101_Classic Empires (SU_Week3)

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Information about 101_Classic Empires (SU_Week3)

Published on July 15, 2018

Author: VetMichael

Source: authorstream.com

Age of empires: Age of empires Greece, Rome, and China in the classical age Critical concepts: Critical concepts Systems : A set of solutions to increasingly complex problems in order to make society function more efficiently EX: Road networks, tax collection, adjudication & law, security, etc. are all systems Systems require upkeep (cost) to prevent problems (cost) System cost < problem cost Culture: Sets of generally accepted practices intended to offer cohesion to a society Ex: Celebrations, language, food, philosophy, religious practice, etc. are all aspects of culture Culture can be thought of as a system , but the cost is not evolving/changing with the times Success of systems: Success of systems Classical Greece Series of city-states bound by culture Independent governments: Monarchy Diarchy Oligarchy Democracy* Roman republic/empire Republic (Empire) bound by systems which spreads culture Long-standing systems have profound impact on Europe Collapse leaves void in Europe Early & late han dynasty Dynastic Empire bound by homogenized culture reinforced by systems Long-standing systems have profound impact on Asia Collapse leaves void in Asia Classical Greek Culture: Classical Greek Culture Greek city-states share culture but little else Ex: government, preferred gods Success in trade, military technology ensures impact on Mediterranean City-states spawn colonies Danger vs. opportunity Classical Greek divergence: Government: Classical Greek divergence: Government Athens Athenian demos cratia (lit. “rule by the people”) a relatively short period Monarchy/despotism (ex: Draco = Draconian laws) Wild policy swings possible (ex: Socrates critical of Athenian Democracy as “Rule by the most ignorant/superstitious”) Sparta Spartan diarchy advised by oligarchic ephors (5) Spartan’s brutality towards citizens leaves small, elite group Spartan oppression of Helots prevent military domination Thebes Theban Monarchy most common type of City-State government Shifting alliances keep enemies, friends off-balance Betrayal possible in large conflicts (invasion of Philip II) Greek Convergence: Greek Convergence Wealth driven by trade, conquest Colonial expanse leads to Greek colonies throughout Mediterranean, Black Sea Emphasis upon learning, physical perfection Greek becomes language of learning until Medieval period Surprising Culture Shock: Surprising Culture Shock Homosexuality & Masculinity: The Sacred Band of Thebes Learning & Philosophers: Not all Greek philosophers loved by their City-States Socrates, Aristotle Democracy didn’t prevent war; may have exacerbated it Beginning of the end: Greece: Beginning of the end: Greece Greek City-state rivalries never go away Delian League Peloponnese League Peloponnesian war* Invasion by Macedonians Hellenistic = Greek-like Greeks 1 st to be conquered Vengeance upon Persians Hellenic v Hellenistic: Hellenic v Hellenistic Hellenic : Greek Hellenes Limited in scope Divergent systems with convergent culture Denigration of Europe “Barbarians” Hellenistic : Greek-like, imitative of the Greeks Alexander of Macedon & Successor states Seleucids, ptolemeic Egypt Shared systems with divergent culture Greek learning only unity Inclusion of “Barbarians” Classic Greek Recap: Classic Greek Recap Demos Cratia limited in scope, spread Not universal Military innovations, culture shared Government not Learning confined to city-state elites until after Alexander’s conquests Roman Republic: Roman Republic Res Publica (“Ownership by the people”) emerged from monarchy, oligarchy Revolt of the orders (castes) Plebeians Expansion fueled by mix of efficient system of government & military innovation Shared Culture reinforced systems Ex: mythology of founding Roman Republic Government: Roman Republic Government Consul Consul Senate Republican system: laws: Republican system: laws “The Twelve Tables” outlined rights, obligations, and penalties for all members of society Equality under the law Immutable laws (‘Codified”) = stability Citizenship has its benefits Citizens > Non-Citizens Republican system: voting and client/patron relations: Republican system: voting and client/patron relations Senate re-elected every year Voting through public count Roman Patrician (father-figure) works on behalf of clients Favor-for-favor agreement Unpaid senate position Civic duty Affluence determined eligibility Roman Expansion, Civil War, & Empire: Roman Expansion, Civil War, & Empire Roman conquest, absorption of neighbors increases territories Responsiveness of Senate, Consuls Corruption, political ambition lead to civil war Roman v Roman New model emerges under Octavian (Julius Augustus Caesar) Open