikes in battle like hit-and-run tactics Disrupt enemies, cause confusion/terror Women may have participated in battles Herodotus, the Greek historian, argues that Scythians and Amazonians formed a single joint tribe Evidence in burial mounds show women warriors Sophisticated metal work (esp. gold) proves well-trained artisanal class existed Conclusion: Conclusion Understanding ancient, especially pre-writing, societies constantly evolving Separate commentaries of contemporaries from archeological evidence Homework: Read Chap 1 Use weekly resources to fill in the narrative gaps Quiz #1 due by Sunday Problems? Technical: Call TMC’s IT for help Material: Email me (24 – 48 hours)

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