10 3a&B

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Information about 10 3a&B

Published on October 22, 2008

Author: Carrie.Heninger

Source: slideshare.net

10.3 THE IMPACT OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT The Arts- were also impacted by ideas of Enlightenment Palaces modeled – Italian baroque style of 1500s & 1600s Balthasar Neumann – architects - Church of the Fourteen Saints & the Residence Rococo – new artistic style Emphasized – grace, charm, and gentle action Highly – secular Sense of – enchantment and enthusiasm

The Arts- were also impacted by ideas of Enlightenment

Palaces modeled – Italian baroque style of 1500s & 1600s

Balthasar Neumann – architects - Church of the Fourteen Saints & the Residence

Rococo – new artistic style

Emphasized – grace, charm, and gentle action

Highly – secular

Sense of – enchantment and enthusiasm

Music – greatest period of EU music in 18th C Bach – renowned organist & composer Composed – Mass in B Minor Reputation – one of the greatest composers of all time Handel – German musician Best known – religious music Messiah – been called a masterpiece of the highest order Both perfected – baroque musical style

Music – greatest period of EU music in 18th C

Bach – renowned organist & composer

Composed – Mass in B Minor

Reputation – one of the greatest composers of all time

Handel – German musician

Best known – religious music

Messiah – been called a masterpiece of the highest order

Both perfected – baroque musical style

Hayden – musical director for wealthy Hungarian prices 2 great works – The Creations & The Seasons Mozart – child prodigy 3 great operas 1. The Marriage of Figaro 2. The Magic Flute 3. Don Giovanni Literature, dev of – EU novel attractive to middle class readers

Hayden – musical director for wealthy Hungarian prices

2 great works – The Creations & The Seasons

Mozart – child prodigy

3 great operas 1. The Marriage of Figaro

2. The Magic Flute

3. Don Giovanni

Literature, dev of – EU novel attractive to middle class readers

ENLIGHTENMENT & ENLIGHTENED ABSOLUTISM Philosophes believed – natural rights for all people Incl. 1. equality before the law 2. freedom of religion 3. freedom of speech 4. freedom of press 5. the right to assemble To be preserved by – enlightened rulers

Philosophes believed – natural rights for all people

Incl. 1. equality before the law

2. freedom of religion

3. freedom of speech

4. freedom of press

5. the right to assemble

To be preserved by – enlightened rulers

Enlightened rulers: Allow – religious toleration, freedom of speech, press & right of private property Nurture – arts, science & education Obey – the laws Enforce – laws fairly for all subjects Enlightened Absolutism – rulers tried to govern by enlightened principles

Enlightened rulers:

Allow – religious toleration, freedom of speech, press & right of private property

Nurture – arts, science & education

Obey – the laws

Enforce – laws fairly for all subjects

Enlightened Absolutism – rulers tried to govern by enlightened principles

Prussia Frederick Wm I strove – maintain a highly efficient bureaucracy of civil service workers Valued – obedience, honor, and above all service to king Major concern – the army 1740 – he doubled the size of the army 4th – largest army

Frederick Wm I strove – maintain a highly efficient bureaucracy of civil service workers

Valued – obedience, honor, and above all service to king

Major concern – the army

1740 – he doubled the size of the army

4th – largest army

Frederick II – or Frederick the Great 1 of – best educated and most cultured monarchs in 18th C Well versed – in ideas of Enlightenment Enlarged – the Prussian army Strictly watched – over bureaucracy (gov’t workers not elected by vote) Enlight reforms 1. abolished – use of torture except for treason & murder cases granted – limited freedom of speech & press, religious toleration But kept – Prussia’s serfdom and rigid social structure intact

Frederick II – or Frederick the Great

1 of – best educated and most cultured monarchs in 18th C

Well versed – in ideas of Enlightenment

Enlarged – the Prussian army

Strictly watched – over bureaucracy (gov’t workers not elected by vote)

Enlight reforms 1. abolished – use of torture except for treason & murder cases

granted – limited freedom of speech & press, religious toleration

But kept – Prussia’s serfdom and rigid social structure intact

Austria Difficult – to rule b/c – large & made up of diff. nationalities, languages, religions & cultures Maria Theresa – Empress 1740 Worked to – centralize the empire & strengthen the power of the state Not open to – philosophes’ calls for reform Worked to – alleviate the condition of the serfs

Difficult – to rule

b/c – large & made up of diff. nationalities, languages, religions & cultures

Maria Theresa – Empress 1740

Worked to – centralize the empire & strengthen the power of the state

Not open to – philosophes’ calls for reform

Worked to – alleviate the condition of the serfs

Joseph II – son of Theresa Abolished – serfdom Eliminated – death penalty Est – principle of equality of all before the law Enacted – religious reform including religious toleration Largely – failed in his efforts Alienated 1. nobles by freeing surfs 2. Church by religious reforms Successors – undid almost all of Joseph II’s reforms

Joseph II – son of Theresa

Abolished – serfdom

Eliminated – death penalty

Est – principle of equality of all before the law

Enacted – religious reform including religious toleration

Largely – failed in his efforts

Alienated 1. nobles by freeing surfs

2. Church by religious reforms

Successors – undid almost all of Joseph II’s reforms

Russia had series of weak rulers Peter III – was murdered by a group of nobles New ruler – his German wife became ruler Catherine the Great – Catherine II Ruled – 1762 to 1796 Favored – enlightened reforms Recognized – considered principle of the equality of all people in the eyes of law In end – did nothing b/c – did not want to anger nobles

had series of weak rulers

Peter III – was murdered by a group of nobles

New ruler – his German wife became ruler

Catherine the Great – Catherine II

Ruled – 1762 to 1796

Favored – enlightened reforms

Recognized – considered principle of the equality of all people in the eyes of law