Emperor under Diocletian in 3 rd c CE Roman Dictatorship (Empire): Roman Dictatorship (Empire) Dictator Senate Consul Consul Republic v empire: Republic v empire Republic senate responsive* to the will of the people Expansion of rights, citizenship regardless of race, color, religion Emphasis upon learning to be good citizen Senate in struggle with, subservient to Emperor Augustus as “Princeps” Expansion of territory to pay for expensive systems would peter out Emphasis on learning remains Spread of Greek learning and Roman culture Roman Education: Trivium*: Roman Education: Trivium* Grammar Student comes to terms with the use, manipulation of language Defining the world in concrete terms (i.e. a rock is a rock, not a glass of water) input Logic Mechanics of thought and understanding in a predictable, rational order Understanding the world better to eliminate fallacious thinking (i.e. lies from others, lies to self) Processing Rhetoric Application of language to instruct, persuade others Knowledge understood is transmitted to the world as wisdom (grammar and logic are evident) Output Roman system of education & Europe: Roman system of education & Europe Education used to make better-informed citizens who approach problems rationally Counter to Superstitio (lit ‘believing more than necessary’) Education paid for in money, pain, and sacrifice Sometimes literally  Contraction, Division, Collapse (west): Contraction, Division, Collapse (west) Series of increasingly erratic Emperors who rule through cult of personality Senate often obsequious to Emperor Corruption leads to disquiet within Empire Slave rebellions Plebeian Revolts Rome divided into two parts with co-emperors in Rome, Constantinople (~400 CE) Western Rome continues to decline until 480 CE Roman Recap: Roman Recap Roman res Publica government system flexible, widespread Undermined by corruption, inherent weakness Roman education more widespread, longer-practiced Influences Medieval European world Roman society persists in East until 15 th c CE Han Dynasty: Han Dynasty Han Dynasty succeeds short-lived Qin Dynasty ~200 BCE Spread of Han Dynasty fueled by efficient systems Roads, taxes, bureaucracy Han wealth, education envy of rest of Asia Imitation of Chinese culture perpetuates Chinese dominance, hegemony Secret to Han Success: Secret to Han Success Tolerant Laws applied equally to all subjects of Empire Based on Confucian model Gradual abandonment of Legalism Expansion of education Educated subjects = efficient society = harmonious china Culture of education lasts to present day china System of Infrastructure, security meant to ensure domestic tranquility Han and the Economy: Han and the Economy Trade key to overflowing coffers, new ideas Silk, paper, spices Buddhism* Money used to fuel innovation Water- and wind-powered mills, forges High-quality products Efficient feeding of people Innovation helped secure han society for 4 centuries Han and the Great Wall: Han and the Great Wall Wall not started under Han but expanded as a system to control invasion Nomadic raiders from north Mongols, tartars, Manchu, etc. Public expenditure Ensured wealth flowed through society Also contributed to deaths of slaves, prisoners Han and Education: Han and Education Confucian*-based education emphasized “Arts and Sciences” Poetry, music, composition Mathematics, physics, medicine Government entrance exams Han education system spread to other countries Japan Korea Vietnam Chinese Culture & Governance: Chinese Culture & Governance Mandate of heaven Emperor rules justly and is rewarded with peace, prosperity for empire Unjust rule is punished with famine, flood, pestilence, invasion Problem? Dynastic Cycle Strong, short-lived Dynasty ends chaos Fair, long-lived Dynasty Succeeds strong dynasty Dynasty eventually slides into chaos, disunity Late Han and collapse: Late Han and collapse Emperors become incompetent, too young to rule, or both Unduly influenced by factions with agendas Decline coincided with environmental changes Plagues of locusts Flooding Famine* Collapse of Han Dynasty would plunge China into 300+ years of squabbling smaller states The Three Classic Empires: The Three Classic Empires Greeks Greek learning taken up, spread by successor states Influence Mediterranean life for centuries Model for Successor states, societies in Mediterranean Romans Preserved, added to Mediterranean Systems Spread Mediterranean culture into Europe Model for later Empires, societies in Europe Han Chinese Reinvigorated, expanded Chinese culture through education Spread Chinese systems through Asia Model for later Dynasties, Societies in Asia Homework: Homework READ The Greek Experience and The World of Rome; Continuity and Change in Europe and Western Asia Additional Resources & Text to inform Essay Questions, problems? 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