In end – did nothing

b/c – did not want to anger nobles

Favoring – landed nobility Led to – worse conditions for peasants Eventually – led to rebellion (led by Emelyan Pugachev) Took stronger – measures against peasants All rural – reform was stopped Serfdom – was expanded to newer parts of empire RU spread – southward to the Black Sea Defeated – Turks To West – gained 50% of Poland’s territory

Favoring – landed nobility

Led to – worse conditions for peasants

Eventually – led to rebellion (led by Emelyan Pugachev)

Took stronger – measures against peasants

All rural – reform was stopped

Serfdom – was expanded to newer parts of empire

RU spread – southward to the Black Sea

Defeated – Turks

To West – gained 50% of Poland’s territory

10-3B Enlightened Absolutism Only – Joseph II sought truly radical changes Both – Frederick II & Catherine II liked to talk about enlightened reforms Even – attempted some But – their interest in strengthening the state was their priority Inc powers used to – collecting taxes Creating – armies To – gain more power 18th C monarchs concerned w/ - balance of power (doesn’t mean peace) States should – have equal power To prevent – any one from dominating others

Only – Joseph II sought truly radical changes

Both – Frederick II & Catherine II liked to talk about enlightened reforms

Even – attempted some

But – their interest in strengthening the state was their priority

Inc powers used to – collecting taxes

Creating – armies

To – gain more power

18th C monarchs concerned w/ - balance of power (doesn’t mean peace)

States should – have equal power

To prevent – any one from dominating others

War of Austrian Succession (1740-48) Aust Emp – war breaks out in 1740 when Charles VI dies Succeeded by – his daughter, Maria Theresa Fred II of PR – invaded Austrian Silesia FR – then entered the war against Austria Maria Theresa – made an alliance with Great Britain

War of Austrian Succession (1740-48)

Aust Emp – war breaks out in 1740 when Charles VI dies

Succeeded by – his daughter, Maria Theresa

Fred II of PR – invaded Austrian Silesia

FR – then entered the war against Austria

Maria Theresa – made an alliance with Great Britain

In Eur, PR – seized Silesia FR – occupied the AU Netherlands In Far East, FR – took Madras in India In N Am, BR – captured the FR fortress of Louisbourg (St. Lawrence River) 1748 – Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle Guaranteed – returned of all occupied territories except Silesia to original owners PR – refusal to return Silesia Meant – war between Prussia & Austria

In Eur, PR – seized Silesia

FR – occupied the AU Netherlands

In Far East, FR – took Madras in India

In N Am, BR – captured the FR fortress of Louisbourg (St. Lawrence River)

1748 – Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle

Guaranteed – returned of all occupied territories except Silesia to original owners

PR – refusal to return Silesia

Meant – war between Prussia & Austria

7 Years War Maria Theresa – refused to accept loss of Silesia Built – army 2 new rivalries: 1. Britain & France (over colonial empires) 2. Austria & Prussia (over Silesia) FR – abandoned Prussia Allied w/ - Austria RU – saw Prussia as a threat Joined – new alliance of France & Austria BR – allied with Prussia 3 areas of conflict 1. Europe 2. India 3. North America

7 Years War

Maria Theresa – refused to accept loss of Silesia

Built – army

2 new rivalries: 1. Britain & France (over colonial empires)

2. Austria & Prussia (over Silesia)

FR – abandoned Prussia

Allied w/ - Austria

RU – saw Prussia as a threat

Joined – new alliance of France & Austria

BR – allied with Prussia

3 areas of conflict 1. Europe

2. India

3. North America

War in Eur BR & PR vs – Austrians, Russians & French 1763 – EU war ended All – occupied territories were returned Aust – recognized Prussia’s control of Silesia War in India btw – Britain vs France Known as – Great War for Empire BR – ultimately won not because they had better forces but because they never gave up 1763 FR – Treaty of Paris – FR withdrew & left India to British

War in Eur

BR & PR vs – Austrians, Russians & French

1763 – EU war ended

All – occupied territories were returned

Aust – recognized Prussia’s control of Silesia

War in India btw – Britain vs France

Known as – Great War for Empire

BR – ultimately won not because they had better forces but because they never gave up

1763 FR – Treaty of Paris – FR withdrew & left India to British

War in N Am – greatest conflict of Seven Years’ War BR & FR fought over: two areas 1. Waterways of the Gulf of St. Lawrence 2. Unsettled area of Ohio River Valley Fr gained – support of Indians (Native Americans) because they were traders not settlers William Pitt the Elder (BR PM) focused all resources in North America used BR Navy to cut off FR supplies

War in N Am – greatest conflict of Seven Years’ War

BR & FR fought over: two areas

1. Waterways of the Gulf of St. Lawrence

2. Unsettled area of Ohio River Valley

Fr gained – support of Indians (Native Americans) because they were traders not settlers

William Pitt the Elder (BR PM) focused all resources in North America used

BR Navy to cut off FR supplies

Treaty of Paris 1763 – French were forced to make peace Eng got – Canada and lands east of Mississippi SP gave – Florida to England FR gave – Louisiana territory to Spain By 1763 – Great Britain had become the world’s greatest colonial power

Treaty of Paris 1763 – French were forced to make peace

Eng got – Canada and lands east of Mississippi

SP gave – Florida to England

FR gave – Louisiana territory to Spain

By 1763 – Great Britain had become the world’s greatest colonial power

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